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International Union of American Re 

Monthly BuUei 

or THE 

International Bures 

or TME 

American Repul 

VOL. 2©. NO. 1 

JANUARY, 1908 

Whole No. 172 

Wi^SHINOTOK. D. O.. U. 8. A. 

Director of the International Bureau of the American Republics. 


Secretary. Chief Clerk. 




Tftbles of contents: 

English section iv 

Spanish section vi 

Portuguese section viii 

French section ix 

£1 fndioe de la secd6n castellana se halla en la p^na vi 

La 8eoci6n castellana comienza en la pdgina 113 

O indioe da sec^fto portugueza encontra-se d pagina viii 

A seogfto portugueza encontra-se & pagina 185 

On trouvera la Table des Mati^res k la page ix 

On trouvera 'la section frangaise k la page 215 





I.— Editorial Sbction 1 

The next Pan-American Conference — EzpositionB in South America— Improved 
South American steamship connections— Further expression of interest by Presi- 
dent Booflevelt— The next Lake Mohonk Conference— Colombian Bureau of 
Information — Trade conditions in Colombia — National Association of Manufac- 
turers—The Bureau at the Third International Sanitary Convention— Argentine 
commercial statistics— Brazil's trade balance— New Minister from Chile to the 
United States— National industries and tarifl modifications in Colombia— Costa 
Rica's special envoy to the United States— Results of the Cuban census— Ecuador's 
National Exposition— Guatemala's trade and opportunities— Establishment of a 
chamber of commerce in Haiti— Increased export tax on bananas in Honduras- 
Mexico as seen by its Minister of Finance— Message of the President of Nicara- 
gua—Consul Kellogg's report from Colon, Panama— A national bank for 
Paraguay— New steamship service between New York and Callao— Salvador's 
customs revenues— Uruguay's customs values— Increase of import duties in 

II.— Book Notes 11 

Modem Argentina^Mexico of the twentieth century— The Darien Company of 
the seventeenth century— Panama Canal report for 1907— Communication in 
Brazil— French interests in Colombia— With Speaker Cannon through the 
Tropics— Peru in 1906— Paraguayan sketches. 

III.— The United States Fleet at Rio de Janeiro 16 

IV.— First Pan-Amexican Scientific Congress 18 

v.— The Third International Sanitary Convention 20 

VI.— Significant Letter of President Roosevelt 25 

VII.— The International Congress on Tuberculosis 26 

VIII.— The Present CoNDmoN of Rubber Culture 27 

IX.— Cocoa Preparation in Difterent Countbieb 47 

X.— Argentine Repubuc 49 

Foreign commerce, first nine months of 1907— Free entry for mining and metal- 
lurgical machinery— Internal-revenue receipts, nine months of 1907— Railway 
rolling stock, 1907— Crop areas sown in 1907— Bank statement, September SO, 
1907— Sugar production of Tucnman, five months of 1907— Nickel ooinage— 
Granaries in the port of Buenos Aires. 

XL— Brazil 56 

Foreign commerce, nine months of 1907— Customs receipts, nine months of 1907— 
Establishment of a new agricultural bank— Imports of cotton goods, first half 
of 1907— Calcium phosphate deposits— Japanese immigration— Exporis from the 
port of Man&OM, first half of 1907— Miscellaneous notes. 

Xn.— Chile 57 

Reception of the Minister of Chile in the United States— Transandine Railway 
report for 1906— Railway notes— Salt deposits of the Republic— Bounty for the 
exportation of flax— Treasury loan floated— Parcels post, 1902-1906— Customs 
revenues, first eight and nine months of 1907. 

XIII.— Colombia 60 

status of the rubber industry— The cotton industry at Cartagena— Regulations for 
the navigation of Colombian rivers — Free entry for com and rice — ^The fishing 
industry and its possibilities— Tariff modifications. 

XIV.— Costa Rica 67 

Reception of the special ministerof Costa Rica to the United States— Establishment 
of agricultural boards— legislation regarding banana exports— Importation of 
crude oil— Cultivation and manufacture of fibers. 



XV.— Cuba 70 

Censos of the Repabllc, 1907— Immigration during 1906-7— Havana custom-house 
receipts, 1907— Appropriation for sanitary service— Customs decisions in regard 
to lost merchandise— Cargoes consigned "for orders"— Trade of Banesand Nipe, 

XVI.— Ecuador 78 

A National Exposition in Quito. 


Economic conditions— Inauguration of the Northern Railway. 

XVIII.— HATn 77 

Establishment of a chamber of commerce. 

XIX.— Honduras 78 

Increased tax on banana exports. 

XX.— Mexico 78 

Foreign commerce, first quarter of 1907-8— Economic conditions and outlook, 1906- 
1909— Postal revenues, 1906-7— Postal revenues, first quarter of 1907-8— Trade of 
Progreso, Yucatan, first quarter of 1907-8— Improvement of Isthmian terminals- 
Silver basis of the stamp and customs taxes, January, 1908— Increase of import 
dutiesonsugar-Turpentlne manufacture— Lumber mill in the State of Oaxaca— 
The petroleum industry— Free entry for goods Into Qulntana-Roo. 

XXI.— Nicaragua 90 

Message of President J. Santos Zelaya— Government monopoly of the match indus- 
try—Exploitation of national rubber forests— Trade-mark law. 

XXII.— Panama 95 

The port of Bocas del Toro, 1907 — Customs regulations. 

XXIII.— Paraguay ^7 

Projected bank of the Republic. 

XXIV.— Peru 98 

Treaty with Bolivia— Steamship service between New York and Callao— Customs 
revenues of Iqultos, first ten months of 1907— Railroad from Cuzco to Im, Con- 
venci6n— Tariff modifications. 

XXV.— Salvador loi 

Customs revenues, first quarter of 1907. 

XXVI.— Unfted States loi 

Trade with Latin America— KxporUi of rubber goods. 

XXVII.— Uruguay 109 

Customs receipts, ten month.s of 1907— Tax on foreign insuranre oompaniw*— 
Municipal revenues of Montevideo. 

XXVIII.— Venezuela 110 

Surtax on import duties— Tariff modifications. 

XXIX.— Nitrate Production of South America Ill 

XXX.— Financial Status of Latin-American Countries Ill 

XXXI.- LiHRARY Accessions and Files I-XLVIII 



L— 49wxa6N BdITOSIAL 118 

La pr6xima Ck>iifereiicia Panamericaiui— Las ezposiciones en la America del 
Sup—Mejores conexiones de vapores en la America del 8ur— Nneya expreaidn 
del interns que la America Latina inspira al Presidente Rooseyelt— La pr6xim# 
conferencia del Lago Hohonk— La Ofldna de Infonnaci6n Colombiana— Condl- 
ciones comerciales en Ck)lombia— La AB0Ciaci6n Nacional de Fabricantes— La 
Oficina en la Tercera Oonyenddn Sanitaria Intemacional— Brtadisticas comer- 
ciales de la Argentina— El balance del comercio exterior brasilefio— Indufltrias 
uacionales y modificaciones arancelarias en Colombia— El Enyiado Especial de 
Costa Rica en los Estadoe Unidoa— Resaltadoe del censo de Caba^Reoepci6n del 
noeyo Biinistro de Chile en loa Estadoa Unidoe— £xp08ici6n Nacional en el 
Ecnadoi^El comercio y las oportnnidades de Quatemala— El establecimiento 
de nna c&mara de comercio en Haiti— Aumento del impnesto sobre la exporta- 
ci6n de bananos en Honduras— La sitoacidn econ6mica de Mexico segdn la 
opini6n de sa Secretario de Hacienda— El mensaje del Presidente de Nicaragua— 
El informe del Cdnsol Kellogg, de Col6n, PanamA— Establecimiento de un banco 
nacional en el Paraguay— Nuevo seryicio de yapores entre Nueya York y el 
Callao— La renta aduanera del Salyador— La renta aduanera del Uruguay— 
Aumento de derechos de importaci6n en Venesuela. 

'IL— El Pbimbb CoNOBBBO CiBNTfFico Panambbicano 125 

III.— La Tebcbba CoNyBNcfON Sanitabia Intbbnacional .-. 127 


v.— Conobbbo Intbbnacional sobbb La Tubebculosis 188 


VIL— REPtyBUCA Aboentina 184 

Comercio extranjero en los nueye primeros meses de 1907— Material rodante 
de ferrocarriles en 1907— Entrada libre de maquinaria minera y metaldrgica— 
Ingresosde la renta interna en los nueye primeros meses de 1907— La produccl6n 
de azdcar en Tucumin, cinco meses de 1907— Qraneros proyisorios en el puerto 
de Buenos Aires— Area de terrenes sembrados en 1907— Acuftacl6n de monedan 
de niquel. 
VIII.— Bbasil 189 

El comercio extranjero en los nueve primeros meses de 1907— Ingresos de aduanas 
en los nueye primeros meses de 1907. 
IX.— Colombia 140 

Importaci6n libre de maiz y arros. 
X.— Costa Rica 140 

Recepci6n del Ministro Especial en los Estados Unidos— Contra to para el cultiyo 
de plantas flbrosas— Importaci6n de petr61eo crudo— Creaci6n de juntas de 

XI.— Cuba 143 

Censo de la Repilblica, 1907— La inmigraci6n durante el afio fiscal de 1906-7— 
DlBposiciones aduaneras sobre mercancias perdidai*— Rentas aduaneras de la 
Habana en 1907. 

Xn. -Chile 144 

Recepci6n del Ministro en los Estados Unidos— Encomiendas postales intemacio- 
nales, 1902-6— Rentas aduaneras en los primeros ocho y nueye meses de 1907— 
Prima por la exportaci6n del lino— Colocaci6n del empr^stito de £1,100.000. 


Exposici6n Nacional de 1909. 

XIV.— Estados Unidos l'»S 

Comercio con la America Latina— Las exportaciones de articulos de goma. 

X v.— GUATBMA LA 164 

Condiciones eoondmioas— La inaoguraddn del Ferrocarril del Norte. 




Aumento del derecho de exporUu;i6n sobre el banano. 

XVU.— Mtxioo '. 168 

Oomercio exterior darante el primer trimestre de 1907-^— 8itiiacl6ii de la hacienda 
pdblica y la perspectiva que presenta el afio de 1906-9— Bentas postales darante 
1905-7— Rentas poatales, primer trimestre de 1907-8— Mejoras de paertot— Tr&flco 
de Progreso, Tucatto, primer trimestre de 1907-8— Base de los impaestos de tim- 
bre y aduanas en enero de 1906— Modificaci6n de los derechos aobre el azdcar— 
Ck>ndiciones que rigen la industriadel guayule. 


Menaaje del Presidente J. Santos Zelaya— Gompaftfa para la explotaci6n de hnlares 
nacionaleft— Ley de marcas de l&brica. 

XIX.— PXBU .- 177 

NaeYO servicio de Tapores entre Nueva York y el Callao— Rentas aduaneras de 
Iqaitosen los dies primeros meses de 1907— Ferrocarril de Cuzco A la Conyencldn. 

XX.— Salvaoob 177 

Bentas aduaneras del primer trimestre de 1907. 

XXI.— Ubdouay 178 

Bentaa de aduanas en los diez primeros meses de 1907— €ontribuci6n sobre las 
oompafiias de seguroe extranjeras— Benta municipal de Monteyideo. 

XXII.— La AMtBiCA Combboial kn 1906 178 

XXin.— 06ifO SB Pbbpaba bl Cacao kn Dibrentes PAtsss 181 




I.— SecqIo Editorial 186 

A proxima Conferencia Pan-Americana— ExposiQOes na America do Sul— A Secre- 
taria na Terceira Conferencia Sanitaria Intemacional— Melhoramento doservi^o 
de vapores com a America do Sul— Outra expreas&o de interesae por parte do 
Presidente Roosevelt— A proxima Conferencia do Lago de Mohonk— Bureau de 
iiiforma^&o da Colombia— Condi^Oes commerciaes na Colombia — Associa^&o 
nacional de manufactureiro6— Estatisticas commerciaes argentinas— Balan^ 
commercial do Brazil— Novo Ministro do Chile Junto ao Govemo dos Estados 
Unidos— Industrias nacionaes e modiflca^Oes 'na tarifa da Colombia— Enviado 
de Costa Rica em Miss&o Especial aos Estados Unidos— O resultado do recensea- 
mento de Cuba — Exposi^&o nacional do Equador — Commercio e condi^Oes 
economicas em Guatemala- Estabelecimento de uma junta commercial em 
Haiti— Augmen to do imposto de exporta^&o sobre bananas em Honduras- 
Mexico como visto por sen Ministro da Fazenda — Mensagem do Presidente d« 
Nicaragua— Relatorio apresentado pelo consul dos Estados Unidos em Colon, 
Panam&— Um banco nacional no Paraguay— Novo servi^o de navegac&o a vapor 
no Paraguay— Novo servi^o de navega^fto a vapor entre New York e Callao— 
Rendas aduaneiras de Salvador— Rendas aduaneiras do Uruguay — Augmento 
nos direitos de importa^&o de Venezuela. 



IV.— Carta Significativa do Presidente Roosevelt 198 

v.— Repubuca Argentina 199 

Commercio exterior, primeiros nove mezes de 1907— Rendas intemas, primeiros 
nove mezes de 1907— Isen^fto de direitos de importag&o concedida aos ma- 
chinismos para minera^o e estabelecimentos metalluigicos. 

VI.— Brazil 202 

Rendas aduaneiras, primeiros nove meases de 1907. 

VII.— Cuba 202 

Recenseamento da Republica em 1907 — DecisOes sobre extra vios de mercadorias. 

VIII.— Equador 203 

A exposigfto nacional de Quito. 

IX.— Estados UNID06 204 

Commercio com os paizes latino-americanos. 

X.— Guatemala 204 

Condi^oes economicas. 

XI.— Mexico 20C 

Situa^fto economica e a perspectiva do anno de 1908-9— Condl^-Oes da industria 
do guayule. 

XII.— Peru 212 

Servi^,'0 de navega^o a vapor entre New York e Callao. 
XIII.— EfeTADO Financeiro DOS Paizes Latino-Americanom i'l:i 




L— ABTICLK8 DE Fond 215 

Prochaine conference pan-am^ricaine— Expositions dans TAm^rique du Sud— 
Amelioration dans le service maritime sud-am6ricain— Autres preuves d'intdr^t 
manifesto par le President Roosevelt— Prochaine conference du Lac Mohonk— 
Bareau colombien de renseignements— Conditions commerclales de la Colom- 
bie— Association nalionale des manufacturiers— Participation du Bureau & la 
truisieme Convention sanitaire intemationale— Statistiques commerciales de la 
RC'pnblique Argentine — Balance commerciale du Bresil— Nouveau Ministre du 
Chili anx fetats-Unis et autres nouvelles du Chili— Industries natlonaleset modi- 
fications douanieres de la Colombie— Envoye extraordinaire de la Republique 
de Costa-Rica aux ^ts-Unis— Autres nouvelles de Costa-Rica— R^sul tats du 
recensemcnt cubain— Autres nouvelles de Cuba— Exposition nacionale de I'^kjua- 
tenr— Commerce du Guatemala et avantages commerciaux— ;£:tablissement d'une 
chambre de commerce & Haiti— Augmentation dans le Honduras des droits 
d'exportation sur les bananes-^Le Mexique d'apr^s les vues de son Ministre des 
Finances— Message du President du Nicaragua^— Rapport de M. Kellogg, Consul 
& Colon, Panama— Banque nationale au Paraguay— Nouveau service de vapeurs 
entre New-York et Callao— Recettes douanieres du Salvador— Recettes douan- 
i^res de I'Uruguay — Augmentation des droits d'importation au Venezuela. 



lY.— RtFUBUQUE Argentine 228 

Exemption de droits d'entree pour le materiel destine aux etablissements miniers 
et metalluigiquea— Commerce exterieur pendant les neuf premiers mois de 
Pannee 1907— Recettes provenant d'imp6ts interieurs pendant Pannee 1907— 
Statistiques du betail sur pied— Culture du coton. 

v.— BbAsil 232 

Commerce exterieur pendant les neuf premiers mois de Pannee 1907— Recettes 
douanieres pour les neuf premiers mois de Pannee 1907— Fonds d'^t deposes 
dam les banques— Emprunt de £1,100,000— Augmentation dans les importations 
de oolis-postaux — Recettes douani^res pour les huit et neuf premiers mois de 
I'annee 1907. 


Importatiou de mais en franchise de droits— Modifications douanieres. 

VI I.— CoOTA-RlCA 238 

jfetabliawment de comices agricoles. 

VIII-— Cuba 238 

Decisions douanieres au cujet de marchandises perducs— Mouvement de Pimmi- 
gration pendant I'annee fi»H^le 1906-7— Recensement en 1907. 

IX.— £quateur 239 

Modifications douanieres— Exposition nationale de Quito. 

X .— feTATB-UNIS 241 

Commerce avec I'Amerique Latine. 

XI.— GUATfeMALA 242 

Conditions economiques. 

XIL— Mexique 244 

Recettes postales, 1906-7— Recettes postalen pendant le premier trimestre de 
Pannee 1907-8— Augmentation des droits d'importation sur le sucre— Commerce 
de Progreso, Yucatan, pendant le premier trimestre de Pannee 1907-8— Mines 
de cuivre— Modifications douanieres. 

XIII.— Panama 245 

ModiflcationB douanieres. 

XIV.— PtBOU 248 

Servioe maritime entre New- York et Callao. 

X v.— Saltadob 248 

Hodiflcations douanieres. 

While the utmost care is taken to inaure accuracy in the publications 
of the International Buxeau of the American Republics, no responsibility 
is assumed on account of errors or inaccuracies which may occur therein. 

For nUKs que la Oficina Intemacional de las Bepublicas Americanas pone 
escrupuloso cuidado para obtener el mayor g^rado de correcci6n en sus publi- 
caciones, no asume responsabilidad alg^una por los errores 6 inexactitudes 
que pudieran deslizarse. 

Apezar de se tomar o maior cuidado para se asseg^urar correc^So nas 
publica^Ses da Secretaria Internacional das Bepublicas Americanas, esta 
nSo se responsabeliza pelos erros ou inexactidOes que nellas occorrerem. 

Bien que le Bureau International des B^publiques Am^ricaines exerce le 
plus grrand soin poux assuxer Inexactitude de ses publications, il n'assumera 
aucune responsabilit^ des erreurs ou inexactitudes qui pourraient s'y glisser. 




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Monthly Bulletin 


International Bureau of the American Republics, 

Internatioiial Union of American Bepnblics. 

Vol. XXVI. JANUARY, 1908. No. 1. 

The welcome which the Brazilian Government and people gave the 
battlenship fleet of the United States when it entered the port of Rio de 
Janeiro on January 12 was so genuine and cordial, and the hospitaUties 
which were extended during the ten days' stay of the ships were so 
lavish and extensive, that the officers and men will never forget the 
attention shown them. At no time in the history of the American 
Navy's cruises abroad has there been a more marked effort to show 
appreciation of their presence than that manifested by Brazil at 
Rio de Janeiro. From indications, of which there is now knowledge, it 
would appear that the reception to be accorded the officers and men 
of the ships at Callao and Lima by the Peruvian Government and 
people will be on a similar scale of sincerity and magnificence to 
what was done at Rio de Janeiro. Although Punta Arenas, the only 
point in Chilean territory at which the fleet will touch, is far from 
the principal port of Valparaiso and the capital, Santiago, the 
Chilean Government is taking steps to welcome the fleet there in 
such a way that it will also remember its brief stay in Chilean waters. 

The presence of the battle-ship fleet of the United States in South 
American waters in its cruise to the Pacific is doing much to awaken 
additional interest throughout the tJnited States in the Latin- Amer- 
ican Repubhcs. Scores of letters are coming into this Bureau, not 
only from newspapers and other pubUcations, but from individuals, 
which are prompted, as the writers state, by a desire to know more 
about the countries and ports which the fleet will visit or pass in its 
wonderful journey. For example, several hundred newspapers have 
been provided with very full descriptive data about Rio de Janeiro 
Punta Arenas, and Callao, so that they can publish articles that will 
describe these points to their readers. In this connection, it can be 


stated that before the fleet started the Bureau provided the officers 
and men of each ship with a set of the Bureau's publications in 
regard to Latin America, in order that as they steamed around the 
Southern Continent, they could be informing themselves fully about 
South America. That this courtesy on the part of the Bureau was 
appreciated is shown by the cordial letters of thanks which have come 
from the captains of the ships. 


At the meeting of the Governing Board of the Bureau, held on Janu- 
ary 8, a resolution was introduced, providing that the Fourth Inter- 
national Pan- American Conference be held in Buenos Aires in 1910. 
Action on the resolution was deterred until the next meeting of the 
Governing Board, to be held on February 5, in order that the different 
members of the Board could communicate with their respective Gov- 
ernments and ascertain their attitude on this point. At the adjourn- 
ment of the conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1906, it was generally 
understood that the next conference would be held in Buenos Aires, 
but it was left for the Governing Board of the Bureau to determine 
later on the actual place and date. The principal reason for selecting 
the year 1910, instead of 1911 or 1912, is tjiat the Argentine Republic 
will celebrate in that year the hundredth anniversary of its independ- 
ence, and now plans to hold a great exposition. In view of the rapid 
progress, both poUtical and commercial, which Latin America is now 
making and of the closer relations developing between the United 
States and her sister Republics, the Fourth Pan-American Conference 
is sure to have much to consider of interest to all the countries con- 
cerned, and will have an important bearing on their future relations. 


The Bulletin has already called particular attention to the 
exposition which the Brazilian Government is to hold in Rio de 
Janeiro this coming summer, and that which the Argentine Govern- 
ment will hold at Buenos Aires in 1910. Now, the Government of 
Ecuador announces that it will hold an exi>osition at Quito in 1909, 
and it has extended an invitation to the United States Government 
to participate. In order to comply with this invitation. President 
Roosevelt has sent a message to Congress recommending a specific 
appropriation for this purpose. Neither the Governments of Brazil 
nor the Argentine Republic plan to invite foreign countries to take 
part, although their manufacturers and merchants wiU be aUowed 


to make exhibits under special conditions. As Ecuador has particu- 
larly requested the United States to participate, it is hoped that Con- 
gress will vote the necessary money for the construction of a credit- 
able building and the sending of a comprehensive exhibit. In a 
short time the railroad from Guayaquil, on the coast of Ecuador, to 
Quito, the capital, in the interior, will be completed, so that passen- 
gers can make the journey from the steamer landing at Guayaquil 
to the scene of the exposition at Quito in twenty-four hours, over a 
line of railroad which is one of the wonders of the world in the engi- 
neering difhculties it has overcome and in the scenery it provides. 
Quito itself is one of the interesting cities of South America, and the 
climate is agreeable. Its altitude above the sea, approximately 
10,000 feet, saves it from the excessive heat of the low tropics, and 
its nearness to the equator protects it from severe cold. When the 
exposition opens, it will be possible to make the trip from New York 
to Quito in less than ten days, so that there ought to be a considerable 
attendance from the United States. 


The Lamport and Holt Steamship Company is to be congratulated 
upon the improvements now being made in the service between New 
York and Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires. The great complaint in 
the past has been that there have been too few steamers with high- 
grade passenger arrangements running between the principal ports 
of the United States and those of the east coast of South America. 
Three new vessels, each of 9,000 tons burden, with excellent accom- 
modations for 150 first-class cabin, and 50 second-class and 
third-class passengers, have been placed on the line. These are 
new boats, and the first of them to make the run is the Verdi, To 
celebrate this important event, a large dinner was given January 14, 
on board the Verdi at New York, at which were present men from 
New York and other sections of the country interested in the develop- 
ment of trade with South America. All who inspected the steam- 
ship were favorably impressed, and each guest felt as if he would 
like to start at once on a visit to South America. It is to be hoped 
that travelers throughout the United States who have hesitated here- 
tofore to go to South America on account of inferior accomodations 
may be tempted to make the trip, now that vessels of this kind are 
running. In turn, it is hoped that more representative South 
Americans, who before have hesitated to visit the United States, for 
the same reason, may be induced to imdertake the journey. There 
is no better way to promote friendly relations between different 
countries than the mutual interchange of travel. 


All persons interested in the promotion of closer relations between 
the United States and Latin America were pleased with the refer- 
ence which Prudent Rooseyelt made to the International Bureau 
in his message, and which was reproduced in the last issue of the 
Bulletin. Following this, comes a letter which he has recently 
written to Prof. L. S. Rowe, of the University of Pennsylvania. 
This points out the distinct advantage of more intimate intellectual 
association between North and South America, and expresses deep 
interest on the part of the President in plans which may be carried 
out along this line. The letter of the President is reproduced else- 
where in this issue of the Bulletin. 

the next lake mohonk conference. 

H. C. Phillips, Secretary of the Lake Mohonk Conference on Inter- 
national Arbitration, informs the Bureau that the session for 1908 
will be held on May 20, 21, and 22, and that it is now planned to give 
much attention to Pan-American matters. He hopes that the 
Bureau and the Governing Board of this institution will take a spe- 
cial interest in the conference and be well represented in its delibera- 
tions. In his communication he says: ''I think that it is safe to say 
that the attention attracted by last year's Pan-American session has 
been of no little benefit to the general cause of arbitration, and that 
a similar session this year, well annoimced, will be more eSective." 


President Rafael Reyes, of Colombia, and the Minister of Foreign 
Affairs, A. Vasquez Cobo, have taken a direct step forward in making 
Colombia better known throughout the world by organizing in Bogota 
a Central Colombian Office of Information, which will have branches 
in London, Paris, Brussels, Hamburg, Barcelona, and New York. In 
the decree issued by the Minister of Foreign Affairs he states that 
these agencies are to be provided with newspapers and other official 
publications of general interest, which may serve to furnish informa- 
tion to the public in Europe and in the United States concerning 
Colombia and the opportunities existing there for the investment of 
foreign capital. The Minister abo announces that this Bureau will 
correspond with the International Bureau of the American Republics 
established in Washington, and asks that the International Bureau 
give the Colombian Bureau such cooperation as it can in the carry- 
ing out of its important work. 


The " Report on Trade Conditions in Colombia," prepared by 
Chaslbs M. Peppeb, Special Agent of the Department of Commerce 
and Labor, and recently published by the Bureau of Manufactures, is 
timely and interesting. It takes up carefully all the facts about 
trade, commerce, resources, and opportunities in Colombia which 
should be known by those persons who intend to do business with 
that coimtry or invest capital in it. Mr. Peppeb made a visit to 
Colombia and studied attentively the conditions before preparing this 
paper. He is now continuing his investigations in Ecuador, Peru, 
and other South American coimtries, and will prepare corresponding 
pamphlets concerning them. 


The National Association of Manufacturers, which has its general 
oflSces at 170 Broadway, New York City, and whose president is 
James W. Van Cleave, of St. Louis, Mo., is developing a subordinate 
feature of its oTganization which is of great importance. The Decem- 
ber issue of "American Industries" describes graphically how the 
association is planning to supply its members with every variety of 
information they may desire concerning conditions of trade in foreign 
coimtries. At the same time, the fact is emphasized that foreign 
merchants are always provided, free of .charge, with such informa- 
tion as they may seek regarding commercial or industrial subjects. 
If an exporter or merchant of any South American city or coimtry 
wishes to do business in the United States he can write to the Na- 
tional Association of Manufacturers and receive in reply the data 
he desires as to firms with whom he should communicate. This 
wiU be of great help to the promotion of trade between the United 
States and her sister Republics. The Bureau is glad to acknowledge 
the tender of cooperation which it has received from the association 
for promoting Pan-American trade, and it will always be glad to 
furnish any information it can in turn to its members who may be 
contemplating entrance into the Latin- American field. 


The active participation of the Bureau in the Third International 
Sanitary Convention held in the City of Mexico during December, 
1907, is demonstrated by the report of its special representative, Mr. 
Fbancisoo J. Yanbs, Secretary of the Bureau, as published in this 
issue of the Bulletin. He notes not only the interest of Latin 
America in modem hygienic conditions, but also a growing apprecia- 
tion of tbe work of the Pan-American Bureau at Washingto\i. 


Trade figures furnished by the Argentine Statistical Bureau for 
the nine months — January to September — of 1907 show the satisfac- 
tory trade balance in favor of the Republic of $38,043,393, import 
values being $202,835,218 and exports, $240,878,611. As compared 
with the corresponding period of the preceding year both branches 
of commerce show satisfactory gains, an advance of $5,519,704 being 
noted for imports and of $16,247,350 for exports. 

The agricultural development proceeding in the Republic is indi- 
cated by the official statement of the crop areas sown in 1907 — 
wheat, linseed, and oats all showing increased acreage. The meas- 
ures taken for the adequate handling of national products are in line 
with the general spirit of progress pervading the country, while a 
recent law granting free customs entry for ten years, to all sorts of 
machinery, tools, and materials requisite in mining and metallurgical 
establishments, foreshadows a greater activity in this branch of in- 
dustrial life. 

brazil's trade balance. 

In spite of the shrinkage in values of the two leading items of 
Brazihan exportation — coflfee and rubber — during August and Sep- 
tember, 1907, the balance of trade in favor of the Republic showed a 
marked gain for the first nine months of the year as compared with 
the same period of 1906, advancing from $53,000,000 to $63,000,000; 
imports figuring for $147,000,000, and exports for $210,000,000. In 
both branches of trade gratifying gains were made over last year, and 
the heavy importation of machinery and materials for public works 
continued until the close of the year. 

An important measure for the furtherance of national industries 
is the authorization of a new agricultural bank, capitalized for 
$10,000,000, which shall facilitate in every feasible manner the de- 
velopment of agriculture, providing capital and credit for guaran- 
teed enterprises. 

Agricultural progress is to be further incited through the establish- 
ment of Japanese colonies in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Sao 
Paulo, contracts for the introduction of settlers having been entered 
into between the local authorities and the company interested. 

new minister from chile to the united states. 

In welcoming the new Chilean Minister to the United States, Seflor 
Don Anibal Cruz, the Pan-American Bureau makes acknowledgment 
of the valuable services rendered in this capacity by the retiring Min- 


ister, Seftor Walker-Martinez, now representing the Department 
of Santiago in the Chilean National Congress. Seflor Cruz, on the" 
occasion of presenting his credentials to the President of the United 
States on November 16, 1907, communicated the desire of his Gov- 
ernment for the maintenance of the happy relations existing between 
the two countries, which expression was earnestly echoed in the reply 
of President Roosevelt. 

The culture of flax in Chile is to be protected by a governmental 
bounty, if the bill presented by the Executive to Congress on October 
26, 1907, shall become a law. In the bill in reference, $150,000 is set 
apart for the payment of bounties on flax produced, manufactured, 
and exported in the Republic for a period of twelve years. 

The commercial status of the country is indicated by the fact 
that the customs revenue collected at the various ports during the 
first nine months of 1907, reported as $26,000,000, show an advance 
of over $3,000,000, as compared with the same period of the preceding 


Valuable information on Colombian rubber and on cotton manu- 
facture in the Republic is reproduced in this issue from reports for- 
warded to the Department of State of the United States by Consul 
I^ A. Manning, of Cartagena. The increase in rubber growing 
throughout the Republic is shown by the fact that for the year 1906 
^ilie shipments from Cartagena totaled 159,580 kilos, while in the 
Sfirst nine months of 1907, 136,680 kilos were exported. Not only are 
^plantations of vast extent being established, but precautionary meas- 
"IDores are being taken against the destruction of the wild trees. 

Various modifications of the existing Colombian tariff as they be- 
mtme effective throughout the year 1907 are also published as of timely 


In connection with liis duties as one of the Delegates of Costa Rica 
Wbo the Central American Peace Congress held in Washington during 
WOxe closing months of 1907, Senor Don Luis Anderson was also 
feonored by appointment as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
Ipotentiary of Costa Rica on a special mission to the United States* 
M^e was received in this capacity on November 12, 1907, and presented 
lEIie cordial greetings of President Gonzalez VIquez and of the Gov- 
l^irimient and people of Costa Rica to President Roosevelt. 
Li Special agricultural boards whose powers and duties are to be for 
■be promotion and development of agriculture in the respective 
•tT' 24181— Bull. 1- 


Departments, have been ordered established by a Presidential decree 
of December 2, 1907, in Costa Kica, and it is desired to bring the 
industrial value of other native products up to the same plane as 
that now occupied by bananas. 

In regard to this latter culture, United States Minister Mesrt 
reports that owing to the nonacceptance by the large growing and 
shipping interests of the export duty of 1 cent recently placed on 
each bunch of bananas — the law having been enacted subject to 
such acceptance — the status of the industry remains as before, in so 
far as the export duty is concerned. 


The census of the Cuban Repubhc, taken in 1907, reports the total 
population as numbering 2,028,282, as compared with 1,572,845 in 
1899, the Provinces of Havana and Santa Clara being the most popu- 
lous. Immigration for the fiscal year 190G-7 shows a decrease as 
compared with the preceding year of 23,080 arrivals. 

Customs receipts at the port of Havana during 1907 aggregated 
$20,005,048.12, a gain of $1,500,000 over 1906. Important meas- 
ures for the sanitation of various mimicipahties and precautionary 
steps against yellow fever have been provided for by an appropriation 
of $350,000. 

Ecuador's national exposition. 

In commemoration of the rising for independence in South America 
on August 10, 1809, a National Exposition is to be held at Quito on 
the 100th anniversary of that event. The decree providing for the 
celebration was issued by President Alfaro in October, 1907, and 
exhibits will cover not only the forestal, pastoral, agricultural, min- 
ing, railroad, and fishery resources of the country, but will also pro- 
vide historical and artistic features of international interest, and 
prizes have been offered by the Government for articles dealing with 
patriotic and liistorical subjects. Arrangements have been made for 
the particii>ation of other nations in the Exposition. 


The opening of Guatemala's inten>ceanic trade route from San 
Jose on the Pacific to Puerto Barrios on the Atlantic, scheduled for 
January 19, 1908, renders of groat interest and value the pamplilet 
recently issued by Sei\or Vict<^r Agiilar Pelaez. Consul of the 

>pubHc in Liveqx)ol and Manchester. To meet the newly awakened 


interest in this section of Central America, the Bulletin has repro- 
duced in great part the pamphlet in reference, covering a r6sum6 of 
trade and economic conditions as existant in 1906. 

The entry of the first train arriving at the capital from Puerto 
Barrios was made the occasion of great display and in commemo- 
ration of the event an exposition of national industries was held. 
Special representatives of foreign nations participated in the attend- 
ant ceremonies. This railroad, which will greatly facilitate the 
transport of native products to the seaboard, has an extent of 269 
miles, and fonns a tangible evidence of the development of this pro- 
gressive Republic. 


To further the commercial, agricultural, industrial, and maritime 
interests of the Haitian Republic, a Chamber of Commerce has been 
established at Port au Prince, in accordance ^vith a Presidential decree 
of November 30, 1907. An appropriation of $1,800 to meet the 
expenses of organization has been made and the President of the 
Republic named as honorary president. Not only will the organiza- 
tion disseminate information concerning native products and indus- 
tries, but it will also serve as an intermediary for the local distribution 
of foreign data of value to the country. 


To meet the demand for better wharfage accommodations and facili- 
ties for shipping bananas at the northern ports of Honduras, the 
GJovemment has increased the export duty on each bunch of bananas 
from 2 to 3 centavos, part of the proceeds thereof to be applied to such 
improvements as may be deemed expedient. 


The j^early issuance by Licenciado Jose Yves Limantour, the 
famous Minister of Finance of the Mexican Republic, of his Treasury 
statement and review of the economic status of the countrj^ forms an 
epoch in Mexican annals. IKs report made to the National Congress 
on December 14, 1907, should be read by all persons desirous of a 
close imderstanding of Mexican affairs. A r6sum6 covering the most 
salient points is made for this issue of the Bulletin and shows the 
gratifying conditions prevailing throughout this important part of the 
Pan-American Union. 


The Mexican trade reportfor the first quarter of the fiscal year 1907-8, 
shows increases of over $5,000,000, both in imports and exports of the 
RepubUc, and is the more satisfactory as for the corresponding periods 
of the two preceding fiscal years, a decUne in exports was noted. 

The improvements in progress and projected at the Atlantic and 
Pacific terminals of the Tehuantepec Railroad are exciting great 
interest among the promoters of trans-Isthmian traffic and it is pro- 
posed to make Salina Cruz and Coatzocoalcos rank with other world 
ports for the transshipment of merchandise. 


The message addressed by President Zelaya to the Nicaraguan 
Congress on December 1, 1907, is an important document, embodying 
the views of the Executive with regard to the late Peace Conference 
at Wasliington and the causes and results thereof. 

Thd concession granted by the Government to Messrs. Guerrero 
and MoREiRA for the exploitation of the rubber forests of the Republic 
for ten years from September 10, 1905, has been transferred to the 
Atlantic Industrial Company, which will carry on the work under- 
taken by the former concessionaires under governmental charter. 

A new trade-mark law, promulgated on November 26, 1907, has 
important bearing upon industrial protection in Nicaragua and is 
designed for the protection of both foreign and local business. 


The report of United States Consul James C. Kellogg, of Colon, 
on the port of Bocas del Toro, shows that while imports at that place 
increased during the fiscal year 1907 as compared with the preceding 
year, export valuations declined. It is anticii)ated that the shipment 
of bananas to Europe, for which extensive preparation has been made 
in equipping steamers with refrigerating apparatus, will produce a 
contrary result in the present year. The United States is reported 
as leading other nations in the trade of the port. 


The project has been presented to the Paraguayan Congress for the 
establishment of a mixed bank under Government authorization to 
be known as the Bank of the Republic, and capitaUzed at $20,000,000 
gold. The various conditions of operation are shown in tliis issue of 
the Bulletin. 


With the inauguration of a new steamship service between New 
York and Callao, via Panama, a great economic advance will be made 
in the intercourse of these two conunercial sections. This enterprise 
under the National Steamship and Floating Dock Company of Callao, 
will, it is anticipated, be in full operation eariy in 1908, and in addition 
to being capitalized for $15,000,000, it is subsidized by the Peruvian 
Government for $1,500,000. 


A decrease in the customs revenues of Salvador of $145,904.42 is to 
be noted in the latest figures to hand, showing $543,624.72 in the first 
quarter of 1907. The comparison is made with the corresponding 
period of 1906. 


Although the customs receipts of Uruguay show a slight decline 
in October, 1907, from those of the corresponding month of 1906, 
the total for the ten months' period ending October show a gain, 
the totals for the two j^ears — January to October — being $11,271,871 
and $11,006,639, respectively. 

Important changes are embodied in the Uruguayan tax law for 
1908, as submitted by the legislatiu'e to the Government. One of 
the provisions raises the tax on premiums of foreign insurance com- 
panies in the Republic from 3 to 7 per cent. 


Various articles of food and domestic use have been made the 
subject of a surtax imposed by the Venezuelan Government by a 
decree of November 14, 1907. Other items are covered by tariff 
modifications of recent date. 


No work of recent issue is better qualified to meet the existing 
demand for general information concerning the coimtries of Latin 
America than that published by Francis Griffiths, London, 1907, 
under the title "Modem Argentina — the El Dorado of To-day,'' with 


supplementary chapters on Uruguay and Chile. The author, 
W. H. KoEBEL, has carefully avoided all but the barest statements 
of statistics, and has prepared a thoroughly readable and entertain- 
ing account of conditions, both of town and camp, as encountered 
by an interested and inquiring traveler. He pays due tribute to 
the advanced position which the RepubUc is taking among the 
countries of the earth, and attributes this prominence, in its en- 
tirety, to the value and extent of the nation^s *'camp*' products, 
animal and vegetable. In comparison therewith, he finds the few 
urban manufactories and industries practically insignificant. The 
commercial distributing center of the national products, Buenos 
Aires, is described as of imposing magnificence, with handsome 
boulevards, electric lighting and water works systems, palatial 
public buildings, and all the adornments and paraphernalia of a 
great city containing over 1,000,000 inhabitants. The produce 
market and the system of docks along the water front are among 
the astonisliing developments of the modem city adapted to the 
growing requirements of the meat, wool, and grain trade of the 
country. Rosario, Bahia Blanca, and Rosario are all treated from 
their characteristic standpoints, and a charming accoimt of the 
fashionable seaside resort. Mar del Plata, is furnished. 

The distinctively Argentine stamp of the volume is, however, 
to be found in the chapters devoted to life in the ''camp." 
The daily routine and habits of the ''gaucho'' are set forth with 
picturesque details, while the garnering of the great crops of wheat, 
maize, Hnseed, and alfalfa, the breeding and care of stock, and other 
camp topics, are narrated with charm and clearness. Mendoza and 
its contiguous vineyards, the great Chaco with its timber wealth, the 
mines of Famatina, are all treated \nih. interest, wliile special appre- 
ciation of the railway systems of the country is recorded. Of the 
latter, the writer had ample opportunity to judge in his trip from 
Buenos Aires across the Argentine Republic to Mendoza and Las 
Cuevas. At this point the comfortable train was exchanged for the 
journey on mule back over the mountains, on the summit of which 
stands the heroic figure of Christ, the symbol of the Argentine and 
Chilean peace compact. The downward grade on the Chilean side 
carries the traveler to Los Andes, the terminus of the Transandine 
line on the Pacific side, from wliich point the journey to Valparaiso 
is continued by rail. The sections devoted to Chile and Uruguay, 
although quite limited, are characterized by the same clearness of 
description and practical value avS the preceding chapters. The great 
Liebig factor}' of beef products and extracts at Fray Bentos Ls noted 
as quite apart from the ordinarj- commercial enterprise of its kind by 
reason of the almost idyllic nature of its position and environs. 


Valuable as a book of reference, and more than ordinarily inter- 
esting on its literary side^ the recent work of Percy F. Martin, 
F. R. G. S., entitled ^'Mexico of the Twentieth Century,'' deserves 
to be in the hands of all persons seeking information concerning this 
Republic. Published by Edward Arnold, London, 1907, it is issued 
in two volumes, the first of which is devoted to a general considera- 
tion of existent conditions; sketches of public men and institutions 
and such historical information as may conduce to an intelligent 
reading. Volume II covers a descriptive account of every State com- 
posing the United Mexican States, detailing the resources and possi- 
bilities of each. Following this section, adequate account is given of 
the various native industries and products and the remarkable prog- 
ress made in all branches of economic development under present 
conditions. Glowing reference is made to the fame and ability of 
President Diaz, whom the author ranks among the great men of all 
ages. The influence and predominance of United States enterprise 
throughout the country are emphasized, and regret is expressed that 
Great Britain should have allowed to pass from her sphere of com- 
mercial influence one of the finest and safest markets in the whole 
world. To the history of mining the final chapters of the book are 
devoted, though the author frankly states that so enormous a sub- 
ject requires not one volume alone, but many volumes. The laws 
governing this industry have been pronounced the most enlightened 
and most reasonable in the world and the total output of gold, silver, 
and copper from the time of the Spanish workings to date is esti- 
mated at $3,000,000,000. 


For the purpose of recording the life work of a Scotsman who 
lived two centuries ago, an interesting volume has been prepared 
covering the record of the formation, floating, and final disruption 
of the first ^' Daiien Company, " and the relations to it of its projector, 
William Paterson. The act creating the ''Company of Scotland 
trading to Africa and the Indies^' became a law on June 26, 1695, 
passing the Scottish Parliament and being touched with the scepter 
by His Majesty^s Commissioner. Tlie enterprise as projected pur- 
posed that a certain part of the Isthmus of Darien, in Central Amer- 
ica, should be the entrep6t for the exchange of Western and Eastern 
commodities; the inauguration of universal free trade and the con- 
centration of the commerce of the globe on the Isthmus of Darien 
being the dominant ideas of Paterson's scheme. On the 26th of 
July, 1698, departure was made from Leith, with destination for 


the Isthmus, and on November 3, the first expedition cast anchor 
at Golden Island, in the bay of Ada, near the Gulf of Darien. The 
journal kept by a member of the party recounts the incidents of the 
voyage and of the subsequent establishment of the colony, while a 
report made by William Patebson himself, who accompanied the 
expedition in a private capacity, furnishes abundant evidence of 
the shrewd business sense of the original promoter of the enterprise. 
The colony was abandoned in June, 1699, and later expeditions 
met with no better success, but so great was the interest and enthu- 
siasm which prevailed throughout Scotland with regard to the 
scheme that on March 25, 1707, complete restitution was made by 
the Scottish Parliament to the subscribers of the ill-fated company. 


The report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the fiscal jear 
ended June 30, 1907, signed by Lieut. Col. George W. Goethals, 
Chairman of the Commission and chief engineer of the works, fur- 
nishes a record of ceaseless activity, of work accomplished, and of 
difficulties overcome. A considerable part of the report is occupied 
with a discussion of the relative advantages and the reverse of gov- 
ernmental or contract administration of the enterprise, with the 
conclusion that the work can be done better, more cheaply, and more 
quickly by the Government. Detailed particulars are given of the 
results of the working of sixty-three steam shovels, some of which 
weigh 95 tons. These matters are of importance as having direct 
bearing upon the length of time required for the completion of the 
canal, and show that if a sufficient number of shovels are put to work 
in the Culebra cut the excavation for a sea-level canal can be made 
inside of ten years, wliich is a period much less than that estimated 
by the Board of Consulting Engineers. The measures taken for the 
sanitation of the Isthmus and for the housing and feeding of the 
23,327 members of the classified force at work are shown to be ade- 
quate and satisfactory, while the report on the geology of the Isthmus 
of Panama has been practically confined to such matters as have a 
direct bearing on the constructive work. The various subjects 
treated are finely illustrated by 147 pictures, maps, and profiles. 


The bulk of the report presented by the Brazilian Minister of Pub- 
lic Works to the President of the Republic covering the year 1906 is 
devoted to the railway systems of the countr}^ The extent of line in 
operation is given as 17,242.457 kilometers (kilometer = 0.62137 mile), 
besides 3,042.678 under constniction and 6,683.017 surveyed and 


approved by the Government for construction. Since the publication 
of the report, a syndicate of Americans, Canadians, and French have 
acquired control of three great systems of railway to the north, south, 
and west of Brazil, which wull greatly influence the possibilities of 
communication with the adjacent countries. Most of the Brazihan 
lines are either directly or indirectly under Government supervision, 
rates and salaries being subject to governmental approval. The 
various navigation companies of the Republic are included under the 
head of "Industries,*^ and special sections are devoted to port works 
and credits and accounts. 


The Columbus Memorial Library has just received the first number^ 
of a monthly review appearing in December, devoted to the interests 
of Colombia. The editor and director is Mr. Henry Jalhay, the 
distinguished consul of Colombia at Brussels, where the review is 
published in French under the title of ''ia Colombie,^' Mr. Jalhay 
hopes to further the development of the commercial relations of 
Colombia by the publication of correct information relating to the 
resources of the country, and to call attention to the numerous indus- 
tries which need to be established, and to which the Colombian Gov- 
ernment gives its sanction and material aid. The review will only 
appear once a month at first, but the editor hopes later to increase 
its size and to publish it semiweekly. 


A chatty narrative of a trip through the Tropics has been received 
by the Columbus Memorial Library from the pen of J. Hampton 
Moore, Member of Congress from the Third district of Pennsylvania, 
who accompanied Speaker Cannon on his memorable cruise among 
the West Indies and through portions of Venezuela and Panama. 
While no attempt is made by the writer to present a handbook of 
the places visited, the comments on local institutions and surround- 
ings show a keen realization of the problems of colonial possessions. 

PERU IN 1906. 

In '*Peru in 1906'' a model volume has been issued through the 
authorization of President Pardo covering the historj^, geography, 
and present economic status of the Peruvian Republic. The writer, 
Mr. Alejandro Garland, is a member of the Lima Geographical 
Society, and brings to his work a thorough acquaintance with his 


subject. The fourth se<5tk)n covers up-to-date information r^arding 
agriculture, mining, manufactures, trade, means of communication, 
currency systems, bankings finance, and the native press, all demon- 
strating the peaceful progress attained during the last ten years. 


A series of interesting papers has been prepared by ex-President 
Cecilio Baez, of Paraguay, under the title '^ Cuadros Ilistoricos y 
Descriptivos del Paraguay^' (Historical and Descriptive Sketches of 
Paraguay). Commencing with a description of the aboriginal race, 
lo8 Guaranies, their manners and customs, he follows the line of Par- 
aguayan history with accounts of the various epochs and the princi- 
pal actors therein, the whole forming a valuable addition to the 
information concerning a comparatively little-known country. 


In view of the public interest ui the presence of the battle ship fleet 
of the United States in Brazilian waters and of the importance of the 
speeches rnade and messages exchanged between the BraziUan and 
United States authorities, the Bulletin reproduces a portion of them 
as matters of record. 

Upon the arrival of the fleet at Rio de Janeiro on January 13 the 
Brazilian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Rio Braxco, cabled the 
announcement to the Ambassador of Brazil in Washington, stating: 

"Preparations for the celebration began when the Monroe Palace 
where the Pan-American Conference took place was seen flying the 
Brazilian flag surrounded by four American flags.' ' 

Subsequently, the following courtesies were exchanged by cable 
between the Governments at Rio de Janeiro and Washington. 

telegram of president AFFOXSO PENNA to president ROOSEVELT. 

On Januar}' 14 President Affonso Penxa, of Brazil, sent the fol- 
lowing personal message to the President of the United States: 

'*Tliis afternoon I had the great pleasure of receiving and becom- 
ing personally acquainted with the admirals and captains of the 
American fleet en route to the Pacific Ocean. 

''I congratulate you on the safe arrival of so powerful and well- 
drilled a fleet at Rio de Janeiro, and I take keen pleasure in informing 
you that the people of our capital spontaneously and enthusiastically 
joined the Brazilian naval authorities, from the ver^" first moment, 


in the demonstrations of fraternity and friendship toward the Ameri- 
can sailors and the great RepubUc of the north, for whose continued 
prosperity and glory all Brazil utters the most cordial wishes. 

"Affonso Penna.'' 

president roosevelt to presidext penna of brazil. 

In reply President Roosevelt cabled as follows: 

''January 15, 1908. 
''I thank you for the kind message wliich you were so good as to 
send me upon the arrival of the American fleet at Rio. It has given 
me and will give to the American people the liveUest satisfaction. 
We are all very sensible of the courtesy and distinguished hospitality 
with which the Government and people of Brazil have received our 
officers and sailors. The war ships of America exist for no other 
purpose than to protect peace against possible aggression and justice 
against possible oppression. As between the United States and 
Brazil these sliips are not men of war, but are messengers of friend- 
ship and good will commissioned to celebrate with you the long- 
continued and never to be broken amity and mutual helpfulness of 
the two great Republics/' 


At the luncheon tendered the ofHcers of the United States fleet on 
the part of the Brazilian Government on January 15, President 
Affonso Penna gave the following toast to the oflicers assembled 
for the occasion: 

'^The warm and brotherly welcome which the people of the capital 
of the Republic have given to the powerful American fleet now with 
us will have proved to all how deep and sincere is the sympathy and 
friendship that moves the Brazilian nation vnth regard to her great 
and prosperous sister of North America. 

''These are not ephemeral and occasional sentiments. They date 
from the birth of our nationality, and are ever growing stronger, 
binding more closely the ties of fricndsliip and economic relations of 
the two coimtries. 

''When the South American nations proclaimed their independ- 
ence, in that first moment of doubt and vacillation as to the future, 
the encouragement of the young American Republic came to us with 
the solemn declaration of indestructible solidarity among the nations 
of the New World, issued by the voice of her great President, Monroe, 
whose name shines in history as that of a statesman of great breadth 
of view and rare political foresight. 

'*The long and diflicult cruise of the pow^erful fleet to which Brazil 
is host to-day, its mission of going aroimd the American Continent, 


constitutes a new and magnificent demonstration of the unsurpass- 
able vigor and extraordinary energy of the great nation, friend of 

'^With my ardent and sincere wishes that the navigation of the 
friendly fleet continue to be an unbroken record of favorable circum- 
stances, I drink to the health of the glorious American Navy, desiring 
the prosperity of the United States of America and the personal 
welfare of her eminent chief and great statesman, Theodore 

The following notable messages were also exchanged between the 
State Department of the United States and the American Ambassa- 
dor to Brazil : 

the american ambassador to brazil, to secretary root. 

''January 15, 1908. 
''Reception of the fleet by press and people gratifying. Pro- 
American feeling everywhere in evidence. Oflicial programme elab- 
orate. President of Brazil cordially receives and dines officers. 
American and Brazilian flags fly together over Monroe Palace, in 
which, on the twentieth Rio Branco tenders fleet banquet, six hun- 
dred covers, with Ruy Barbosa chief speaker." 

secretary root to the american ambassador to brazil. 

"January 15, 1908. 
"Express to Baron Rio Branco my hearty appreciation and that 
of the American Government, of the cordial hospitality with which 
the President and Government of Brazil are receiving the American 
fleet. It is delightful to feel that the same friendship which was so 
generously extended to me in 1906 remains undiminished and is 
exhibited to my countrymen in 1908. The American people will be 
very appreciative of all the kindness which is being shown to their 
sailors. My kind personal regards to Baron Rio Branco. President 
Roosevelt has telegraphed direct to President Penna.'' 


The iirst Latin-American Scientific Congress was held at Buenos 
Aires, the capital of the Argentine Republic, in 1898. The second 
session of the Congress was held at Montevideo, the capital of Uru- 
guay, in 1901, and the third at Rio de Janeiro, the capital of Brazil, 
in 1905. 

It has now been determined to hold the fourth session at Santiago 
during the first ten days of December, 1908, and invitations to this 
affect have been issued by the Chilean Government. 


It has been further determined to extend the scope of the Con- 
gress SO as to mclude all the American Republics, and to this end 
the Chilean Government has extended an official invitation to the 
Government of the United States. At the same time, the name of 
the Congress has been changed from the Fourth Latin-American 
Scientific Congress to the First Pan-American Scientific Congress, 
in keeping with its enlarged representation. Below is given the 
message of President Roosevelt transmitting to the United States 
Congress the report of Secretary Root in regard to the matter. The 
President in his message heartily approves the recommendation of 
the Secretary of State for an appropriation sufficient for a suitable 
representation from the United States. 


**To the Senate and House of Representatives: 

**I transmit herewith for the consideration of the respective 
Houses of the Congress a report of the Secretary of State representing 
the appropriateness of early action, in order that in response to 
the invitation of the Government of Chile the Government of the 
United States may be enabled fittingly to be represented at the 
First Pan-American Scientific Congress, to be held at Santiago, 
Chile, the first ten days of December, 1908. 

^*The recommendations of this report have my hearty approval, 
and I hope that the Congress will see fit to make timely provision 
to enable the' Government to respond appropriately to the invita- 
tion of the Government of Chile in the sending of delegates to a 
Congress which can not fail to be of great interest and importance 
to the Governments and peoples of all the American Republics. 

"Theodore Roosevelt. 

'*The White House, December 21, 1907 ^ 

'^Department of State, 
" Washington, December 19, 1907, 
"The PREsroENT: 

''The Government of Chile has invited the Government of the 
United States to join in and to be represented by delegates at the 
Pan-American Scientific Congress, which is to assemble under its 
auspices at the capital city of Santiago during the ten days beginning 
December 1, 1908. The work of the Congress will comprehend nine 
sections, devoted, respectively, to pure and appUed mathematics, 
physical sciences, natural sciences, engineering, medicine and hygiene, 
anthropology, jurisprudence and sociology, pedagogics, and agricul- 
ture and animal industry. 

"Latin-American Scientific Congresses were held in 1898 at Bu^ 
Aires, in 1901 at Montevideo, and in 1905 at Rio de Janeiro. G 
out of these previous conferences the Congress of 19( 


first time Pan-American. It will study and discuss many great 
subjects in which all the American Republics have in common special 
interests; and its aim is to bring together the best scientific thought 
of this Hemisphere for the scrutiny of many distinctively American 
problems and for an interchange of experience and of views which 
should be of great value to all the nations concerned. 

"It is therefore eminently appropriate that the United States 
should be adequately represented at this important First Pan-Ameri- 
can Scientific Congress and should embrace this opportunity for 
cooperation in scientific research with the representatives of the 
other American Republics. It is worthy of consideration that, in 
addition to the purely scientific interests to be subserved by such a 
Congress and in addition to the advantages arisiog from an inter- 
change of thought and the intercourse of the scientific men of the 
American countries and the good understanding and friendly rela- 
tions which will be promoted, there are many specific relations arising 
from the very close intercourse between the United States and many 
Latin-American countries, incident to our expanding trade, our 
extending investments, and the construction of the Panama Canal, 
which make a common understanding anrf free exchange of opinion 
upon scientific subjects of great practical importance. 

'*To make our representation possible I have the honor to recom- 
mend that the Congress be asked to appropriate the sum of $35,000, 
or so much thereof as may be necessary, to enable the United States 
to send a number of delegates corresponding to the number of sections 
into which the Congress is to be divided, together with a secretary 
and disbursing officer, and to pay other necessarj^ expenses. 

''Inasmuch as it is desired that all communications or scientific 
works to be presented to the Congress be received before September 
30, it is much to be hoped that provision for the participation of this 
Government may be made at an early date and that the appropriation 
be made immediately available. 

'^Respectfully submitted. 

''Elihu Root." 


The following is the report made to Mr. Jonx Barrett, Director of 
the International Bureau of the American Republics, by Mr. Fran- 
cisco J. Yanes, Secretary of the Bureau, who attended, as the 
Bureau's special representative, the Third International Sanitarj^ 
Convention, which met in the City of Mexico in December, 1907. 


'' Washington, D. C, December SI, 1907. 

"Sib: I beg to submit herewith a report relatire to the Third Inter- 
national Sanitary Convention, held in the City of Mexieo from Decem- 
ber 2 to 7^ 1907, which I attended in the capacity of special repre- 
sentative of the International Bureau of the American Republics, 
pursuant to your instructions of November 27, 1907. 

''The call to the Third Interuational Sanitary Convention and 
jK'ovisional prc^amme were transmitted by the International Binreau 
of the American Republics to the several Governments of the Union 
through the members of the Governing Board on July 11, 1907, and 
in accordance with said call and programme the Third International 
Sanitary Convention was called to order at 10 a. m. on Tuesday, 
December 2, ui the Grand Salon of the Department of Finance, 
National Palace. At thk opening session addresses of we}c<»ne were 
made by Gen. Ramon Cc«ral, Vice-President of the RepuUie and 
Secretary of the Interior, and by Dr. Eduakdd Lj^eaga, Resident 
of the ConTeiition, as well as chairman of the Mexican Delegation. 
All del^ations present made short and apjnropriate replies. 

''At the openii^ session the following ddegates were pr^ent: 

''Brazil: Dr. Oswaldo de Gon^alvez Cruz. 

"Ocdombia: Dr. Ricabdo Gutierkes Lee, Dr. Genaro Patan. 

"Costa Rica: Dr. Juan Jose Ulloa. 

"Cuba: Dr. Huqo Roberts, Dr. Juan Gutferas. 

"Chile: Dr. Ernesto Soza, Dr. Pedro Lautaro Ferrer. 

"Ecuador: Dr. Juan Horacio Esteves. 

"Guatemala: Dr. Salvador Ortega, Dr. Jose Azurdia. 

"Honduras: Dr. Luis Lazo Arriaqa. 

"Mexico: Dr. E. Ligeaoa, Lie. Jose Aijgara, Ing. H. Elguero. 

" Nicaragua: Dr. Gregorio Mendizabal. 

"Salvador: Dr. Rodolfo B. Gonzales. 

"United States: Dr. Walter Wyman, Dr. R. H. von Ezdorf, Dr. 
P. T. Straub, Dr. James Gatewoch), Dr. Charles Harrington, 
Dr. W. G. OwKN, Dr. Rhett Goode, Dr. H. L. E. Johnson. 

" Dr. E. Fernandez Espiro, of Uruguay, due to delays during his 
trip, arrived toward the end of the Convention. 

"The following vice-presidents were appointed from the several 
delegations: Dr. Walter Wyman, United States; Dr. Oswaldo de 
GoN<7ALVEZ Cruz, Brazil; Dr. Juan Jose Ulloa, Costa Rica; Dr. 
Juan Gutteras, Cuba; Dr. Ernesto Soza, Chile; Dr. Salvador 
Ortega, Guatemala; Dr. L. Lazo Arriaqa, Honduras; and Dr. 
Gregork> Mendizabal, Nicaragua. 

**The following committees were appointed: Committee on Cre- 
dentiab, Advisory Committee, Committee on Yellow Fever, Com- 
mittee on Bulxmie Plague, Committee on Trachoma, Beriberi, and 
Cerebro-^inal Momngitb, and Committee on Tuberciilosis. 


^^ Owing to unavoidable delay caused by several freight wrecks, I 
did not arrive in Mexico City until the morning of December 3, so 
that I was not present at the opening session. 

^'Upon presentation of my credentials to Dr. Eduardo Liceaga, 
President of the Convention, and at the motion of Surg. Gen. 
Walter Wyman, which was unanimously approved, the special rep- 
resentative of the Bureau was granted the privilege of the floor. In 
thanking the Convention for their courteous welcome, I took occasion 
to state the great interest the International Bureau of the American 
Republics took in their humane and altruistic work, and that as the 
special representative of this Institution I was the bearer of cordial 
greetings, not only of the Governing Board, but also of the Director 
of the Bureau, who had personally intrusted me with the pleasant 
duty of tendering the Convention the assurance of his good wishes. 
The Director, I further said, would have come to personally greet the 
Convention but for the fact that at that very moment another event 
of world-wide importance was taking place under our roof — the Cen- 
tral American Peace Conference — ^making it impossible for the Direc- 
tor to leave. I pointed out the fact that this was a day of great sat- 
isfaction to the Bureau, as all of Latin America seemed to be engaged 
in great and noble work; on the one hand, the Central American 
Republics were adjusting their differences in Washmgton and build- 
ing up the foundation of their future welfare, while on the other, the 
large majority of the Latin-American countries met in the hospitable 
City of Mexico to work for the common cause of humanity. 

'^The programme prepared by the Mexican Delegation contained, 
besides the business of the Convention, a reception by His Excellency 
General Diaz, President of the Republic; visits to the new post-office 
building, the penitentiar}^, castle of Chapultepcc, board of health, 
disinfection plant, city waterworks and Xochimilco, new suburbs 
called 'Colonias,' general hospital, and sewer-flushing pumping sta- 
tion; concert, dinners, and other hospitalities. 

''On the day of the last meeting, December 7, 1907, the Advisory 
Committee, to which all motions requiring important action were 
submitted, reported for adoption by the Convention the following 
recommendations : 

"Adherence on the part of Brazil, Colombia, and Uruguay to the 
Sanitary Convention of Washington. 

''Codification of all the sanitary laws and regulations of all the 
Governments represented at the Convention, to be transmitted to 
the International Sanitary Bureau at Washington upon completion 
of work. 

"To authorize the International Sanitary Bureau of Washington 
to establish relations with the 'Bureau International Sanitaire^ of 
Paris, as recommended by the Third International American Con- 

ence of Rio de Janeiro. 


''To direct the Secretary of the Convention to include in the pub- 
lication of the proceedings of the Third International Sanitary Con- 
vention a summary of all resolutions adopted by the First and Second 
Conventions, held in Washington. 

''To request all the governments of America to make compulsory^ 
vaccination against smallpox. 

"To urge upon the Governments represented at the Convention 
the convenience of declaring free from all duties and taxes, quinine,, 
fine wire mosquito netting, mosquito bars, and other material to be 
used as a protection against mosquitoes, and crude petroleum. 

" To recommend the several Governments to establish dispensaries 
at certain given points for the free distribution to the poor of quinine* 
under certain conditions. 

'*To recommend an active propaganda in schools, factories, bar- 
racks, and other pubHc places for the purpose of teaching the people 
the etiology, prophylaxis and treatment of malaria. 

"To recommend the publication of pamphlets for free distribution 
containing briefly described, and in a simple and practical form,, 
facts concerning malarial fevers. 

"To recommend that the maritime authorities include in their 
public health reports mortality due to malarial fevers. 

"To recommend the several Governments to prohibit immigration 
of persons suffering from trachoma or beriberi. 

"To recommend the adoption of series of suggestions for the pre- 
vention of tuberculosis in steamships and railway cars. 

"To recommend the nationalization and centralization of sanitary 

"Other resolutions, directly concerning the relations of the Inter- 
national Bureau of the American Republics with the Sanitary Con- 
vention, were: One by Doctor Liceaga, to the effect that besides the 
calls for the Sanitary Conventions being issued by the International 
Bureau of the American Republics, the country where the meeting 
is to take place also send invitations. Surgeon-General Wyman,. 
United States, offered a resolution requesting that desk room should 
be provided by the International Bureau of the American Republics 
for a special clerk to attend to the matters relating to the Sanitary 

"Doctor Ulloa, of Costa Rica, also made a motion requesting all 
delegates present to send one or two copies of all their reports or any 
other work to the Columbus Memorial Library of the International 
Bureau of the American Republics. 

"In establishing the Sanitary Information Bureau at Montevideo,. 
it was. decided that in order to facilitate work Brazil, the Argentine 
Republic, Paraguay, Chile, and Peru should communicate directly 
24181— BuU. 1—08 3 


witi: M/;j>t>rvi#j#;o, hii'l the rest of the Latin-American countries with 
thft S^fjitiiry IJureaii of Washington. 

Aiihoj^'h Jirazil. Oiile, and Uruguay had already shown their 
n:ii'lirt"/'', io v^>;lcoriie at th#,'ir respective capitals the Fourth Interna- 
liouhl Sanitary Convention, when the time for determining the next 
pia/-*; of uii'j'XiU^r came, Doctor Ckuz. of Brazil, moved that San Jos£ 
<U', (j}-t.ti liica ha M;le*;ted, this being done by acclamation. Decem- 
\>4^rf J 000, was then determined upon as the most convenient date to 
iut'4:i, and I>r. Jl'a.v J. L'lloa, of Costa Rica, was unanimously elected 
i'rc-i'lent of the next Convention. 

'At the motion of Dr. Fernandez Espibo, of Uruguay, the Inter- 
n;ttional Sanitary Bureau officials were unanimously reelected for the 

• After .-hort fareweil sjKteches by all the delegates and the President, 
Doct<;r'KAOA, the Convention adjourned until 1909. 

"I'he !'t*])i}V\.-. and transactions of the Convention are under final 
preparation by Dr. Jian J. L'lloa, of Costa Rica, Secretary of the 
Convention, who will s^>on transmit them to the International Bureau 
of the American Kepuhlics f(ir publication and distribution. 

**]iefore closing this brief report on the work accomplished by the 
Third InU*rnati(mal Sanitary Convention, I desire to call special 
attention to the enormous progress made in Mexico in establishing 
improved sanitary conditioas in their principal cities and ports. The 
Kedcral (iovernmeni has appropriated the following sums to be 
«p|ilicd to the sanitation (»f the countrj-'s capital and principal ports: 


Mi'xi.o < iiy $28, 517, 900. 17 

J'l.r! of Mari/aiiill.» 7, 882, 760. 00 

J'ui 1 nf Vira<riiz 3, 864, 493. 94 

Porl of Tarnpici) 2, 999, 779. 73 

I'.rrl ni Saliria ( niz 1, 190, 313. 30 

Piii-rlo Mi'Xir-i» Moat/.aioalrns) 1,276, 114. 50 

Toiul 45,831.361.64 

"Out of this iippn»priation there is still available the amount of 
$S() I. 'M :{.<)<». 

" It may Im» sai<I that the work of sanitation in the city of Mexico 
has involved the following <»xpenses: 


hniiiiiiK'' W'»rkM «il I hi- valh y nf Mfxim $15, 9(>7, 77S. 17 

Sunilal inn work ..f t Ih' «il y 8. 210, 138. 25 

Walrrw..rkH 4, 339. 9S3. 75 

T..|jil 2S. r>l I. 900. 17 

"Another point also destTvint; special mention is the hiterest shown 
by all. from the hi«rhest Mexican authorities to private individuals, 
in the work of the International Bureau of the American Kepublics. 


There seems to be a general feeling among all that the Bureau has 
at last entered into a real era of reorganization since the Third Pan- 
American Conference met at Rio de Janeiro and enlarged the Bureau's 
scope, both conmiercially and from a moral and influential stand- 
point, and finally since the Bureau is soon to have its own home. The 
Bulletin, I foimd, was read and appreciated, and its improved con- 
dition favorably commented upon. 
*^ Respectfully submitted. 

''Francisco J. Yaxes. 
'* Hon. John Barrett, 

^^ Directory International Bureau of the 

American Republics j Washington, D. CV 


Prof. L. S. RowE, of the University of Pennsylvania, who was one 
of the delegates from the United States to the Third International 
American Conference meeting in Rio Janeii-o in July, 1 906, after the 
termination of the Conference, made an extended tour of South Amer- 
ica which lasted for a year and a half. 

Since returning from South America, Professor Rowe has conferred 
with the President of the United States on the objects and results of 
his tour, and in particular concerning the plans which he has formu- 
lated for the cultivation of closer intellectual relations between the 
United States and the sister Repubhcs of the south. The Bulletin 
is enabled to publish the following letter of approval from President 
Roosevelt to Professor Rowe: 

** My Dear Doctor Rowe: I have been deeply interested in going 
over with you the results of your trip through South America and the 
various plans which you have in mind for fostering closer intellectual 
relations between the northern and the southern sections of the Con- 
tinent. I deem it most important that in addition to the friendly 
relations existing between the Governments of the American Repub- 
lics, close personal ties should be formed between the leaders of thought 
in these Republics. Such personal relations strongly tend to destroy 
the foolish prejudices and misconceptions that arise out of lack of 
knowledge of one another. In this Western Hemisphere, each of our 
Republics can both leam and teach when brought into touch with her 
sister Republics. 

**I know of no agencies better adapted to the accomplishment of this 
great purpose than the universities of the American Continent. There 
are many economic, social, and industrial problems — not to speak of 
others more purely scientific — that are distinctively American in char- 
acter and continental in scope. Through the cooperation of the stu- 


dents and investigators of our different nations the accumulated ex- 
perience of this hemisphere can be brought to bear on these problems, 
and their successful solution thereby rendered more probable. The 
community of thought and action thus aroused will also serve a larger 
patriotic service in binding together more and more closely all the 
peoples of this Western Hemisphere. 

^^ I heartily wish all success to this movement. 
^ ' Sincerely, yours, 

*^ Theodore Roosevelt.'' 


The International Congress on Tuberculosis will be held in Wash- 
ington between September 21 and October 12, 1908. 
• Active preparations for the Congress are being made throughout 
the United States and in a large number of foreign countries. At this 
time national committees have been organized for France, Germany, 
Sweden, Austria, Holland, Greece, Bulgaria, Cuba, Venezuela, Brazil, 
and Costa Rica. The French conunittee, under the presidency of 
Dr. Louis Landouzy, of the medical faculty of the University of 
Paris, consists of over three hundred prominent French physicians. 

Dr. A. Herrera Vegas, the chairman of the Venezuelan com- 
mittee, is president of the Venezuelan Antituberculosis League, and 
a member of the National Academy of Medicine at Caracas; Dr. P. 
AcosTA Ortiz, the vice-president, is a director of the hospital at 
Vargas, and Dr. L. Razetti, another member of the committee, is 
vice-rector of the University of Venezuela, and permanent secretary 
of the National Academy of Medicine. 

All of the members of Brazihan committee arc actively identified 
with the antituberculosis movement in that country. The com- 
mittee includes Dr. J. J. Azevedo IjIMA, of Rio Janeiro, president 
of the Brazilian Antituberculosis League; Dr. Oswaldo Cruz, 
director-general of the Department of Public Health; Dr. J. J. 
Seabra, and Dr. Cypriano de Freitas, of Rio de Janeiro. 

The president of the Cuban committee is Doctor Guiteras, for- 
merly professor of pathology in the l^niversity of Pennsylvania, and 
now at the University of Havana. Dr. J. L. Jacobsen, the vice- 
president, is president of the Cuban Antituberculosis Jjcague. The 
secretary is Dr. M. G. Lebredo, of Habana. Two well-known mem- 
bers of tliis committee are Dr. ^Vristides Agramonte, the last sur- 
viving member of the famous yellow fever conunission of the Unit<»d 
States Army, and Dr. Carlos J. Fixlay, who was recently awarded 


the Mary McKmsley medal by the Liverpool Association for the 
Study of Tropical Diseases. 

The Costa Rican committee has named Dr. Luis P. Jimenez chair- 
man, and Dr. Teodoro Picado, of San Jose, secretary. Other mem 
hers are Dr. Teodoro Prestinary, Dr. Benjamin Hernandez and 
Dr. iL^Rcos ZuNiGA, all of San Jose. 


The valuable paper read by Dr. Pehr Olsson-Seffer, before the 
first meeting of the Mexican Rubber Planters' Association on Octo- 
ber 9, 1907, in the city of Mexico, reviews in brief the development 
and present condition of the rubber-planting industry, with special 
reference to the commercial production of the plant in Mexico. 

The greater part of the article in reference is reproduced as having 
a general industrial importance. 


'• Universal interest is now manifested in regard to this industry. 
The rapidly increasing demand for rubber, a commodity so closely 
connected with electricity and many other modern inventions, has 
called forth the question, whether the world's market can be supplied 
from the natural sources of wild rubber which have hitherto been 
sufficient, or whether cultivation has to be resorted to. 

'• The consensus of opinion is that although there has been a steady 
growth of the output of raw rubber, and although the rate of pro- 
duction so far has shown no decline, we are rapidly approaching the 
narrowing limits of the natural rubber supply. 


" It is generally known that in Brazil, whence the largest amount 
of rubber has been obtained, the rubber collectors have to go farther 
and farther into the interior every year for their supply. With the 
prevailing reckless method of gathering, the rubber trees are gradu- 
ally being exterminated. Naturally the cost of collecting is thus 
increasing, and it is to be observed that the extraordinary high prices 
have not greatly stimulated the production. This applies not only 
to the Amazon Valley, but more or less to all countries producing wild 
rubber. Very little has been done and very little can be done to stop 
this destruction of the natural rubber forests. The natives can not 
be taught to consider the necessity of saving the trees for a coming, 
year. Their sole object is to obtain as large an amount of rubber as 
possible for the time being. 


"" 111 some rubber-producing countries steps have been taken to- 
ward replanting the natural rubber forest. Most notable is the de- 
cree passed by the Government of the Kongo Free State on January 
5, 1899, in which it is regulated that — 

'" ' In all the forests of the territory rubber trees shall be planted 
every year to a number of not less tlian 150 for every ton of rubber 
gathered during the same period. The agents of the State in those 
forests where the State has not given up the exploitation of rubber, 
and the private owners and concessionaires of all the forests where 
the State has given it up, whether by deci-ees of October 30, 1892, or 
by tlie granting of si>ecial concessions, are expected to form and keep 
up these plantations, conforming to the conditions specified in the 
present decree.' 

"• Thi'ee years later the Kongo Government issued a new decree in- 
ci*easiiig the nimiber of plants to be replanted per ton of rubber cd- 
lected. The production on the Amazon and the Kongo has so far not 
given any ^ign of decline, but it is certain that the natural supply has 
not inci*eased. We have, on the other hand, instances whei'e a rapid 
decline in the output is taking plaiT. 

'" In Colombia the export of rubber has been diminWiing for the 
last thirtv veal's, and from La<ros a marked decrease is noticeable for 
the last decade. 

*' We are thus confi-onted with the following situation: while the 
consumption of rubber is increa>ing at an accelerating rate, the natu- 
ral supply, though onormou>, is not augmenting, in spite of the fact 
that now rubl)er-proilucing plants are discovei^ed and new fields are 
being exploited. 

" It >eems safe to ci^nclude that the re«"|uin»ments of modern life 
will not iH?rmit the demand for niblier to Ixvome diminished. The 
ix)int i> whether the supply will lx» altogether unequal to this demand. 
Varying opinion> are expre>s<Hl in thi> ivg:ud. Some maintain that 
the natunil propag:ition of the rul»lKM* tree is sufficient to keep the 
supply up to it- natunil limits. There is, however, no evidence at 
hand to show that such a >tatement was btised on true facts or on a 
right understanding of the >iluation. Others hold that the natural 
K^unv- of wild rublier are rapidly Wing exhausted. Such an asser- 
tion ii. more h>gical, but even here we lack >ufficient knowledge to be 
able to fonn a i>ositively correct opinion. It may Iv -afer to say that 
the Ihnit of pnnluction will xxin In? reacheil, if we are not so far 
already, ami if the demand i- growing in the >ame proi^rtion as 
hitherto, theri» must come a >hortage in the supply. 

'• Tho priiv> have Uvn steadily advancing for the last ten years and 
long%»r. It i> jx>?s.-iblo that ><ime of the rir^^ in value i> due to the gen- 
eral pn^i^riiy. whirh ha> cau>ed an incn*asi* in the value of almost 


all raw material. But it is not likely that even a financial or indus- 
trial panic would very materially influence the rubber market. 

" Ever since Charles Goodyear's discovery rendered rubber of 
practical use to mankind the tropical forests have been scoured by 
the natives and white men searching for rubber-producing trees. In 
Central America the indigenous rubber tree, " Castilla elastica," Cer- 
vantes, and related species have been the object of diligent search 
and subsequent destructive treatment. The destruction of the wild 
trees is usually given as the strongest argument in favor of rubber 
culture. I doubt if this is the raison d?etre of rubber culture. 

^' Very few business men go into business from fear. Nor is rub- 
ber planting a matter of philanthropy. We do not plant rubber 
because we know that the supply from previous sources will one day 
become exhausted and humanity needs rubber for industrial purposes. 
We plant rubber because we have every reason to believe that it is a 
profitable industry. We plant rubber simply for the sake of profit 
and not for any other reasons. Is, then, rubber culture, after all, a 
profitable industry? There are many who say no, but those who have 
investigated the matter and most of those who have invested in rub- 
ber that has been taken care of properly know of a certainty that it 
is not only profitable, but vei-y profitable. It has been claimed that 
it is impossible to cultivate the rubber tree. There is no necessity to 
refute such a statement. How it has been able to gain credence is 
difficult to understand. It shows a complete ignorance in regard to 
agriculture. In the history of human progress there is not a single 
instance where domestication of a plant has not been possible. Tliere 
is, of course, a great difference in different plants, but by employing 
proper methods we have been able to overcome the greatest difficulties. 
As n^rds the rubber tree, there are hardly any plants that are better 
adapted for cultivation. 

** The many conflicting statements as to the commercial feasibility 
of rubber planting have been cleared up now and again by disinter- 
ested parties, who have devoted much time to the study of this ques- 
tion in all its details. There are still those who are doubtful, either 
on account of personal failure in the undertaking or because they 
have entertained preconceived notions upon the question and are 
not willing to admit that their conclusions are wrong. Observations 
extended over a somewhat wide field covering most countries where 
rubber is planted have given me conclusive evidence that rubber 
when properly cultivated is not only a possibility but a decided com- 
mercial success. Anyone who devotes intelligent attention to this 
question can not fail to find that when he acquires more concrete 
knowledge about the matter there are actual results at hand which 
are indisputable and which show beyond a shadow of doubt that the 
nibb^-planting industry is a profitable venture. 



" The thousands of trees now planted and the hundreds of planta- 
tions producing rubber on a commercial scale demonstrate that rub- 
ber culture is an industry which has come to stay. Fears are ex- 
pressed that we will have an overproduction of rubber if the plant- 
ing industry increases at the rate it has done for the last few years. 
This leads us into the question of the present and future supply and 
demand of rubber. The annual output of rubber has been rapidly in- 
creasing and for the last seven years the production and consumption 
are represented by the following figures : 

[In metric tons.] 



52, 8W 

tion. • 

1 Year. 





' 1904 






1906 : 


'' The visible supply on hand on June 30, 1905, of 8,869 metric tons, 
was reduced to 5,352 metric tons by June 30, 190G, though the pro- 
duction of the latter year was 14,651 tons greater than that of the 
former year. 

" Comparing the first and last two years of this table shows an 
increase of 28.33 per cent in both production and consumption. 
Last year's output is valued at about 300,000,000 Mexican dollars 
($150,000,000), and of this amount tropical America yielded about 
63 per cent; tropical Africa, 34 per cent; and Asia, 3 per cent, of 
which Ceylon plantation rubber furnished 150 tons. 

"In 1896, the United States imported from Mexico 16,893 bales 
of rubber, of which about 5,000 represented ' Cactilla.' During 
the first seven months of the fiscal year 1006-7, the value of rubber 
(including guayule) exported amounted to $2,761,873 (United States 
currency), whereas in 1896 the total value of rubber exported was 


*' Although Mexico as a rubber-producing country does not yet 
rank very high, it was the country where rubber was originally found 
by the Europeans. The oldest data concerning rubber come from 
Mexico. The earliest historical reference to rubber was made in 
1525, when an Italian writer, speaking of the customs of the Mexican 
Indians, mentions the rubber balls used by them in certain games. 

" While rubber was thus first discovered in ilexico, the first rubber 
planting in the world was also made in Mexico, not in Ceylon, as 
is often claimed. The person who first took up the cjuestion of plant- 
ing rubber for commercial purposes was the Mexican statesman 



Senor Don Matias Romero, a close friend and relative of our present 
President. When he wrote his paper on rubber culture in the year 
1872, there were already several rubber plantations in existence in 
this Republic. From inquiries in the region where the Romero 
plantation was started I have found that rubber was planted as 
early as 1867 in Mexico by Don Jose Maria Chacon, at Zanjon 
Seco, in the district of Soconusco, in Chiapas. During the next 
year plantations were started in Guatemala, and later on in Nica- 
ragua and Honduras. These plantations were small, but even as 
regards size they were much larger than the first plantations begun 
in Ceylon or India. 

" Less than ten years ago American capital was attracted toward 
nibber planting in Mexico. As a result of this movement, we have 
to-day approximately 95,000 acres on 118 rubber plantations entirely 
or partly devoted to rubber, representing an investment of $60,- 
000,000 (Mexican). 

"' From data at hand I would consider the world's area of rubber 
plantations to be 355,500 acres, distributed as follows: 


Mexico 95, 000 

Malay Peninsula J)2,000 

Ceylon 85,000 

Africa 30,000 

Central America 14,000 

Java 10,000 

India 8,200 

Brazil (5,000 


A'enezuela 3, 400 

Ecuador 3,000 

New Guinea 2,500 

Borneo 2,000 

Colombia 1,800 

West Indies 1,600 

Other countries 1,000 


*'As seen from these figures, Mexico has still the lead in regard to 
area under rubber. The statements published regarding the total 
area of Ceylon are highly misleading on account of the fact that 
rubber is being interplanted between tea and cacao. Thus on many 
estates there are not more than 75 rubber trees to the acre, but in 
the estimate each acre is stated to be under rubber. In the statistics 
the same area thus often appears both under tea and rubber or under 
cacao and rubber. One of the latest statements was made by Mr. 
Wright, until recently an assistant at the Botanic Gardens of Ceylon, 
who estimates the present area under rubber in that island at 
130,000 acres. Messrs. Ferguson, of Ceylon, recently stated (in 
August of this year) that the planted acreage of rubber in Ceylon 
is 150,000 acres, of which they claim that 118,000 consist of rubber 
alone, and that 52,400 acres of tea and cacao are interplanted with 
rubber. Data collected by myself in Ceylon in the beginning of 
the present year show that taking 250 trees to the acre the area 


planted does not exceed 85,000. Another favorite .method in the 
East of making up large acreage is to count in the area ' alienated ' 
for rubber culture. That is to say, if a company has alienated from 
the Grovernment 2,000 acres for a rubber plantation, but planted only 
50 acres, they will speak of their plantation as a 2,000-acre rubber 
estate. If the same rule were followed in Mexico, our acreage 
would be nearly 400,000 acres. We have rubber estates owning as 
nmch as 20,000 acres, of which it is intended ultimately to plant 50 
per cent. 

" Only a few years ago it was stated in a Ceylon Government pub- 
lication that the entire area of land suitable for rubber in the island 
of Ceylon did not exceed 10,000 acres. That this estimate was incor- 
rect is shown by the actual area now planted. This area increased 
between the yeai's 1890-1898 at the rate of 50 aci-es per year, and in 
the last-named year there were about 750 acres planted. It took 
three years more before the acreage rose to 2,500 acres, but in the 
last few years it has increased veiy rapidly. During the last two 
years the planting has suddenly increased largely in the entire Indo- 
Malayan region, and it can therefore be hoped that in a few years 
hence plantation rubber from the East will become of importance 
in the world's market. 

" Only quite recently I had a letter from London in which it was 
pointed out that the price of crude rubber was liable to decrease 
very soon on account of the large supply due from the ' vast rubber 
plantations in the East.' ^Vs seen from the statistics given above, 
the total area is not yet so ' vast ' as might be expected from the 
exaggerated statements issued from London headquarters. 


" With a total area under nibber at the present time of over 
vJ55,000 acres, we must naturally ex^j^ect in six or eight years hence 
a large supply of plantation rubber. But admitting that the sup- 
ply of wild rubber would not decrease in that time, while, on the 
other hand, the demand would keep on increasing, there is not much 
to fear from a decline in prices. 

*' The present output of plantation rubber does not exceed 1,000 tons, 
If we consider that the yield per aci*e is 300 pounds, the supply of 
plantation rubber from the present area planted would, twelve years 
hence, be nearly 55,000 tons per annum. During the last dozen years 
the increase in the consumption of rubl>er has In^en on an average of 
? l>er cent per annum, and this average is increasing rather than 
diminishing. If we carry on this increase for another dozen years, 
wo find (hat twelve years hence the need of rubl>er would be close 
to 175,000 tons. We have no reason to supix)se that the supply of 


wild rubber twelve years hence will be greater than to-day. On the 
contrary, everything tends to show that the production has reached 
its limit and will decrease instead of augment in the future. The 
present area planted would thus not nearly supply the balance of the 
c*onsumption, provided the output of wild rubber twelve years hence 
was still 65,000 tons. 

" We need not think that the planting of rubber has come to a stand- 
still. Much more land will be planted under this crop all over the 
Tropics, but very large plantations are needed to supply the increased 
demand. It is therefore evident that we have not much to fear from 
overproduction for many years to come. 

'* It is not many years since rubber planting was looked upon by the 
ordinary investor as a very hazardous undertaking, and those wlfo 
were spending money on rubber planting were considered visionaries. 
At the present time many rubber plantations are coming into bearing, 
and are for the first time demonstrating the truth of the ideas of the 
pioneers. Plantations in Ceylon have already paid as much as 40 to 
50 per cent in annual dividends. Some Mexican plantations have 
been able to pay as much as 15 per cent on the invested capital from 
rubber obtained on the estate. 

" The ever-increasing areas under rubber indicate that this industry 
is able to draw capital, and this is perhaps the best proof that its 
prospects are good, as capital is a fairly correct index regarding such 
matters. The fact that rubber planting has gained much notoriety 
through capital being obtained for the ostensible purpose of exploit- 
ing rubber plantations, but in reality has been diverted to the private 
use of dishonest promoters, is no proof against the possibility of culti- 
vating rubber or against the profitableness of rubber culture. The 
public has become suspicious towards all rubber-planting companies 
and many legitimate concerns have suffered. 

•^ If we investigate the causes which have produced some of the 
most disastrous and sensational failures of rubber plantations, we will 
find that in every case such a company was not promoted as a hona 
fde and legitimate enterprise for the purpose of building up a suc- 
cessful plantation, but that the whole scheme was intended to benefit 
the promoters. In some cases the home office expenses have exhausted 
the entire capital, and little or nothing has been left for the develop- 
ment of the plantation. Some of these plantations have l>een started 
on soil which is in evwy way imsuitable for the cultivation of rubber. 
On others the development work has been greatly overpaid to the 
benefit of one ot another interested jjerson. Very often the manage- 
ment has lacked all the experience of tropical agriculture, and some of 
the plantations do not show a result commensurate with the outlay. 


" The first requirement for rubber planting is the right kind of soil 
and climate, and at the same time an honest and competent adminis- 
tration. If these conditions are fulfilled, rubber planting promises 
to become one of the most profitable tropical industries. 

" The commercial exploitation of various rubber-producing plants 
was naturally taken up first by the nations which owned tropical 
colonies or tropical lands. It was in these same countries that the 
profitableness and possibility of rubber culture were first realized. 
There was naturally at first a certain hesitation, but of late years an 
increasing faith in rubber is evident from the fact that more and 
more capital is being diverted to this new tropical industry. 

" There are few plants that are better adapted to cultivation than 
the principal rubber-producing trees. It has now been fully demon- 
strated that rubber can be grown profitably on a commercial scale, 
and that plantation rubber can be produced cheaper and better than 
the product of the wild tree. Many mistakes are yet made, and com- 
paratively little knowledge exists regarding cultural methods, but 
with the increased attention now being paid to rubber cultivation 
it can be hoped that present defects and shortcomings will be cor- 
rected in a not too distant future. 

" Rubber planters in Mexico and Central America have been ex- 
perimenting regarding cultural methods for a good many years, and 
it is only of late definite results have been forthcoming. In many 
special questions no uhinuite conclusions have yet been arrived at 
and we can not say that we are absolutely certain as to the best 
methods in any particular stage of the cultivation or preparation of 
Castilla rubber. 

" In regard to soil requirements, Castilla needs an open porous soil, 
well drained, but with sufficient underground water supply. The 
chemical ccmsistency of the soil or its relative richness is of little 
importance. Stagnant water or very acid soil is detrimental, and 
thin soil with hard impermeable subsoil will grow Castilla for a few 
years, but when the tree reaches six or seven years of age and the 
roots i)enetrate deeper and reach water growth ceases, and the tree is 
liable to die back. 

" The question of shade in Castilla culture has been much debated. 
In Mexico there are still three different methods in vogue. The first 
that was used in the early days of rubber culture was to plant in shade. 
It is based on an erroneous observation of nature. Castilla was found 
in the forests, and as it is a comparatively low tree, it was supposed 
that it recjuired shade for its successful growth. It was also found 
that if the seeds were sown in the open without any shade the young 
seedlings often failed, or if they survived the first dry season they 


grew very slowly. On the other hand seeds germinated xevj freely 
when sown in the shade and the seedlings grew rapidly, especially in 
height. The observant planter soon discovered, however, that the first 
year's growth was not continued, and as years went by, he found that 
shade-grown Castillas developed into fishing rods without any incre- 
ment in trunk growth. Moreover, the trees were sickly, often attacked 
by root fungi, and generally very liable to disease. There are still 
some planters who persist in keeping shade, enjojdng the sight of 40 
to 50 feet high, whip-like trees, 6 or 7 years old, but which never 
reach a ' tapable ' age. 

" The second system as regards shading is to plant in semishade, 
that is, to leave a few high trees when clearing, expecting these to 
give the rubber trees a certain amount of shelter in the dry season, 
when the Castilla has shed its leaves and is exposed to the scorching 
sun. This method has been employed with a certain amount of suc- 
cess on some plantations, especially where the soil is liable to become 
hard and baked if exposed to the sun. It seems the most natural, 
as Castilla in its wild state always occurs in the vicinity of other 
trees from which it receives shelter and shade. To establish such 
conditions it is not, however, necessary to leave jungle trees as shade, 
but by planting close the benefits required will be obtained. This 
can easily be overdone, and the planter has to exert considerable 
judgment in regard to the distance at which he should plant. In 
localities where the soil is very moist or drainage imperfect any 
shade whatsoever may prove dangerous to the health of the rubber, 
and it certainly will greatly retard the proper development of the 

" The third method is to plant in the open. If the seeds arc sown 
at a suitable time, that is if the soil is not moist or if no rain falls 
for weeks, complete failure in germinating may result. If the dis- 
trict has a distinct dry season, the seedlings will suffer greatly during 
that time, in case they have not had a good growth before the rains 
were over. Otherwise there are no objections to planting in the open, 
and if this has been done fairly close, so that the young plants partly 
shade each other, they have under these conditions the best opportuni- 
ties of a rapid development. 

'•.Vnother important question in regard to rubber planting is that 
of distance between the trees. Considerable difference of opinion 
exists in this regard and, as is the case with Hevea planters, distances 
varying from 6 by 6 to 30 by 30 feet have their advocates among 
planters of Castilla. 

** I have concluded, from experiments conducted with a view 
tovrard ascertaining the relation of distance between the trees and 
the weekly, monthly, and annual increment of trunk growth, that as 
soon as the roots of the trees touch and become intermatted the 


growth of the trees is impaired. But, on the other hand, we know 
that if the Castilla trees are planted veiy far apart their growth is 
stunted and, when the trees become older, their bark is exposed to 
the heat of the sun and to evaporation caused by dry winds passing 
through the plantation. The result of this is that the bark cracks, 
the latex vessels shrivel, and no latex can Be obtained. We can say 
then that the trees are ' sunburned.' 

"The question then arises, At what distance are we to plant? I 
decidedly condemn too close planting, as it leads to a disproportion- 
ately whip-like growth of the trunk. I would also emphatically 
warn against too open planting. I think the error of the latter prac- 
tice is conclusively proven by the following instance that has come 
under my observation. Two years ago I ^^sited a large Castilla 
plantation on which the trees had been planted 21 by 24 feet apart. 
The trees were 5 years old, and investigation revealed the fact that a 
great percentage of the trees, especially those which had been grow- 
ing on dry knolls or exposed places, had a bark very rough, scaly, and 
full of longitudinal fissures. The inner bark, in which the latex 
vess(»ls are situated, was very dry and the latex in the ducts had 
coagulated. In many places on the bark exudition of the latex had 
taken place and Ijig drops or tears of latex had fonned scrap rubber. 
The only way in which this condition of the trees could be remedied 
was to allow the weeds to grow up and underbrush to develop. This 
vegetation shades the trunk, and in due time new bark is formed 
and the old thrown off. This process takes at least two years and is 
successful only in case the cambium has not been injured. 

" In deciding about the distance at which to plant, we have to take 
into consideration the following two primary factors: The trees must 
not stand so dase as to impede the growth of eacli other and they must 
not he far enough apaii; to leave the trunks exposed to sun and wind, 

" From the alx)ve we obtain an indication pointing to the method we 
ought to follow, namely, close* planting and sul)sequent gradual thin- 
ning, according to the requirements of the trees. Besides fulfilling 
some of the conditions leading to a successful development of rubber 
stand, the metliod of close planting has other advantages. It permits 
of a thorough system of selection, wliich is not possible imder the 
method of ojxm planting in i)ennanont situations. From a financial 
point of view ch)se plantingisdecidedly superior to any other method. 
It has Ix^en proved that by proper management the intermediate 
rublH?r trees which are not supposed to remain permanently in the 
stand, can l)e made to produce a sufficient quantity of rubber to ren- 
der tlie system very profitable before the ix*nnanent trees can be con- 
sidered productive. By close phmting the danger of faihires in the 
stan<l is reduced ahnost to nil, and this is important to the planter, 


as filling up failures in a young foi'est is both <?xpensive and pre- 

'* There is always a temptation to leave too many trees in order to 
provide for a big side crop, but this should naturally be resisted. A 
heavy thinning comes to the assistance of the best specimens of 
growth, and it must on no account be omitted or postponed. It is 
extremely difficult to lay down any definite rules as to thinning opera- 
tions, but it has been conclusively proved that the general rules ap- 
plied to scientific forestry in regard to silvicultural operations are 
fully applicable to the cultivated rubber trees. Rubber planting is 
nothing else than silviculture, and we should take our lessons from 
ordinary common sense and from the results obtained from the ex- 
tensive experience of the forest planter, naturally with due attention 
paid to the particular conditions obtaining in the Tropics and the 
peculiar nature of the rubber tree. 

^* The method of propagating Castilla first employed was to sow 
seeds in nurseries, and when the seedlings were 4 to 6 months old 
they were transplanted. Very often, however, transplanting was 
not done before a year after sowing. The plants were then from 5 
to 12 feet high. The seedlings were cut 5 or 6 inches below the sur- 
face and topped, leaving a pole some 3 feet long. Tied into bundles 
these poles were carried into the field. With a pointed stake holes 
were made in the ground about 1 foot deep, and the pole placed in 
the hole and the soil pressed close to the stem. When this planting 
was done carefully and if rain fell within the next two or three days, 
not more than 3 or 4 per cent of failures occurred. In places where 
the soil was somewhat sandy the failures were more frequent. 

" Later experience has proved that the cheapest and surest method 
is to plant the seeds at stake. Nearly a year's growth is thus gained, 
and it does away with expensive replanting, where failures occur 
under the transplanting method. The seeds are planted in small hills, 
aborut 7 seeds in each hill, 3 inches between the seeds. The hills are 
at a distance of about 7 feet in rows 12 feet apart. 

^ In planting in this manner we allow for a high percentage of fail- 
ures in germination; we can give ants, lizards, and field rats their 
due amount and we still have plants in abundance. This method has 
now been practiced several years with success. There are no com- 
plete failures in any hill, except where planting has been done in 
ground which is too acid. In such places we may have to replant in 
small patches after proper draining has been prepared for, and for 
this purpose we use excess plants growing in the neighborhood. Dur- 
ing the first few months seedlings backward, misshaped, or over- 
crowded diould be thinned at the time of each weeding. Generally 
at least 50 per ceat of all the seedlings should be cut out during the 


first six months. This thinning should l^ continued during subse- 
quent years until at the end of the sixth year from sowing there are 
approximately 800 trees to the acre. The best 400 trees are to remain 
permanently and are not touched before they have reached 26 or 28 
inches in circumference at 3 feet from the ground. The intennediate 
trees are tapped wlien G years old, very heavily — that is, as much 
latex as possible is extracted. A few weeks later the trees are 
inspected. Those that have suffered from tapping should be marked 
and doomed. If they still yield latex they are cut up with numerous 
incisions, and a few days afterwards the scrap is collected and the 
trees felled. Those trees that promise to recuperate should be left 
untouched for four months, when they are again tapped in the regu- 
lar way. After a second inspection they should be killed. Excep- 
tional trees, which do not crowd upon the permanent trees, may be left 
to the following or seventh year, when they are tapped with an ulti- 
mate view to their destruction. At the end of the seventh year we 
have 400 trees to the acre. 

"A most important item in the formation of a plantation is an 
efficient drainage. In this work every fall of the ground must be 
taken advantage of, and in many cases much may be done by straight- 
ening and clearing existing water courses. 

" The question of draining for rubber has been overlooked in the 
whole of Mexico. Most planters claim that it is sufficient to have 
what is called a good natural drainage. This is a mistake. The 
Eastern planter has fully realized this, and even on very sloping land 
drains are nuide before the rubber is planted. I do not remember hav- 
ing seen a single rubber plantation in the East where this was not 
done. The object of draining is not only to provide an outlet for the 
surface water, but to drain the ground down to a certain depth. 

" In commencing the work the positions of the main outlets must 
first be determined. The main drains are next opened according to 
the fall of the ground, and minor conduits are formed up and down 
the face of the slope. It is impossible to lay down definitcj rules as 
to the exact method of making drains. The fault of overdraining 
nnist be guarded against as well as its opposite extreme. Much has 
been written and said about the dis<»ases of rublx^r trees. We have 
been fortunate enough in Mexico not to Ix? bothered with any serious 
outbreak, but it is necessary that we be very careful and keep a 
constant watch over any disease that may appear. In this respect 
the Planters' Association has a great mission by undertaking system- 
atic and organized inquiries. We know very well that every culti- 
vated plant has its enemies, and it would be wrong to assume that 
the rubber tn^e would 1h» the sole exception to this rule. As a matter 
of fact, we know that the rubber is attacked bv various enemies. 


" Perpetual immunity from diseases can not be expected, and everjr 
possible step to prevent the occurrence of an epidemic must be- 
observed. The larger area planted with one particular crop, the 
greater the danger of an outbreak. A single-crop system is for this- 
reason most unsuitable and even disastrous. 

** Where no natural enemies exist, the changed conditions caused by 
large acreage being put under a single product call forth new dis- 
eases. Special measures must be taken to meet such an emergency.- 
"VMiere vast continuous areas have been planted with one product,, 
it is imperative that protective belts either of jungle or of other 
plants be loft to form boundaries. In the Federated Malay States- 
the Director of Agriculture has prevailed upon the Government to de- 
clare a certain area of forest as reserve, and this divides the entire 
country into two main districts. The idea is that if an epidemic ap- 
pears in one district there is every possibility of checking its spread- 
ing into the other. 

''A similar policy is advisable on individual estates. A belt or a 
^trip of forest 30 to 50 meters wide is not only an effective means of 
preventing diseases from spreading, but it is also an excellent fire- 

'^ In regard to disease of the rubber tree, we must draw lessons from' 
the serious damage which has been done in other countries to other 
agricultural industries. If we take steps and keep any pest that ap- 
j^ears under control, we need have no fear. 

"'As we all know, fire is the rubber planter's worst enemy. We^ 
have had the sad experience in Mexico of large areas of planted rub- 
ber Ijeing burned in the dry season. In some cases this has been an 
inevitable misfortune, but in other cases it would have been easy to 
prevent the fire. One of the most important matters in this connec- 
tion is the laying out of the plantation. It is not practical to plant 
the entire area of thousands of acres in one continuous block. This 
is so for many reasons. Roads are needed for communication inta 
the plantations. It is, further, a great advantage to have the entire 
plantation laid off in symmetrical blocks for the purpose of control- 
ling the tapping and other work, as well as the number of trees. 

" Several rubber plantations in various parts of this country were 
laid out eight and nine years ago on the plan of square blocks each 
containing a certain number of trees. Such are surrounded by roads^ 
of more or less width. If tliese roads are kept clear, a? they should be, 
they constitute effective fire breaks, and it is possible by means of 
these to check a fire and limit it to a certain area, instead of having 
it sweep over the whole plantation. 

'• Every now and then we hear of some writer who claims that some 
ilexican rubber planters have expressed their doubt as to the wisdom 

24181— BuU. 1—08 4 


of planting Cast ilia when Hevea shows such a decided success in the 
East. Let me hei*e draw attention to the fact that even if we could 
successfully grow Hevea here in Mexico we could not possibly make 
it a paying business. The reason is that the nature of the latex-bear- 
ing ducts in Hevea is such that at each tapping only a small amount 
of latex exudes. For this reason a system of multiple tapping is em- 
ployed for this tree. Castilla, on the other hand, gives much more 
latex at each tapping, and we know that multiple tapping as em- 
ployed on Hevea is of no avail on our trees. 

'^ With the price of hibor standing close to $1 a day, and scarce at 
that price, it would be impossible to tap our rubber trees every second 
day, receiving only about one-tenth of an ounce per tapping In 
Java, the Federated Malay States, and Ceylon, they pay about 20 to 
30 cents (Mexican) to their laborers, and this fact alone explains the 
profits of their rubber industry. 

"We need not by any means feel discouraged over Castilla plant- 
'ing. Do it right and it will pay as much as almost any other tropical 
crop. We do not need to trouble our^c^lves about many other rubber- 
producing plants which aiT cultivated elst^where. 

"Although many i)<)ints have been advanced for the profitableness 
of one or another rubber plant in preference to otliers, there can be no 
doubt that the number of rubbtH' plants which can be grown with 
commercial success is very small. Of the many different plants which 
contain rubber there is one class that is wholly unsuitable for culti- 
vation. We refer to the climbers or lianas. These plants furnish a 
great part of the crude rubber now available on the market. For 
instance, all the rubbi»r or gutta-percha collecte<l in the Philippines 
conies from various climbing plants. Similarly, most of the African 
rubber is obtained from lianas. In collecting, these have to be cut 
down and conse<[uently furnish only one crop. When we consider 
that it takes several years for one of tho<t» plants to grow up to its 
full size, and when we further ronioniljer that the climl)ers require 
large trtvs for support, it is evident that <'ultivation of climbers for 
conunercial purposes can not be a success. 

"Other plants yield rubber in such small cpianthies that cultiva- 
tion would not ])ay. and others, again, do not yield before they have 
i-eached the age of over twenty years, in which case the ix^turns would 
not ofl'er indu(vni(»nt enough f<»r starting plantations. 


"If we eliminate all the many different rubber plants which for 
(»ne reason or another are not suitable for cultivation, we have four 
or perhaps five kinds to take into consiileratiou. IJesides the two 
princii)al kinds of Para rubK'r and Castilla, we have the Ceara 


rubber {Manibot Glaziovil MuelL Arg.)^ which was originally found 
wild in certain mountain districts in Brazil, where it is occasionally 
gathered by the natives. This tree was first considered very suitable 
for cultivation, and more than twenty years ago it was largely planted 
in Ceylon and also in India, but at present it is not considered worth 

'*The Assam rubber {Ficus ehhtiea) of East India lias been pro- 
ducing rubber for a long time, but it is not likely to become planted 
very widely, as even in its native country it does not produce rubber 
profitably before it has reached a rather advanced age. Both in Java 
and the Malay Peninsula I found that both private planters and 
Government experts were discouraging the planting of this tree. It 
is, however, the longest lived of all the rubber trees and would prob- 
ably go on improving for a century. The main trouble vnih the 
Ficus is in the tapping, which is very difficult. 

^"^ The so-called Lagos rubber {Fnnfumia eldstiea), which grows 
wild on the west coast of Africa, is being planted in its native country, 
and has been tried experimentally in many botanical gardens through- 
out the Tropics, but it is not considered very good. 

*' In Colombia and certain parts of Central America there occurs 
in the high mountains a rubber tree which produced a very good kind 
of rubber. This is the Sapium tolimense which may yet prove to be 
suitable for our tropical highlands up to an elevation of 7,000 feet. 
To my knowledge no experiments with this plant have yet been made 
in Mexico, mainly on account of the difficulty of obtaining tnie seeds. 
Over a year ago I received and planted seeds which were said to be 
thor^e of the ' Sapium,' but when the plant appeared I found it to be 
another species which does not produce rubber. 

'* The Hnneamia speciosa of Brazil, or the Mangal)eira nibber, is a 
very slow-growing tree, rather difficult to cultivate, and I do not think 
it would be a success in Mexico. 

''xVs we have to leave out the Ilevea on account of the cost of col- 
lecting the rubber, we find ourselves confined to the rubber tree of 
Mexico, growing at our very doors in the Tropics. Taken as an 
ordinary cultivated tree, the Castilla is as easy a plant to cultivate 
as any. But we must not for a moment believe, as many company 
promoters like to state, that all we have to do is to plant the seeds 
in the ground and wait for the crops to appear. As in regard to other 
plants, Castilla reacts to good treatment. We have so far learned 
a good deal about the methods of cultivation, and our knowledge of 
rubber culture to-day is quite different from that of five years ago. 

'• In this and in many other regards the Rubber Planters' Associ- 
ation has a great missicm and we hope that a few years hence, when 
the result of the work of the association has begim to be evident, the 
Mexican rubber industry shall be not a thing to be laughed at, but 


one of the leading agricultural industries of this country and one 
which will have the lead in comi^etition with other countries.'' 


An article in the '' Peruvian Agi-iculturist/' a weekly publication 
of Lima, states that cultivated rubber trees yield 50 per cent more 
rubber than wild rubber trees, which is equivalent to saying that half 
the number of laborers working on a plantation of cultivated rubber 
trees will produce double the quantity of rubber that would be pro- 
duced if the same number of workmen operated on a plantation of 
wild rubber trees, to say nothing of the greater ease and comfort with 
which the work is done. 

Cultivating ru))ber trees without clearing the plantation is even 
more profitable than is their cultivation on a cleared plantation. By 
the former method owners of wild rubber forests have only to plant 
the unoccupied spaces with rubber trees to obtain a large area of 
land covered with this phuit growing closely together, and, although 
it is true that some species, such as the Ilevea, require from five to 
ten years to become productive, nevertheless, during this period, the 
wild rubber trees can be exploited, and it should be borne in mind 
that the capital required in rubber-tree cultivation of this kind is 
very small compared with the subsequent benefits to be derived there- 

The cult i Nation of some other species of rubber tree is even more 
productive than that of the Ilevea, such, for instance, as the Mani- 
zoba, inasmuch as trei»s of this species can be tapi)ed after the second 
yeftr, their cultivation is simpler, and their development more rapid 
than that of the Ilevea. Tai)ping after the second or third year pro- 
duces about 150 grams of rubber per tree annually, and instead of 
injuring the tree the tapping tames or educates it. so that each time 
it i?5 tapped it will jn-oduce a larger yield of rubber until the maxi- 
nuun of 500 grams annually is obtained. Supposing each tree to 
produce 150 grams of rubber ainiiially, and taking into consideration 
the fact that rul)b(r trees can be i)lanted 2 meters apart, 1 hectare 
would contain 2,500 trees, -and would produce yearly 375 kilograms 
of rubber, or 25 Portuguese arrobas of 15 kilograms each. The aver- 
age price of an arroba is ()5 sols, or 1,025 sols per hectare, which 
quantity would increase each year, as constant tapping increases the 
])roducti<)n of rublnn- in the si)ecies referred to. Good results have 
also been obtained by fertilizing clayey soil. 


A valuable report, transmitted to the Department of State of the 
United States by Ccmsul-CJenera! (lorrsc halk at Mexico City, con- 
tains information as to the actual conditions prevailing as regards 


the guayule rubber industry and the precarious future of the plant 
unless some sure method of propagating it be discovered. Special 
emphasis is laid by Mr. Gottschalk upon the fact of the short-lived 
economic value of guayule as at present exploited. 

A resume of the report follows : 

One of the products which within the past two years has attracted 
world-wide attention has been the guayule {Parthenmni argentum)^ 
formerly considered as a mere weed, whose very presence destroyed 
ihe value of the lands, but which was suddenly discovered to be of 
commercial importance as a producer or rubber. The guayule lands 
of northern Mexico found ready exploitation and prices advanced 
enormously, while factories for reducing the shrub to a commercial 
product were extensively installed, mainly in Torreon, Saltillo, and 
Coahuila. Large lots of the shrub were contracted for, in some cases 
as large a sum as $50 gold per ton being paid for it, the reported 
yield in rubber being $1 gold per pound. As a result of this enthu- 
siasm, investigation was made of the properties of the plant, with the 
result that it was ascertained that no one seemed to have a very defi- 
nite idea as to its continued propagation. One owner of a large tract 
of guayule land informed Mr. Gottschalk that he found out too 
late that if care were taken to let the shrub run to seed before cutting 
and then shake the plant carefully after it had been cut so that the 
seeds might fall to the ground the soil would continue bearing. As, 
however, the best yield of rubber was to be obtained from cutting a 
comparatively young plant, and, further, as the seeds might lie dor- 
mant and unproductive for two or three years, it may be readily seen 
that the ordinary rubber exploiter would be unwilling to adopt the 
necessary precautions. 

The guayule shrub, which is being milled in the factories of the 
country, gi'ows over but a limited area of Mexico. No care is taken 
in its gathering and no reseeding or otherwise propagating the plant 
is provided for. (A recent contract made with the Government in this 
this connection, however, include certain stipulations as to this 
matter.) The high prices offered by the factories have led to a reck- 
less liarvesting of the immature shrubs, with the result that in many 
cases large lots of guayule are received which do not yield the de- 
sired rubber. 

In the effort to discover some means of adequately propagating the 
plant, Prof. F. E. Lloyd, late of the Botanical Laboratory, Carnegie 
Institute, Tuscon, Arizona, United States, has been experimenting 
scientifically on one of the Chihuahua plantations, but as yet no 
results have been announced. 

The present consumption of guayule at the center of the industry 
is about 1,000 tons of the shrub per month, so that Mr. Gottschalk 


reports that he is told by the manufacturers that they see an end of 
their enterprises within from three to five years, unless some repro- 
ductive methods are applied to the plant. 


Doctor Endlich's article, illustrated with four photographs of the 
guayule plant in its natural state, in the July, 1907, '^ Tropenpflan- 
267';^ may be cited as one of the most interesting papers that have 
l>een published on the subject. The plant thrives particularly 
well on the sides of deep slopes, at the foot of hills and mountains, 
and on the table-lands at an altitude of from 000 to 2,000 meters. The 
size of the plant varies according to age, conditions of the soil) and 
location, the average height being about 60 centimeters. The tallest 
specimen found in the Ramirez Mountain, State of Coahuila, meas- 
uivd 1.36 metei"s. 

Guayule gi-ows very slowly, and the plants now being gathered 
are supposed to lx» from 10 to 30 years old. According to Mr. IVLvrx, 
the plant gi'ows the first year to a height of only 15 centimeters, the 
stem being very weak. Xotwiths-tanding this fact, it bears flowers 
and produces seed from this i>eriod on, but can not be advantageously 
exploited until the eighth year. Xo caoutchouc is found in the plant 
up to the third year, and the production is scant up to the eighth 
yeai". Mr. P. Oi.sson-Seffer, the distinguished director of the bo- 
tanic station and of the Zacualpa laboratory, Mexico, observes that 
the height of 3 or 4 year old plants is 50 centimeters, while that of 
r)-y(»ar-()](I plants is 75 centimeters, and the weight, on an average 
is 4 pounds. It is no exaggeration, therefore, to estimate the age of 
the guayule plant suitable for profitable exploitation at between 8 
and 10 years. * 

Natural florescence occurs from Septeml)er to October: neverthe- 
less, rain and altitude may considerably modify this period. It 
should be noted that, notwithstanding its slow growth, the guayule 
l)lant flowers and fructifies within a year after the seed has been 
sown. The seed, which is very a])undant. do not always completely 
ripen, es|Hvially in tlie colder regions. 

Conservative experts estimate tlie area covered by the guayule 
plant in Mexico at 75,000 hectares, situated in tlie northern part of 
the States of Zacatecas and San I^uis Potosi, the eastern part of 
Duiango, and ]>articularly the southern part of Coahuila. The plant 
is also found, in more or less abundance, in the States of Xuevo Leon 
and Chihuahua, in Jlexico, and in X>w Mexico, Arizona, and Texas, 
in the United States. 

Mr. Orro Koeiii.kk, presitlent of the Xaiicmal Rubljor Company, 
believes that the guayule [>lant found in the United States is not as 


rich in rubber-jMroducing qualities as that of Mexico, but tliinks it 
could be profitably exploited where there is an abundance of water 
and cheap freight rates^ A company has been recently organized 
in New York for the exploitation of the guayule plant in western 
Texas^ and a factory will be erected at Del Rio, Texas, for the 
elaboration of the product. 

The true guayule of commerce is the Parthenium aT^entatiiin. 
This must not be confounded with a kindred species known as 
" Mariola " {Parthenium incanuni)^ which grows in the same regions 
as the true guayule, and whose value as a rubber- producing plant is 
almost worthless. The distinguishing characteristics of the two 
plants are as follows : 

Parthenifurrh argentatum. — Silver gray ; toniatose leaves and shoots ; 
short stem; short branches with Smooth bark; lanceolate leaves from 
2 to 5 centimeters long by 5 to 15 millimeters in width, serrated or 
entire with sharp one-third lobes; petiole slender and long. 

Parth^mum incanum.^ — Leaves and buds tomatose of a whitisli or 
brownish color ; shrub 30 to 60 centimeters high, much ramified from 
the base; long branches, rugose bark with longitudinal cracks; small, 
oblong or oval leaves, 25 millimeters long by 2 millimeters wide, 
deeply pinnate-lobed ; petiole very short. 

Mr. ExDLicH estimates the present guayule reserve at 375,000 tons, 
based on an average output of from 500 to 800 kilograms per hectare, 
including in his estimate the least productive regions, while the 
^ India Rubber World " believes the total natural product to be 
about 300,000 tons, of which 20,000 to 30,000 tons have ali-eady been 
exploited. The average yield of the grown plant is fixed at from 8 
to 11 per cent of rubber. Some experts, however, consider that with 
improvements in the process of extraction the yield may become as 
high as 18 per cent. 

Up to 1905 Grerman merchants bought the guayule crop at the 
points of production and shipped at profitable prices some thou- 
sands of tons of the product to Germany. On November 1 of the 
year referred to, this traflic was suddenly checked by the Mexican 
Government's placing a prohibitive export duty of $15 a tovi on the 
raw product. This measure stimulated the development of the local 
industry, and many factories were cimstructed by private parties and 
concessions obtained from the Government to exploit guayule lands 
for i)eriods of from fifteen to twenty years. 

Rich companies were formed for the exploitation of this industry, 
and there are in northern Mexico at the present time ton large com- 
panies, with fifteen factories in operation and several in construction, 
in which a number of prominent American capitalists are concerned. 
One of these corporations — the Continental Rubber Company — is 


said to have invested 20,000,000 francs in the purchase of lands, pat- 
ents, and the construction of factories, etc. The principal factory at 
Torreon has a motive force of 1,800 horsepower and works large 
enough to treat 100 tons of the raw product daily. Some of the 
guayule has to be transported on the backs of mules for over 100 
miles before reaching the factory. 

German interests in the guayule industry are also represented on a 
large scale, and it is said that the Dresdner Bank and the firm of 
Krupp have invested large sums of money in this industr}\ 

The process of extraction varies as to detail, and is covered by 
some 142 patents taken out during the last few years by inventors. 
In the chemical process, which is generally more expensive than the 
mechanical, but which produces a better product, the akalies have 
been replaced by sulphides of carbon. 

The cost of a ton of caoutchouc prepared with caustic soda is about 
$120 silver. Mr. Marx considers the process of the maceration of 
the raw material and the extraction of the caoutchouc by the action 
of vapor in an alkaline solution to be the best. 

It seems that the mechanical processes now employed do not sat- 
isfy all of the conditions to be desired. They are cheaper, but pro- 
duce an inferior grade of caoutchouc, which brings in the German 
market 3.50 marks, as compared with 5.50 marks for the product 
produced by the chemiciil process. 

The companies are endeavoring to eliminate the 27 per cent of 
fibrous substance and the greater part of the resin contained in the 
guayule tivated by the mechanical process. Trials have been made 
in the ust» of the bagasse as a fuel in the production of motive power, 
but it has been proven that the use of this material quickly injures 
the boilers. The resin will probably be separated from the fiber and 
used as a by-i)roduct, and the wood residue utilized in the manufac- 
ture of paiKr. The bagasse from guayule treated with caustic soda 
contains a certain ])ercent«ge of caoutchouc that it has been impos- 
sible to sei)arate. 

Dry guayule stalks, which were formerly worth $15 silver i^er ton, 
delivered at the factory, now bring from 200 to 250 francs. The 
price of guayule caoutchouc, whicli wa^ fixed at Is. Gd. for the first 
shipments of 1905, gradually rose to 2s., 2s. Gd., and 3s. in August, 
lOOG. At that time the price fell in New York to 25 cents a pound, 
a!id 3 marks per kilogram in Hamburg on account of speculations 
of the Continental Rubber Company. Since then guayule caoutchouc 
has rapidly increased in value, and the best grade recently brought 
G5 cents a pound in New York, and uj) to 5.75 marks per kilogram 
in Hamburg. In May last tons of guayule caoutchouc was sold in 
Antwerp at 5 francs per kilogram. The prices vary from 4 to 6.25 
francs according to grade. 


From an industrial standpoint guayiile is a plant producing caout- 
chouc of a special kind, the raw product being soft, more or less 
sticky, due to the presence of a certain quantity (sometimes a consid- 
erable quantity) of resin, is difficult to preserve and slow to vulcanize. 
It is necessary to thoroughly understand the manipulation of guayulo 
caoutchouc to purify and use it immediately after the drying process 
is completed. The present grades, freed from two-thirds of the resin- 
ous contents, make a product very similar to Panama caoutchouc, for 
wliich it may be mistaken. 

Guayule is a useful product permanently established in the market, 
the value of which will increase in accordance with the improvements 
in the processes of extraction. The guayule plant, however, is not 
as plentiful as was originally supposed, and while the factories may 
have a sufficient quantity of it to supply their demands for the next 
few years, it can only be permanently supplied to them through culti- 
vation, and the problem of cultivating this plant has been but little 
studied up to the present time. 

Mr. Olsson-Seffer, as well as the " Tropical Life," believe that 
guayule cultivation can not be successfully carried on on dry, unirri- 
gated lands. An experiment made by Mr. Hoffmann in transplant- 
ing the guayule plant into irrigated furrows shows that 80 per cent 
of the plants lived and developed, as compared with 25 per cent when 
transplanted on dry, unirrigated land. 

In the problem of cultivation the two principal factors to be con- 
sidered are soil and climate. Mr. Endlich thinks the proper soil for 
the cultivation of the guayule plant should contain from 20 to 30 per 
cent of calcareous matter and a sufficient quantity of humus to lessen 
evaporation and induce the rapid growth and development of this 
useful rubber-producing shrub. 


The following extraets from an article by Ivor Etheringtox aro 
reproduced as of value in the present status of the cocoa market : 

^* The most important process in the cocoa industry is the fermenta- 
tion and curing of the bean, since upon this treatment largely depends 
the quality and price of the product. In countries where cocoa is 
cultivated, different methods are employed in the treatment of the 
pod. When the ripe cocoa is gathered the bean is placed in suitable 
piles near the factory so that it can be hulled. The pericarp or cap- 
sule containing the bean is then cut with a knife and the seeds, 
together \^"ith the pulp by which they are surrounded, are placed in 
baskets. When more than one varictv of cocoa is cultivated on a 


plantation, the beans of tlie diffepent varieties should be kept separate 
to be fermented and cured. 

*'The object of the fermentation is to remove the saccharine pulp 
that surrounds the seed, to improve the color of the cocoa, to better 
the general condition of the seed for the purpose of crushing it, to 
harden the shell of the grain, to improve the flavor of the bean, and 
lastly, to avoid rust. It should be added that the fermentation of the 
seed is not absolutely essential. Cocoa of a dark purple color, and, 
which has a bitter flavor not fermented, is the kind most in demand in 
some markets. Nevertheless, some of the best cocoa kno^na to the 
trade has l>een more or less fermented. In Ceylon cocoa is thoroughly 

^^In a word, fermentatiim is a process for the seasoning of the cocoa 
in its own juice. In Nicaragua the fermentation is carried on for two 
or three days, while in Guatemala and Salvador about half of this 
time is used*. In vSurinam six or seven days are employed in tliis 
process, and owing to this fact a superior (juahty of cocoa is obtained 
which has ])ecome famous. In X'enezuela the fermentation takes 
place in l)ags exposed to the sun during the day and allowed to sweat 
during the night, while in Mexico holes are dug in the ground, the 
cocoa is placed thenun, covered with banana leaves, and allowed to 
ferment. There are inany cultivatoi^s of this product in Trinidad 
Island who do not fornient tlieir cocoa, but they have now commenced 
to adopt this treatment. 

''The pn)cess of fermentation may be carried on in the open air, 
in a liouso or shed, or in special ]>oxes or tanks. This method, how- 
ever, may be dispensed with and tlie fermentaticm effected by plac- 
ing the l>eans in piles. In onh^ to ferment uninformly each pile the . 
seeds should 1)0 turned over daily and then re-covered for the pur- 
pose of repealing tlie operation. The heat of the mass thus formed 
increas(\s gradually and should not l)e allowed to become excessive, 
as it may impair the quahty of the jiroduct. The average tem- 
[)erature f<;r the purpose of fenn<^ntati(ui may be cimsidered to be 
from ;]r)^(\ to 40° C. 

'•Aft<'r fermentation the cocoa should be hashed to remove the 
s(H^<l from the j)ulp. The operati<m of wasliing is carried on with 
greater efliciency iu places where ranning water can be utilized. 
Water tanks may also ]n^ used and, in some instances, machinery 
may be employed to remove the seed and (»l>tain an entirely clean 
grain. The American markets do not require the washed cocoa, 
but in (lermany and England the clean grain is preferred. In Nicar- 
agua the coci)a is not washetl, but in Salvador and Guatemala this 
process is coming into vogue. It is said that the delicate flavor of 
the cocoa produced in Central America is due to the washing process 
employ(Hl in that country. 


"The seed sboxild be extracted after the fermentation whether the 
bean is washed or not. The operation of drying is really the curing 
of the cocoa and should be effected with the greatest care by means 
of the heat of the sun or artificial heat in houses especially con- 
structed for that purpose having warm rooms or chambers. Tlie 
curing causes the seed to acquire a brown or chocolate color, varying 
according to the species of cocoa and the conditions of the locality. 
In all cases the drying should be slow and last at least tluree or four 
days, according to the intensity of the fermentation to which the 
seeds are subjected. The curing is very important in preparing 
cocoa for the market and should always be effected with great care 
and skill. The cured seeds are classified according to size, quaUty, 
appearance, and the color of the grain. The light-colored grain has 
a better flavor, but in some markets there is a great demand for the 
dark-colored grain. 

"In some countries special methods are employed for the purpose 
of giving luster and color to the grain. In Venezuela red earth is 
used, in western India different substances, such as starch, annatto 
seed, red ocher, and red earth or clay. When the grain acquires 
sufficient luster it is placed in bags and sent to the market.'^ 



The Statistical Office of the Argentine Government has issued its 
regular bulletin /'£7 Comercio Exterior Argentino^^ covering the for- 
eign trade of the Republic during the first nine months — January to 
September — of the year 1907. Import values for the period are 
placed at $202,835,218 gold, showing an advance of S5,5 10,7t)4 as 
compared with the same nine months of 1906; exports figure for 
$240,878,611, showing a gain of $16,247,350 over the corresponding 
period of the preceding year. Dutiable imports are quoted at 
$128,184,517, and free at $74,650,701, and gold and silver figure for 
$23,440,946. On the export list, dutiable items were valued at $868, 
while free exports aggregated $240,877,743, and gold and silver sliii> 
ments Tvere worth $281,750. 

From the above figures it is noted that the balance of trade in favor 
of the Republic amoimted for the nine months in reference to 
838,043,393, while imports of gold and silver exceeded exports by 

In the distribution of imports by countries of origin, the United 
Kingdom heads the list with $71,964,236, followed by Germany, 
$32,131,549; the United States, $26,476,423; France, $18,447,927; 


Italy, $17,577,375; Belgium, $11,471,881; Brazil, $5,371,957; Spain, 
$5,191,250; Uruguay, $1,874,291; Austria-Hungary, $1,731,721; 
the Netherlands, $1,162,333; Paraguay, $983,143; Chile, $313,955; 
Bolivia, $105,457, and Africa, $15,997. 

Included under the general classification of "Other countries of 
origin'' are: Australia, $44,418; Canada, $687,141; Colombia, $2,493; 
Cuba, $386,964; China, $404,409; Denmark, $38,744; Ecuador, 
$23,528; Egypt, $1,103; Greece, $31,555; Guatemala, $689; Japan, 
$147,764; Mexico, $3,622; Norway, $336,171; Persia, $547; Peru, 
$531,843; Portugal, $208,287; French Colonies, $6,875; Dutch Colo- 
nies, $30,039; British Colonies, $2,641,515; North American Colo- 
nies, $9,855; Roumania, $1,675; Russia, $261,815; Salvador, $708; 
Dominican Republic, $287; Sweden, $280,076; S\^dtzerland, 
$1,567,371; Turkey, $30,044, and Venezuela, $9,633. 

As compared with the first nine months of 1906, increased imports 
with their respective valuations are noted from the following coun- 
tries: Germany, $3,617,968; the United Kingdom, $2,803,301; Bel- 
gium, $2,262,096; Austria-Hungary, .$545,587 ; Uruguay, $520,521; 
Brazil, $598,085; Paraguay, $84,318, and Bolivia, $10,862. 

A decline in import values is noted as follows : In regard to France, 
$2,216,698; Italy, $1,009,397; the United States, $719,829; Spain, 
$358,155; Chile,*^ $132,410; the Netherlands, $27,344, and Africa, 

As a receiver of Argentme ex])orts during the nine months of 1907, 
the United Kingdom stan<ls first, having taken values amounting to 
$40,561,378, followed by Germany, $28,784,527; France, $28,351,594; 
Belguim, S24,637,8S2; Brazil, $10,388,686; United States, $8,627,941; 
the Netherlands, $3,526,970; Italy, $3,283,705; Uruguay, $2,839,833; 
Chile, $1,586,677; Africa, 81,326,650; Spain, $1,287,154; BoUvia, 
$543,853; Austria-Hungary, $521,492. and Paraguay, $117,139. 

''Otlier countries'' of destination include: Cuba, $217,811; Den- 
mark, $89,238; Norway, $1,061,144; Peni, $90,613; Portugal, 
$25,401; Frencli Colonies, $664; British Colonies, $45,197, and 
Sweden, 8665,149. 

Exports to the following countries show the increases noted: The 
United Kingdom, $9,300,538; Belgium, $5,027,366; France, $3,711,702; 
Brayil, $1,598,683; the Netherlands, $1,189,856; Austria-Hungary, 
$480,051 ; Chile, $430,984, and Bolivia, $246,076. 

Decreased export valuations are noted as follows: To Africa, 
$1,957,171; the United States, $1,701,312; Italy, $1,526,770; Uni- 
giun', $977,049; Spain, $574,033; Germany, $399,408, and Paraguay, 

Imports for the nine months of 1007 establish a record for the ten 
years' period 1898-1907, while exi)orts were exceeded during that 
time only in 190o, when they figured for $247,110,133. 



The official estimate of the year's import trade is placed at 
$268,655,917 as compared with $269,970,521 in 1906, while exports 
are estimated at a valuation of $318,622,501 against $292,253,829 in 
the precedmg year. 

Imports for the nine months of 1907 show the following classifica- 
tions and values with the respective gains or losses noted, as com- 
pared with the corresponding period of 1906: 


Li v«' animals 

Food substHUcos 

Totjacco and manufactures 

Wines and liquors 


Oils, etc 

Chemical and pharmaceutical products. 

Paints and dyos 

Woods and manufactures 

Paper and manufactures 

Leather and manufactures 

Iron and steel and manufactures 

Other m'^tals 

Agricultural implem<^nts 

Vehicles and parts thereof 

Ceramic products 

Building materials 

Electrical appiiauccs 

Other articles 

Nine njonthe- 

Witt IDW, 



- fcM, 177 


-J- l.<^.3.'» 


- m, 171 


- 122,<]05 


' 7,292,130 

S, 70^. 485 

+ 153,479 


+ r.3. mo 

1.090. 4S0 

- 77 Am 


+ 99,639 

a. 860. 1508 

-»- <ii0,903 


- 259,532 


^ 3,CM5,906 


- 972.i505 


' 1.3(M,407 


+ 1(^370,779 


' 412,056 


+ im,MO 


4- 387. IM 


+ 47,210 

Export classifications and comparisons for the two periods were 
as follows: 


Nine months, 
1907. I 

with 1906. 

Animal products 

Agricultural products 

Forest products 

Mining products 

Products of the chase. 

188, 246, .566 



+ 19,524,731 


- 805, 130 

490, 619 

+ 302, 712 


92, 7a5 


- 1,217,240 


An Argentine law dated September 30, 1907, exempts from cus- 
toms duty during a period of ten years, machinery, tools, and mate- 
rials necessary for the installation and working of mining and metal- 
lurgical establishments which may be erected or which actually exist 
in the RepubUc. The law also covers machinery, tools, and mate- 
rials for well boring. 

In order to obtain the exemption in question, the interested per- 
sons must apply in writing to the custom-house through which it is 
desired to effect the importation. The charges involved in the veri- 
fication of the materials wdll be for the account of the applicant. 


Argentine revenues from internal taxes during the first nine 
months of 1907 amounted to $31,493,006.17 paper and $21,641 gold, 
as compared with $28,744,276.68 paper and $19,634.16 gold during 
the corresponding period of the preceding year. 


The Argentine Minister of Public Works has prepared a statement 
showing the rolling stock in the service of the various railway com- 
panies of the Republic at the close of 1907 as demonstrating their 
ability to meet the requirements of moving the crops. 

The capacity of the roads and their respective increases as com- 
pared with 1906 were as follows: 


Freight ('^nacltv . ^" **"^ 
Icjcomo- ^o?c^^;i>| of hi. 

! I 


Great Sou them r>44 : 218.200 iaS2 

Western 277 IW.OOO ' 27.S0 

Rosaiio ; 2o0 . 145.000; 17.85 

(Yntrul Argentine 


Great Wcsteni 


Frovinee Suntu Fo 

Centrnl CordobH 

Cordobn and Rosjjrio 

Nationnl ('enlfiil Northrni 

North Ai^cntine 

205 in. 000 28.19 

135 140.000 i 22.80 

ItiS (».)J(X) 05.50 

23 11.940 11.40 

112 .-iO.OOO 5.12 

95 33.000 - 24.00 

3.3 11.840 i 46.30 

148 .53.800 ■ 

38 . 19.250 

The State-owned lines show no in( rease. 

The grain sheds, etc., at st tit ions belonging to the railways and to 

individual owners have a total capacity of 795,455 square meters. 

This does not inchuh^ sheds, warehouses, and elevators at terminal 

stations or ports which have, taken togrether, a capacity of 2,266,421 



Tho returns showing definitely the areas sown in wheat, linseed, and 
oats thn)Ughout the Argentine Kepui)Iic in 1907 have been issued by 
the Statistical Office of the Agricultural Department. They vary 
slightly from the estimates pn^viously [niblished, the wheat area 
being 27,()()() h(ctans (2.471 acres) less, lin^ved 24,0{)() hectares more, 
and oats 42, ()()() iKcfan^i more. 

Tlu^ comparative figures showing the 1007 and V.»00 areas arc as 

UH)7. lOCB. 

I Ihifiirfft. Iff^arrf, 

Wlioat .'.. 7.V.I. '.K7 5.fW2. 171 

[.inso-*! l.ii-.M.-;*.: 1. 000. 21ft 

0„iM 2^4.0'«S 76.M0 




A communication received from the Department of Foreign Rela- 
tions of the Argentine Republic, dated October 30, 1907, contains a 
statement published by the Minister of Finance, showing the situation 
of 15 of the Argentine banks on September 30, 1907. Their total de- 
posits on that date amounted to $27,660,970 gold, and $726,997,077 
paper; discounts and loans, $37,890,804 gold, and $735,520,948 paper; 
cash on hand, $39,580,616 gold, and $247,913,453 paper. 

Following is the statement referred to : 



.\iigio Sud Amerteano 

AJemiln TransatULntico 

BiitAjiico de ia America del i 


Cr6dito Araentino 

Espafiol del Rfo do la Plata. . 
Fnae^ del Rio de la Plata... 

Galicia y Buenos Aires 

GermAnlco dc la America del 



Italia y Rio de la Plata | 

Londres y BrasLl 

Londres y Rfo de la Plata.... 

Naci6n Argentina 

Niievo ItaUano I 

Popular Argentino 

Popular Italiano 

Provincia de Buenos Aires.... 

1, 477, 778 












217, 199 









j 68,744,077 


122, 476, 580 




1,601,829 56,265,414 

Total 27,660,970 726,907,077 

Discounts and loans. < Cash on hand. 



$1,061,089 $23,260,704 
5,234,010 29,819,705 











5, 733, 532 

212. 795 
53, 646, 500 
" 182,607 

2, 790, 490 

7,154,408 I 77.196,810 

1,329,630 ;'286, 124.205 

1,166,946 191,107,914 

3,229 ; 14,128,990 








918, 342 


479, 707 





,015,748 I 48.351.430 

7,890,804 ,735,520,948 





40, 134, 456 

12, 717, 195 






Argentine shipments of native products during the first ten months 
of 1907 were as follows, as compared with the same period of the pre- 
ceding year: 



&dt. ........>.. .J i,»a,i]e3 


Mt .-»„., do.. .,[ 34,333 

fiflir ..,.. do.,„ 4,;S3 

TiiUoTr,„,. ..]4PM„I 24,791 

Do ...„..,0i3lE«.J 7l|301 

Do ,.hii^smdA.J m,m 

{•nat^kinB... bftl««.j 2,<%a 

Woi^l do... J aTS.OM 

WlMhl.. tout.. 2fSI4,Ui 




' 3,749 




Lin*«d . _ . - , do, , . 

Flour.,. *„,,.....,-.. do. ■. 


I'nUttnls. ........... hd^a. 

OUeeed ... do... 

Hny,,. \)&U-ii, 

9 W'brncho „,,,..,. .tona. 
QufihrEicbo extract . .do. . . 
Butttr., _,,,.„, . ,case€. 

Mutton caroiitteti. No. 

Beef. .._.„.., . .quflrti-rs, 
Ortta ....tou3. 




■17^. 151 


J, 435. Ml 



241. asi 

HO. 001 




The statistics of the sugar production in Tucuman during five 
months of 1907 — May, June, July, August, and September — show a 
decrease compared with those of the same months of 1906. The pro- 
duction during the months under comparison was as follows: 

1906. I 1907. 

._._ . I 

Tens. Tens. 

Mttv : 330 463 

Jurio.* 15,829 j 19,883 

•f uly 30,348 . 29, 169 

• A upust 27, 187 , 26, 534 

SoptoiiilKr 16,928 I 12,282 

Total 90,728 88.291 

The diiroreiice against 1907 is, therefore, of 2,437 Ions. This 
decrease was due to the frost, which caused a great deal of damage 
in the plantationp, an advance in the prices of sugar being a conse- 
quence thereof. 


The Executive of the Argentine Republic has authorized the 
coinage of 2,553, 7S1 pesos in nickel ])ieces to complete a total of 
12,000,000 pesos. 

The Minister l^lenipotentiary of the Republic in London has been 
directed to j)urchase 5,000,000 disks for the 20'Centavo pieces, 
11,022,000 for the 10-ccniavo j)ieces, and 9,093,787 for th« 5'Centavo 


For the pari)ose of avoiding the congestion of trallic in the Port 
of Buenos Aires, during tlie cereal shipping season, the Minister of 
Agri^-iilture of th(» Argentine Republic has submitted to the National 
Congress a l)ill providing for the c()n:.;truction of temporary granaries 
witli a total capacity for 100,000 tons. When the unloading of 
cereals can not be made directly from the cars to the ships within 
the twenty-four hours allowed by law tlu^ resi)ective cargoes shall 
be dc^^osited in the granaries. The loading of ships from the gran- 
ari(*s will be maile by means of elevators. 

With a cai)a< ity of 100,000 tons and su})posing that the maximum 
tim(» allowed for storage is from fifteen to twenty days it will be 
practicable to (le|)osit in said granarii\s during the first seven months 
of active shipping about 1,000,000 tons of cereal. 





Statistics of the foreign commerce of Brazil for the nine months 
of January to September of 1907 show total imports valued at 
468,559:983$ ($147,000,000) as compared with 337,984:983$ 
($114,500,000) in the same months of 1906, and exports figured for 
669,286:556$ ($210,500,000) as against 498,691:572$ ($168,500,000) 
in the corresponding period of the preceding year. An increase in 
imports is thus reported of over $32,000,000 and in exports of 
$42,000,000 for the 1907 period, and the trade balance in favor of 
the Republic advanced from $53,000,000 in the first nine montha 
of 1906 to $63,000,000 in the same months of 1907. 

The bulk of this trade balance is to be credited to the first seven 
months of the year 1907, as during August and September a shrinkage 
in the values of the two staples of export — coffee and rubber— caused 
a decline in the export lists as compared with the same months of 
1906. On the oihet hand imports during the two months in refer-^ 
ence continued to advance, owing to the demand for machinery and 
materials required for the numerous and important public worka 
under construction in the Republic. 


Customs receipts at the various custom-houses of the Brazilian 
Republic for the nine months, January-September, 1907, aggregated 
218,555$000 ($72,123,150), as compared with 175,177$000 ($57,808,- 
410) in the corresponding period of the preceding year, an increase of 
over $14,000,000 being thus indicated. 


According to a decree of November 28, 1907, the President of Bra- 
zil is authorized to promote the formation of a Central Agricultural 
Bank to provide capital and credit for agriculture, capitalized at 
$10,000,000 (30,000 :000$000). 


The following figures show the imports of cotton manufactures in 
Brazil for the first half of 1907 : 

[Value In paper mUreiji.] 



Cotton thread 







24181— Bull. 1—08-^ — 5 





65,540 , 
1,052,U40 I 
1,332,033 I 




347,498 1 

927,602 i 


1,193,388 ; 

1,154,917 ' 

2,100,727 1 









It is reported that in the municipal district of Rio Novo, State of 
Minas Geraes, extensive beds of tribasic calcium phosphate have been 
discovered, yielding 12 i per cent of phosphoric acid. 


The government of the State of Rio de Janeiro has entered into a 
contract with the Japanese Emigration Company" for the introduction 
of Japanese immigrants and the establishment of colonies at Imbe, 
Macahe, and Itaborahy. By the terms of the contract the company 
will mark and divide the lots, build the houses, and furnish the colo- 
nists with agricultural machinery and implements, as well as food, 
until their first crops have been harvested. 

The State of Sao Paulo is also negotiating with the same company 
for the introduction into that State of 3,000 Japanese immigrants. 


The following tabic gives the ex})orts from the port of Manaos for 
the first half of 1907: 


Rubl)er of nil kinds kilos. . 

Bniul nuts ln-cK'ntors. . 

Cflffto kilos. . 

Pinssava do 

Heron feathers grmms. . 

Wood motors. . 

Copnalba oil kil<»s. . 

j Quantity. 

A, 419. TJMi 

(ttiK <»7() 

12, (^M 

S, ,3iO 




Dry kilos. 

Unciirpd do. . . 

DitTskins do. . . 

Sheepskins do . . . 

J aguarskins do. . . 



136, GO 

. 466 



The total value of the exports was 33,725,727 milreis (about 


According to information received, work is progressing: rapidly on 
the highway connecting the seats of tlie three administrative divisions 
into which the Acre Territory has been divided — Alto Jurua, Alto 
Purus, and Alto Acre. The road should be completed by the end of 
the current year. Tt is l)eing solidly built with the view of running a 
line of automobiles between the three points mentioned. It is cal- 
culated that the trip between Alto Junia and Alto Purus can be made 
by automobile in fifteen days, and from Alto Purus to Alto Acre in 
two days. When completed this road will undoubtedly give a great 
impulse to the development of this rich territory. 

By a decree of December 7, 1007, the Ciovernment has created a 
custom-house at Sao Francisco, in the State of Santa Catharina. 

The International Kadiotelegraphic Convention was approved by 
*he Brazilian Congress on November 8, 1907. 

' CHILE. 57 


By a decree of October 3, 1907, the railway from Passo Fundo, the 
terminal of the Santa Maria Railway, to the Uruguay River has been 
incorporated with the railways to be built and managed by the "CWi- 
pagnie Auxiliaire de Chemins de Fer au BresU,^^ 

The Brazilian Government approved on November 6, 1907, the two 
protocols signed at Caracas on December 9, 1905, providing for the de- 
marcation of the boundary between Brazil and Venezuela as deter- 
mined by the treaty of May 5, 1859. 

A decree dated November 6, 1907, approves the protocol signed 
on December 12, 1906, between Brazil and the Republic of Uruguay. 



Sefior Don Anibal Cruz, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary of Chile near the Government of the United States, was 
received in his capacity as such by President Roosevelt on November 
16, 1907. On presenting his credentials Sefior Cruz spoke as follows: 

"Most Excellent Mr. President: I have the honor to place in 
Your Excellency's hands two autograph letters of His Excellency 
the President of the Republic of Chile. One terminates the mission 
filled by the- honorable Sefior Walker-Martinez, the other accredits 
me in the character of Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary near Your Excellency's Government. 

"The mission with which I am intrusted by my Government has 
for its main purpose the strengthening of the relations which happily 
exist between the United States and the Republic of Chile. For the 
accomplishment of this purpose, which constitutes the most earnest 
desire of the Chilean people and Government, I cherish the hope that 
Your Excellency will bestow upon me the benevolent reception you 
have vouchsafed to my predecessors. 

"In the name of my Government and in my own, I form most 
sincere wishes for the personal happiness of Your Excellency and 
your collaborators and for the prosperity and greatness of the United 
States of America.'' 

The reply of President Roosevelt was as follows: 

"Mr. Minister: I am pleased to welcome you as the newly 
accredited Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the 
Republic of Chile near this Government, and to receive fi^om your 
hands the letter of credence which you present in that capacity. I 
also accept the letter whereby your esteemed predecessor's with- 
drawal is announced. 

"The expression of your purpose to aid in strengthening the 
friendly relations now existing between the United States of America 


and the Republic of Chile gives me especial pleasure, and I assure 
you Mr. Minister that I shall be glad to extend to you by every 
means at my command my active assistance in maintaining and 
perfecting those friendly relations. 

" I thank you for your kind words for myself and I beg you to con- 
vey to Ilis Excellency President Montt an expression of .my earnest 
wishes for the happiness and prosperity of himself and the Chilean 
people. I shall take eariy occasion to make to His Excellency 
President Montt direct acknowledgment of yoiu* predecessor's 
letter of recall. 

"I trust that your so j urn here may be as agreeable to yourself as 
I feel confident it will prove satisfactory to both Governments.'' 


The report of the Chilean Transandine Railway Company (Lim- 
ited) for 1906, submitted to the directors on November 21, 1907, 
states that the first section of the line from Los Andes to Jimcal, a 
distance of 51 kilometers (nearly 32 miles) was accepted and taken 
over from the contractors by the Government on June 30, 1906, 
and an issue of £278,100 5 per cent debentures was made to provide 
in part for payment for this section. 

It is anticipated that the second section, from Juncal to Portillo, 
will be completed by February, 1908, following which the contract- 
ors will concentrate their efforts on the final section. 

For the accommodation of the traveling public two stations, one at 
Juncal and the other at Los Andes, are under construction by the 
Transandine Construction Company (Limited) and the joint con- 
necting lines of the Argentine Kepubhc. 


The '^Diario OficiaV of September 14, 1007, contains a notice to 
the effect that application has been made by the Director of the 
" Socicdad Francesa de CTianaraV for permission to construct a railway 
from the company's f oimdr}' at Clianaral to the mines of Cerro Negro. 
The extent of the line will be oo kilometers (a little over 34 miles) 
and will provide for Ww (ran^i)ort of from 50 to 100 tons of goods 

Decrees issued on September 10 authorize the following enter- 
prises: Don Domingo Otaegii, or the company which he may rep- 
present, to ccmstruct and exploit an electric railway from the fiscal 
depots of the port of Valparaiso, throuj^jh La Laguna, to La Placilla 
or Penuelas; also to construct and exploit in La Laguna Bay a 
wharf for the ladinj^ and unladintr of <]:oo(ls, a dockyard, and a dry 

CHILE. 59 

The '*Diario OfidaV^ for September 27, contains a notifioation to 
the effect that the President of the Republic is authorized to hold a 
public competition for the construction, at a cost not exceeding 
$480,000, of a railway to unite the towns of Ancud and Castro in 
the province of Chiloe. 

Wharfage and warehouse construction at Caleta de Luquen is also 
authorized in the same ' ^Diario.^^ 


The salt deposits of Chile are said to be the greatest in the world. 
The Salar Grande mine in the province of Tarapaca, about 60 miles 
south and east of Iquique, covers an area of 80,000 acres to the depth 
of 25 feet. This body of salt is nearly pure and contains more than 
14,000,000,000 tons, or enough to supply the world's demands for 
many decades. There are several other deposits in the interior that 
cover two or three times the area of the above. 


The President of the Chilean Republic, under date of October 25, 
1907, submitted to the National Congress a bill for the protection of 
the flax industry of the country, providing as follows : 

*'SoLE SECTION. The President of the Republic is hereby author- 
ized to pay a bounty per metric quintal (220.46 pounds) of flax 
produced and manufactured in the country and exported through 
the custom-houses of Talcahuano, Valdiyia, Puerto Montt, and 

**This bounty shall be paid for a period of twelve years in the 
following manner: During the first six years, 10 pesos of 18 pence per 
metric quintal of swingled flax, and 16 pesos of 18 pence per metric 
quintal of dressed flax, and during the six remaining years, 6 pesos 
of 18 pence per metric quintal of swingled flax and 8 pesos per metric 
quintal of dressed flax. 

**The total amount of the bounties thus paid shall not exceed 
100,000 pesos in the first four years, 150,000 pesos in the following 
four years, and 200,000 pesos in the remaining years. 

** Persons desiring to enjoy the benefits of this law shall comply 
with the conditions prescribed by the President of the Republic.'* 


On September 16, 1907, the Chilean Government, represented ky 
its ^linister Plenipotentiary in London, entered into a contract with 
Messrs. N. M. Rothschild & Sons for the floating of the loan of 
£1,100,000, which will be issued in treasury bonds payable at the 
banking house of said firm in London, on March 24, 1909. 

PABCELS POST, 1902—1906. 

According to official data recently received from Chile, the increase 
of' the importation of parcels post during the five years from 1902 to 
1906 was as follows: 

I Value of 

v,x.. r parcels Revenues 

^ '**'^- portt : deri^-ed. 

rweived. | 

Prsw. ' Pe909. 

1902 tW2.381 135,4ti3 

1903 839.742 : 118.902 

1904 893,440 : 194.752 

1905 877,»ie 300.421 

1900 1.112,965 349.808 


The custom-houses of the Cliilean Republic collected during the 
first eight months of the year 1907 a total revenue of 70,117,153.75 
pesos ($23,372,384.58), as against 61,839,096.89 pesos ($20,613,232.29) 
collected in the same period of 1906, an increase of 8,277,456.86 pesos 
($2,759,152.29). The sum collected in August, 1907, was 9,082,- 
241.81 pesos ($3,024,080.27), compared with 6,782,166.82 pesos 
($2,260,722.27) in the same month of 1906. 

The revenue collected during the first nine months of 1907 amounted 
to 78,371,977.96 pesos ($26,123,902.65), as compared with 68,963,- 
529.72 pesos ($22,987,843.24) of the same months of 1906, an increase 
of 9,408,448.24 pesos ($3,136,149.41). In the month of September, 
1907, the revenue collected was 8,254,824.21 pesos ($2,418,274.73), as 
against the sum of 7,123,832.83 pei^.os ($2,341,277.61) in the same 
month of 1906. 



United States Consul I&aac A. Manning, of Cartagena, Colombia, 
makes the following statements in regard to the nibber industrj' in 
the Itepublic: 

There is but little increase in the output of rubl>er in Colombia, 
though the establishment of i)lantations is extending. Reliable par- 
ties state tliat along the river Bando there are 400,000 nibber trees, 
and 200,000 trees along the Arquia. In the Siiiu Valley there aresaid 
to be at least 1,000.000 trees in plantations and of these only a very 
small numlx^r are yet l)eing tapi)ed. \Mien all these rubber plantations 
reach the age when the trees can be tapixnl, the output of Colombia 
will not be so dei>endent on the wild trees and the Indian rubber 
hunter. The-Government is also taking precautions to protect the 


wild rubber in the forests and thus prevent the total destruction of 
the wild trees, which are now frequently cut down arid ^'sapped'' to 
the last drop or tapped and allowed to bleed so long that the tree 
dies for lack of sap. 

Many new experiments are being tried, and among them is that 
of planting small trees, cutting them down annually and pressing 
the rubber from them, allowing the stump to remain and rosprout. 
Thus a great many trees may be planted on a small tract of ground, 
making cultivation easy, but the results are yet to be determined. 
There is a question whether the rubber is of equal quality with that 
of the mature tree, or whether the yield will be sufficient to make it a 
profitable business. The outcome of this experiment is being watched 
with interest by other rubber planters. 

The question of yield per tree of the planted rubber is yet an open 
one. Under a general questioning, rubber planters will promise a 
pound of rubber to the tree, but a planter who has charge of a large 
plantation on the Sinu River, and who has just tapped 14,155 trees, 
approximately 8 years old, and including some old trees of the nat- 
ural forest, reports a yield of 1,121 pounds of clear, dry, pressed rub- 
ber. From this result the yield of a rubber tree after it has reached 
its ei^th year, where tapping is carefully made with a view to pre- 
serving the life of the tree, is estimated at 4 ounces of pure, clear 
rubber. This rubber was treated by straining to take out all foreign 
substance, then coagulated in water, and pressed carefully, so that as 
much of the water as possible was taken out. It was then dried for 
a week, with the foregoing result. 

Other planters who seem to estimate results on what the wild rub* 
ber has been known to yield, insist that the yield from a fully grown 
or an 8-year-old rubber tree should be, if properly developed and 
cared for, at least a full pound of dr}', pure rubber. In Colombia, 
at least, this is all matter for further study and experimentaticfn. 

The exports of rubber from the port of Cartagena during the past 
five years have at least added to the income of the country, having 
been 666,170 kilograms from January 1, 1903, to October 1, 1907, 
slightly more than one-half going to the United States. The total 
shipments for 1906 were 159,580 kilograms, and in the first nine 
montlis of 1907, 136,680 kilograms. 


United States Consid Isaac A. Manning, of Cartagena, reports 
that imder the protective duty of 34 cents American gold per kilo- 
gram (2J poimds) on cotton goods of the character manufactured 
by the Fahrica de Tejidos de Cartagena, that factory seems to be 


The plant occupies a ground space of 58,126 square feet, the factory 
being one story, and gives employment generally to 160 employees, all 
natives of this country, including the superintendent and chief 
engineer. The factory consumes only Colombian cotton, and its 
present output is 1,000 pieces (40 yards each) per month of cotton 
drill. The machinery is all of English make, with the exception of 
one American cotton gin. There are 6,116 spindles, and 104 looms, 
and the factory consumes about 80,000 kilograms of ginned cotton 
per annum. 

The cotton is produced principally in the Department of Bolivar, 
the factory paying 2 J to 4 cents per pound, delivered, for the \m- 
ginned cotton, which makes the cost about 12 cents American gold 
per poimd for the ginned cotton. The cotton seed is exported princi- 
pally to England, while the cloth is sold entirely in Colombia. The 
drill sells for an average of 9 cents per yard, which means a total out- 
put of $40,000 to $45,000 per annum. 

The laborers are principally women and girls, although some men 
and boys are also employed. The average wage is 40 to 50 cents per 
day. The factory has a total daily capacity of 2,000 yards, although 
it never runs to its full capacity, closing down at night. The fac- 
tory is prepared to turn out shirtings, muslins (unbleached), and 
other cotton goods of this character, but it finds the drill the most 

Notwithstanding the output of the local factory and of two others 
in the interior of the country the importation of cotton cloths of all 
kinds through this port during the half year ended June 30, 1907, 
reached the amount of 403,825 kilograms in weight, of which 263,952 
camo from England, and 185,425 from the United States, the rest 
from Italy (25,383), Germany (0,061), Spain (6,633), and France 


The new regulations governing the navigation of the Magdalena 
and other Colombian rivers as recently promulgated provide for the 
payment, among other charges on navigation, of S2 gold per ton on 
foreign goods and SI (m native goods. Provisions are exempted from 
payment of the duty in question. 


In accordance with a decree of the President of the Colombian 
Republic dated December 5, 1907, the free importation of maize and 
rice at Atlantic i)orts is extended until May 1, 1008. This measure 
is taken as a result of the shortage of the crops in reference through- 
out the Kepublic, owing to the ravages of the locusts. A subsequent 
decree declares the provisions effective from February 1, 1908. 



Regarding various marine supplies of the Colombian coast, United 
States Consul Manning writes from Cartagena, that the opportunities 
for deep-sea fishing on this part of the Colombian coast seem well 
worthy of consideration, especially if it be true that the supply of 
deep-sea fish hardly equals the demand in the United States. Green 
turtles are found here in large numbers and are constantly on sale 
in the local market. They are said to be of excellent quality, but no 
effort is made to export them. The fish market of Cartagena is 
famous, and displays as delectable fishes as are taken frqm the sea 
at any place in the world. It is claimed that on the fishing banks 
here are found great quantities of Spanish mackerel, jewfish, red 
snapper, tarpon, and many other valuable market fishes. There was 
at on# time a fish cannery here, which achieved but little success, 
probably through poor management, etc. With the establishment 
of a cold storage plant at Cartagena, now under concession, fish 
could be easily shipped to the markets of the United States by im- 
mediate transfer from the cold storage here to cold storage aboard 

The bay of Cartagena is rich in sponge beds and the local fishers 
for sponges find some fine in quality and large in size. These are 
taken and handled in a crude way by the ''bumboat^' men only, 
and sold alongside vessels in the harbor, no effort being made to 
export them in a businesslike manner. The same may be said of 
the great quantities of mother-of-pearl found here, and some practical 
effort to develop this industry might be successful. Lobsters abound 
and are said to be of excellent quality. A small oyster is taken in 
the bay, but it has little value as a food product and no merchantable 

The hawkbill turtle, '^sea tortoise," or, as locally known, ^^carey,'' 
is found in abundance, and local venders are to be seen alongside 
every ship arriving offering articles for sale made from this shell. 
Combs, hair ornaments, etc., are made in fancy and fantastic shapes, 
and the coloring and marking of the shell in some cases is beautiful, 
little of this is exported, although it seems that a practical effort to 
develop this trade or industry would be profitable. 


Government decrees modifying tariff duties in Colombia from Jan- 
uary 4, 1907, to May 10, 1907, were as follows : 

V'Diarib Oflcial ' No. 12844, of January 12, 1907.] 

By virtue of the present resolution, St. Raphael wine shall be com- 
prised in Class IV of the tariff, by assimulation to red wines. 

V'Dlario Oflcial" No. 12841). of January 18, 1907.1 

Wooden rollers with perforated paper, for pianolas and other like 
instruments, are included in Class VI of the tariff as parts of organs 
and pianos. 

['• Diario Oftvhtl " No. 12840, of Jiiiiuary IS, 1U07.] 

Articles manufactured in the countrj'^ with foreign raw materials, 
or abroad with Columbian raw materials, can not be considered as 
national products. 

["Diario Oftcial " No. 12N0.O. of January 28, 1!)07.] 

Articles manufactured in the country with foreign raw materials 
manufacture are exempt from imi^ort duty, i. e., phosphides and 
superphosphate of limo, namely, [)hosphate treated with sulphuric 
acid; i^otash salts, namely, chloride of potash, known in industry as 
muriate of potash, sulphate of potash, and kainite; nitrated :fertili- 
zei*s, namely, nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia, calciocyana- 
niide or cyanamide of lime, also called nitrogenated lime; sulphate 
and bisulphide of carbon, and bitumen or varnish for waterproof 
cardboard, or tropeiiol. 

Art. 2. Fencing wire is exempted from the surtax of 70 per cent; 
but this shall only be applied by tenths, in conformity with the pro- 
visions of article '205 of the Constitution. 

Parafjrapli, Subsection ?> of the sole article of the decree Xo. 1026, 
of August 28, 11)00, is repealed by article 1 of the present decree. 

l" Itliiiit, ufuinl " No. 12XIU. of March 2, 11)07.] 

Duty-free admission of samples covers not only samples of tissues 
in small cuttings, l)ut also all goods such as paper, cardboard, leather, 
enameled iron, sheet ghiss, whether tinned or not, save that the ssime 
must be imported in very small pieces; that they can not, in the opin- 
ion of the customs administrator, l>e us<»d for any purpose whatever, 
and that, in conformity with \\\o tariif, they are not to enter in a 
quantity exceeding '2.") kilogram-;. 

[" liiarh, (tJUinl" No. 12sl'7. «if rohruary r». liM>7.J 

Sole article. From the dale of publication of the present decree 
of Harranc|uilla for use in connection with the electric lighting, the 
public market, and the numbering and designation of the streets of 
the said town are exempted from payment of imiKU't duty. 

Pamffvaph. The materials refiuTed to shall be also exempted from 
I)ayment of the tax. 

{" liUirU, Oficial " No. 12sSm. of IVJiruary 1J». 1(»U7.] 

Sole article. From the date of i)ubli(ation of the present decree, 
customs duties on the importation of good.s through the port of 
Tumaco shall be paid in silver at the stanilard of 0.8*5;"). 


Paragraph. The present decree, which shall be communicated to 
the administrator of customs at Tumaco by telegraph, does not affect 
decree No. 717, of June 16, 190G, under which the duties applicable 
to goods imported at Pasto are leviable in silver. 

V*Diario Ondal" No. 12926, of April 18, 1907.] 

Sole article. Pending the circulation of gold throughout the 
country in accordance with the provisions of the law No. 59 of 1905, 
importation of national and foreign silver coins of the standard of 
0.900 is allowed through the ports of Tumaco, Buenaventura, Ipiales, 
Arauca, and Cucuta, provided they have not ceased to be legal tender. 

Paragraph, The provisions of articles 14 and 16 of the law No. 
59 of 1905, are suspended from and after the date of publication of 
the present decree in the " Diario OfcialP 

["Diario Oflciar* No. 12931, of April 24, 1907.] 

Article 1. From and after the publication of the present decree, 
the export duties on precious metals may also be paid to the depart- 
mental administrations of the reorganized revenue. 

Art. 2. Certificates of payment, issued by administrators of the 
reorganized revenue, will be accepted as evidence by the customs 

Art. 3. Firms or persons exporting gold, silver, or platinum shall 
duly produce to the proper office of the reorganized revenue tripli- 
cate manifests containing the following particulars: 

1. Marks on the cases, " portes^^'^ gold bars or ingots which are be- 
ing exported. 

2. Number and quantity of the packages, and numbers thereon, 
which are to be different for each trackage. 

3. Name of the exporter and of the consignee. 

4. Place of destination of the shipment. 

5. Kind of metal, stating its weight according to the metrical 

6. Amount for which the consignment is insured or the commercial 
value thereof. ' - 

Art. 4. Article 3 of decree No. l'V2S, dated Xovember 10, 1905, is 
completed accordingly. 

V Diario Oficial ' No. 129?»8. of May U. 1007.] 

TMiereas the import duties on goods introduced through the Buena- 
ventura and Tumaco custom-houses are lower than those paid at 
Barranquilla, and whereas owing to the facilities of transport with 
minor charges and customs duties, goods introduced via Buenaven- 
tura and Tumaco can be conveyed to the Departments of Tolima and 
Haila and compete with those imported through Barranquilla, to 


the detriment of the customs revenue and of commerce: now it is 

hereby decreed as follows : 

Article 1. Goods conveyed from the Departments of the Cauca 

and Nariiio to or across the Departments of Tolima and Huila shall 

be considered as contraband. 

« * « « * « * 

Art. 3. The present decree shall become operative a fortnight after 
its publication in the " Diario OfdalP 

V* Dlario Oficial'' No. 12940, of May 4, 1907.] 

. Art. 9. Natural or manufactured products of either of the two 
Eepublics going out through the ports of the other shall not, on 
exportation, pay other or higher duties of any description or denomi- 
nation, be they national, municipal, or local, than those which are or 
may be levied on exportation of like natural or manufactured prod- 
ucts of the Republic through whose ports they are exported. 

Art. 10. No natural or manufactured product of either of the two 
Eepublics shall be prohibited to be imported into or exported from 
any ports of the other, but this liberty of importation does not include 
such articles as are or may be subject to monopoly, or the production 
or sale of whicli is or may be reserved by law in favor of the Govern- 
ment of either Republic, said articles being also prohibited if origi- 
nating from other countries. 

Art. 11. Products and manufactures of both Republics legally 
allowed to be dealt in, or the production or sale of which is not or 
should not bo reserved by law in favor of the Government of either 
country — said products and manufactures being also prohibited if 
originating from other countries — shall not pay any national or mu- 
nicipal tax on exportation or importation across the respective land 
frontiers; nor shall such articles pay, on account of transport or con- 
sumption in the place of sale, other or higher duties or taxes, be they 
national, nninicipal, or local, than are or may be levied on national 
products or manufactures of the same kind. In other words, neither 
of the two countries shall levy export duties upon its natural prod- 
ucts, including cattle {'' .sctnorleufcs^') or on manufactured products 
exported to the other country, nor submit to import duties produtits 
of the same kind originating from the other country. 

As mentioned above, the mutual exemption granted in the pi*esent 
clause does not extend to articles subject to Government rcffie or 
monopoly in either of the two countries. 

Art. 12. Natural or manufactured products of foreign nations 
imported from one of the two countries into the other shall pay the 
duties respectively chargeable thereon under the general tariff. 


l"7)teWo OficUA" No. 12040, of May 4. 1907.] 

Permission is granted to commercial travelers to reexport their 
samples through any custom-house convenient to them, on compliance 
with the following formalities: 

1. The customs administrators shall fix the import duties appli- 
cable to samples imported by commercial travelers, and suspend col- 
lection of the duties on being furnished with a bond guaranteeing 
the payment of the rates to the customs in case the samples should 
not be reexported by the commercial traveler wnthin twelve months. 

2. The commercial travelers shall keep the customs account show- 
ing the import duties leviable on the samples imported by them, 
and exhibit the document to the head of the customs at the port 
.si'lected for exporting the same, and thus enable him to verify 
whether the samples produced are the same as those described in the 
import statement. 

3. After verifying the weight of the samples, and satisfying him- 
self as to the identity thereof, the customs administrator will cancel 
the bond furnished, and, if the samples are not to be reexported 
through the same port as the place of importation, the said official 
shall advise the administrator of the custom-house of entry of the 
samples to enable him to cancel the bond. 

4. Failing the samples being reexported within the prescribed 
time, the customs administrator shall proceed to collect the import 
duties payable thereon. 

I" Dlario Oflcial " No. 12044, of May 10, 1007.1 

Sole ajticle. The date of entry into operation of decree Xo. 47G, 
of April 22, 1907, in reference to contraband, is postponed until 
January 1, 1908. 




Sefior Don Luis Anderson, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary of Costa Rica, on a special mission near the Govern- 
ment of the United States, was received in his capacity as such by 
President Roosevelt on November 12, 1907. On presenting his 
credentials Sefior Anderson spoke as follows: 

**Mb. President: It is due to Your Excellency's generous media- 
tion and that of His Excellency the President of the United Mexican 
States that a congress of plenipotentiaries from the five Central 
American Republics will shortly assemble in this capital city on 
behalf of civilization and the happiness of those countries, for the 


purpose of bringing to a close their past differences and of securing 
forever the blessings ol a stable peace, under whose protectii^ wing 
they may continue their onward march toward the realization of the 
magnificent destinies that the virtues of their citizens and their 
natural resources have insured for them. 

^' Costa Bica, wliich has the deepest affection for her Isthmian 
sisters and lives with them in perfect peace and harmony, feels a great 
sense of gratitude and appreciation for that noble and humanitarian 
suggestion, because Costa Rica believes it to be the surest means of 
securing to all the Central Ameri<!an Repubhcs the peace which she 
now enjoys and which is the key to her present prosperity. 

*'ily Govermnent having honored me with the appointment of 
delegate to the Peace Conference, the President, Sefior Gonzales 
VfQUEZ, has desired to take advantage of my presence in this capital, 
entrusting me with the special mission, to nie both gratifying and 
signally honorable, of bringing to this noble nation and its illustrious 
Chief Executive the cordial greetings of the people and the Govern- 
ment of Costa Rica. 

*^The marvelous development of the United States which aston- 
ishes the world, their ever-growing prosperity and the welfare of 
their people, whoso destiny is felt in the destiny of the human race, 
are the outcome of that worship for liberty and right that the founders 
of the Republic planted in the heart of the American people. It is 
this worship taken from your institutions and brought to our coun- 
tries which constitutes the keystone of American confraternity under 
whose shadow all the nations of the New World live and thrive, love 
and respect one another. It is for the sake of that liberty and 
justice that we desire that the ties which bind together little and 
free Costa Rica with the powerful North American nation should grow 
ever close. 

*'Tn placing in Your Excellency's hands the letter accrediting me 
as Envoy Extraordinarj" and Minister Plenipotentiarj' in special 
misvsion near the Govenmient of Your Excellency, it is a most pleasant 
duty to convey to ^'our Excellency the expressiim of the sentiment 
of affection and gratitude which the Costa Rican nation has for the 
])eoplc and the Government of the Ignited States of America, and 
their best wishes for Your Excellency's ])ersonal welfare." 

The reply of President Roosevelt was as follows: 

'•Mr. Minister: It gives me great pleasure to receive you as the 
accredited Envoy Extraordinary- and Minister Plenipotentiary of 
Costa Rica on spt^cial missiim to the United States, the more so when 
that mission has for its object the doing of your part to bring about 
a lasting peace and true brotherhood among the |>eoples of Central 


**I appreciate your acknowledgment of the share which this 
Government, conjointly with that of Mexico, has had in bringing 
about the conference that is soon to assemble in this city, and I 
cordially reciprocate the greetings of the people and Government of 
Costa Rica which President VfguEZ has asked you to convey to the 
people and Government of the United States. 

''The maintenance of peace and prosperity among the nations of 
Central America and the promotion of friendly intercourse and 
neighborliness between them and this nation have ever been dear 
to the people and Government of the United States, and if the work 
of the conference shall result in making those de^able aims more 
certain of realization we shall all be entitled to a share in the glory 
of the achievement. 

**Mr. Minister, your fame and the zeal and ability that you have 
brought to the service of your country are known to me, and I am 
confident that those same qualities will be applied by you in the 
conference toward the attainment of the holy purposes that have 
given origin to it. 

'*In conclusion, I beg you, Mr. Minister, to convey to President 
ViQUEZ my best wishes for His Excellency's personal welfare." 


For the purpose of promoting the development of agriculture in 
the Republic, the President of Costa Rica, in a decree dated Decem- 
ber 2, 1907, has ordered the establishment of agricultural boards in 
the different cantons, except San Jos6. These boards shall be com- 
posed of seven members and are placed under the control of the 
National Society of Agriculture. Their general powers and duties 
ten<I to the promotion and development of agriculture in their respec- 
tive cantons. ^ 


Mr. William Lawrence Merry, United States minister to Costa 
Rica, writes from San Jos6 in regard to the export duty of 1 cent gold 
on each bunch of bananas, which was authorized by a recent law 
enacted in that Republic, that the large growing and shipping interest 
involved declines acceptance, mainly owing to certain changes which 
may affect the validity of its concessions. The minister adds that 
'Hhe law having been enacted subject to such acceptance within sixty 
day.s, the relations of the parties in interest remain as before, and 
there is at present no indication that Congress will be convened to 
reconsider the question/' 


The Government of the Republic of Costa Rica, under date of 
December 5, 1907, entered into a contract with the United Fruit 
Company whereby the latter agrees to import into the coimtry such 
quantities of crude oil as may be suflicient for the consumption thereof 
m the Republic. The company shall sell the oil thus imported with 
a profit not exceeding 10 per cent on its cost. During the term of 
the contract, which is twenty-five years, the importation of crude 
oil shall be free of duty. 


On December 7, 1907, a contract was entered into between the 
Government of Costa Rica and Messrs. M. Peralta and H. E. 
Bryant, whereby the latter parties shall organize a stock company 
with a capital of $100,000 gold, which may be increased to $500,000 
gold. The object of the company is the cultivation and manufacture 
of fibers. During the term of the contract the company must culti- 
vate 500,000 plants. One year after the approval of the contract by 
the legislative power, the concessionaires shall establish in the canton 
of Paraiso a complete plant for the manufacture of cordage, hats, tex- 
tiles, sacks, etc. The company shall manufacture in the country 
fiber, produced on its plantations and by private persons and shall sell 
all its products in the country, being permitted to export only the 
excess production. The Government guarantees to the concession- 
air(\s an annual earning of 6 per cent on the capital of $100,000. The 
concessionaires shall make a deposit of S5,000 to guarantee the ful- 
fillment of the conditions of the contract. 



According to the census taken in 1007, the report of which was sub- 
mitted in Decentber to the Provisional CJovernor of Cuba by the Direc- 
tor-General of the Census, the population of the llepublic is 2,028,282, 
wliich is thus distrilmted among the difTerent provinces, the figures of 
the census taken in 1S09 being also given by way of comparison: 

rrovlnco. 1S99. 

Piimr ilH Rio I 173,082 

llavaim 424,8n 

Matunzas 202, 462 

Santa Clara 356.537 

Caiiiapn'V K8.237 

Or;ont<' o27. 716 

Tot al 1 . o72, 845 


US. 524 
457. W 


CUBA. 71 


According to figures recently published by the Statistical Division 
of the Department of Finance of the Cuban Republic, the number of 
immigrants arriving in the ports of the island during the fiscal year 
1906-7 was 29,572, of which 23,831 were men and 5,741 women. The 
grand total is thus distributed among the diflferent nationalities: 

Spaniards 22, 178 | South Americans - 143 

British 2,044 j Mexicans 132 

Americans 1, 907 j Scandinavians 100 

Porto Ricans 707 j Greeks ; 81 

Other West Indians 953 j Austrians 36 

Syrians 294 Portuguese 26 

French 281 [ Oriental Indians 26 

Turks 264 Dutch 25 

lUlians 215 ! Others 86 

Arabians...: 182 | 

Comparing the total of 1906-7 with that of 1905-6 a decrease is 
observed against the former of 23,080, the number arriving in 1905-6 
being 52,652. 


According to figures published in '* The Lucha^^ of Havana for 
January 2, 1908, the customs receipts at the port of Havana for the 
year ending December 31, 1907, amounted to $20,005,048.12. For 
the preceding year total receipts of $18,511,296.07 are recorded. 


A recent decree of the Provisional Governor of Cuba appropriates . 
$350,000 for the sanitation service in the various municipalities of 
the Republic and for the taking of precautionary measures against 
yellow fever. 


The '^Gaceta OJiciaV^ for October 19, 1907, publishes a circular to 
the effect that customs duties shall be collected only on merchandise 
actually imported into and discharged in Cuba, and not on merchan- 
dise lost on the voyage or off lighters, even though such merchandise 
appear on the manifest or bill of lading. All circulars opposed to this 
ruling are withdrawn. 


Provisional Governor Charles E. Magoon on November 7, 1907, 
signed the following decree: 

" That the master of a vessel laden exclusively either with coal, 
salt, tfles or bricks of clay for building purposes, consigned to one 
24181— Bull. 1-08 6 


consignee, arriving at a port of Cuba ' for orders,' may be permitted to 
destine such cargo or detennine its disposition ' for orders,' upon enter- 
ing the vessel at the custom-house, and, \vithin fifteen days after- 
wards and before the unloading of any part of the cargo, to amend 
the manifest by designating the actual port of discharge of such 
cargo. In the event of failure to designate the port of discharge 
within fifteen days such cargo must be discharged at the port where 
the" vessel entered.'^ 


In reviewing the trade of Banes and Xipe, Cuba, for the fiscal year 
1907, United States Consular Agent George Bayliss, of Antilla, 
says in part: 

*^The total exports to the United States amounted to $4,885,212 
(which includes returned American goods worth $10,465), an increase 
of $2,913,257, or 150 per cent, over the fiscal j'ear 1906. Of the total 
amount, Banes exported articles valued at $2,047,805 and Nipe 
$2,837,406 worth. The increase in commerce was mainly due to the 
opening of Nipe as a port of entry August 1, 1906. 

"There has been a slight increase over the previous fiscal year in the 
exportation of bananas, notwithstanding that the United Fruit Com- 
pany, at Banes, which was the largest exporter of bananas from Cuba, 
has ceased the culture of this particular fruit and has planted instead 
sugar cane, because of the latter being a more profitable crop. The 
banana industry slioidd extend itself in Cul)a, as the soil and climate 
are ])artuidarly adapted to the growing of this fruit. The cost of 
cultivating a caballena of land (33i acres), as given by the Cuban 
agricultural department, for five years is $4,894. The land should 
produce 37,000 bunches of bananas, worth on an average 31 cents per 
bunch, delivered at the steamer, which would nuike the gross sales 
amount to $11,470. 

*' Then> has l)een a large increase in the ex{)ortation of cedar logs and 
boards. The exi)orts of pineapples and citrus fruits have also largely 
increased. The only export-; to countries other than the United 
States were a few cargoes of cedar to Ciermany and 2,129,568 gallons 
of crude molasses, valued at $49,988, to the Netherlands. 

"The articles of export to the I'nited States from Banes and Xipe 
during the fiscal year 1907 were as follows: 

Artich's. Valno. ArticIcK. , Value. 

IJnimnas $•««, SSI Orunpps ' t?.335 

hottnls. ctHlar .'•♦», .'lOJ riiit'app|i'> I7.0n 

Uanl w«mk1s t».->«.« Supar S.73Z.3tfl 

Hhl*^ ♦i.4T«» <Mhrr ariidi'- 273^297 

Mrtln>piiiv 21.M71 • 

MoI:issw* ■ 27J.'j:i.> Tul:tl ' 4.88\2U 


''The total imports into Banes and Nipe during the fiscal year 1907 
amounted to $1,932,901, of which the United States furnished 
articles worth $1,821,439; the United Kingdom, $105,169; Germany, 
$6,025; and other countries, $268/' 



President Alfaro on October 31, 1907, issued a decree providing 
for the celebration of a National Exposition, on a large scale, at Quito 
to begin on August 10, 1909. This date is the centennial anniversary 
of the rising for independence in South America, called in the Spanisli 
** El Griio de Independencia,'* (The Cry for Independence) of August 
10, 1809. The exposition is to be commemorative of the event. 

The decree provides for the building upon public land, convenient 
to the cajMtal city, one large pubUc building, or national pavilion, 
together with a number of smaller buildings suitable for the exposi- 
tion. The municipal council of the city of Quito will provide for a 
magnificent parkway leading to the exposition grounds. The pre- 
paratory work of organization and installation will be under the 
direction of a central committee in Quito composed of 30 citizens 
chosen for this purpose by the Government, which committee will 
elect from among themselves a board of directors. In addition, 
each of the provinces of the Republic, through the Government itself, 
will constitute a local committee to be subordinate to the central 

The object of the exposition, aside from the commemorative and 
historical features thereof, is to provide an exhibition of the prod- 
ucts, commerce, industry, arts, and finance of Ecuador. There is to 
be estabUshed a special section illustrating the school system of 

Perhaps the most important section of the exposition will be the 
flection devoted to forestry and forest productions. In this \vill be 
diown the native woods of Ecuador, particularly the several species 
of the rubber tree, the method of extracting rubber, and its prepara- 
tion for the market. Cultivation of the rubber trees, to which par- 
ticular attention has been paid in Ecuador, will be fully illustrated. 
Exhibits will be made of the dyewoods and barks of trees and other 
plants having agricultural properties and of the trees suitable for 

There will be exhibits illustrating the ordinary branches of agricul- 
ture, such as grain raising, the cultivation of textile fiber plants and 
fruits, Uie manufacture of sugar and spirits, and the making of wine. 


Puerto Barrios, the distance to the former being 74.5 miles, made in 
five hours, and to the latter 104.5, being run over in twelve hours. 

*'The voyage from Guatemala to the Ignited States from Atlantic 
ports occupies four days and to Europe fifteen days. The Pacific 
coast of the Republic measures 250 kilometers and the Atlantic IGl 
kilometers. San Jose, Champerico, and Ocos are the Pacific ports 
and Puerto Barrios, Santa Tomas, and Livingston those of the Atlan- 
tic. Panzos, on the Rio Polochic, and Gualan, on the Rio Motagua, 
are river ports, while Izabel, on a lake of the same name, is also a 
place of importance.'* 


The opening of the Guatemala Northern Railway (A7 Ferrocaml 
del Norte), running from Puerto Barrios on the Atlantic to San Jos6 
on the Pacific, was formally accomplished on January 19, 1008, on 
which date the first train over the line entered Guatemala City from 
the Atlantic. 

The completion of this enterprise, whicli was undertaken in 1892, 
marks an era not only in the development of Guatemala, but also in 
the adjacent countries of Central America, while the port of New 
Orleans, in the Tiiited States, will be brouirht in close touch with the 
commerce of the western coast of Nicaragua and Salvador, saving 
eight days* sea voyage via Colon. 

A new fortnightly service between New York and Puerto Barrios 
has also been inaugurated on the part of the Tnited Fniit Company, 
in consecjuence of the opening of the road from ocean to ocean, the 
voyage recpiiring from eight to nine days, and wireless connection has 
been establislu^d with Port l^inion. the center of distribution f<»r Cen- 
tral American statioiTs. 

For many years the coflVc crop of (iuatemala has been handled by 
the (luatenialaii Ceiitral road, heading from Guatemala City to San 
Jose d(»l (luateniala. the port of entry on the Pacific side, and thence 
transfern»(l to Pacific Mail Liiu* ships. These shipments liave gone 
either to San Francisco for distribution, or else down to Panama and 
across the* Isthmus, Kngland iuu\ G<»nnany being the principal 

The total length of the line from ocean to ocean is 209 miles, and it 
was owing to didiculties in the construction of the last GO miles of the_ 
195 between Guatemala City and the Atlantic that the eomplntio 
been so long delayed. Remarkable feats of engineeriiig have 
come the topographical conditions, tunnels and bridges ftinnir 
n between comparatively short stretches ol 
In I, seventy bridges have been built, the tiirj| 
art distance from (luatemala City, one of 
ravine, 244 feet ilecp. 


''Foreign trade is developing and it is anticipated that the opening 
of the inter-oceanic railway route from San Jos6 on the Pacific to 
Puerto Barrios on the Atlantic, a distance of 269 miles, will greatly 
facilitate the transport of native products to the seaboard. 

*'The railways in present exploitation are the Central, the Western, 
Ocos, Verapaz, and Guatemala lines, and the opening of the Northern 
is scheduled for the month of December, 1907. 

*'The productions of Guatemala are abundant and varied to an 
extraordinary extent. In the vegetable kingdoip are seen all kinds 
of plants, flowers, and fruits belonging to the torrid and temperate 
zones. There are in the country rich mines of gold, silver, copper, 
iron, lead, zinc, antimony, coal, marble, sulphur, mica, etc. 

*' Agriculture, however, constitutes the principal source of wealth, 
and to its exploitation are devoted the greater part of the invested 
capital. Owing to the extraordinary richness of the soil fertilizers 
are not required and irrigation is rendered unnecessary by the 
abundant moisture even in th?so-called dry season. 

/' In certain of the coast regions two or three crops can be obtained 
annually of the local products. Large plantations of coffee, sugar 
cane, cocoa, bananas, cereals, etc., are found, while in the northern 
departments many national and foreign companies are engaged in 
the exploitation of the forest products, comprising • an abundance of 
fine woods, principally mahogany and cedar. Rubber planting is 
also being carried on with satisfactory results. 

*' Manufactures have attained a noticeable degree of excellence in 
various articles. Certain woolen and cotton textiles, furniture, and 
footwear of native manufacture equal in quahty the imported varie- 
ties. Other items of local production are hats, saddles, fiber articles, 
textures of rushes, earthenware articles, pieces of sculpture, musical 
instruments, soap, candles, cigars, cigarettes, cheese, butter, beer, 
mineral waters, ice, brandy, etc. Native workmen display much 
aptitude' in learning new crafts and raw materials are varied and 

**The area of the Republic is 125,000 square kilometers, and the 
population numbers 2,000,000 inhabitants, the density being 16 per 
square kilometer. 

"The physical aspect of Guatemala is mountainous but well watered. 
TTie climate varies according to height above sea level; on the coasts 
it is hot, on the central plateaus temperate and agreeable, while on 
the heights it is cold. The so-called rainy and dry seasons are marked 
by the fact that during the former it rains every day, while during 
the latter occasional rains are usual. 

*'The most populous Sections are the south and the west, Guate- 
mala, the capital, containing 100,000 inhabitants. The capital is 
connected by railt3rith the Pacific and Atlantic ports of San Jos6 and 


Puerto Barrios, the distance to the former being 74.5 miles, made in 
five hours, and to the latter 194.5, being run over in twelve hours. 

^^The voyage from Guatemala to the United States from Atlantic 
ports occupies four days and to Europe fifteen days. The Pacific 
coast of the Republic measures 250 kilometers and the Atlantic IGl 
kilometers. wSan Jose, Champerico, and Ocos are the Pacific ports 
and Puerto Barrios, Santa Tomas, antl Livingston those of the Atlan- 
tic. Panzos, on the Rio Polochic, and Gualan, on the Rio Motagua, 
are river ports, while Izabel, on a lake of the same name, is also a 
place of importance.*' 


The opening of the Guatemala Northern Railway {El Ferrocarril 
del Norte) y running from Puerto Barrios on the Atlantic to San Jos6 
on the Pacific, was formally acccmiphshed on January- 19, 1908, on 
which date the first train over the line entered Guatemala City from 
the Atlantic. 

The completion of this enterprise, which was undertaken in 1892, 
marks an erajiot only in the development of Guatemala, but also in 
the adjacent countries of Central America, while the port of New 
Orleans, in the Ignited States, will be brouii:ht in close touch with the 
commerce of the western coast of Nicarajrua and Salvador, saving 
eight days' sea voyage via Colon. 

A new fortnightly service between New York and Puerto Barrios 
has also been inaugurated on the part of the Ignited Fruit Company, 
in consecpience of the oj)ening of the road from ocean to ocean, the 
voyage requiring from eight to nine days, and wireless connection has 
been established with Port Linion, tlie center of distribution for Cen- 
tral American stations. 

For many years the coffee crop of Guatemala has been handled by 
the (luatemalan Central road, leading from Guatemala City to San 
Jose del Guatemala, the port of entry on the Pacific side, and thence 
transferred to Pacific Mail Line ships. These shipments liave gone 
either to San FVancisco for distribution, or els<» down to Panama and 
across the Isthmus. England and Germany l)eing the principal 

The total length of the line from wean to ocean is 209 miles, and it 
was owing to difJiculties in the constniction of the last GO miles of the 
19") between Guatemala City and the Atlantic that the completion 
has been so long delayed. Remarkable feats of engineering have 
overcome the topographical conditions, tunnels and bridges forming 
connection between comparatively short stretches of straight track- 
age. In all, seventy bridges have been built, the two most important 
being a short distance from Guatemala City, one of which cnisses the 
Las Vacas ravine, 244 feet deep. 

HAITI. 77 

The company under wliose auspices the road was finished is headed 
by Sir William Van Horxe and Mr. Mixor C. Keith, and the enthu- 
siastic support of President Cabrera has aided tlie enterprise in every 

The Guatemala Northern constitutes the third interoceanic railroad 
line across the countries of Latin America, and while it is not antici- 
pated that traflGic will be diverted from either the Tehuantepec or 
Panama lines, the influence upon the interior trade of Central America 
will, it is calculated, be enormous. 



A Chamber of Commerce has recently been established at Port au 
Prince, Haiti, to further the commercial, agricultural, industrial, and 
maritime interests of the countrj\ It is organized under the patron- 
age of the Haitian Government by a presidential decree dated Novem- 
ber 30, 1907, declaring it to be of public utility. The President of 
Haiti is honorary President of the Chamber and the Secretary of 
State and Commerce. honorary vice-president. 

The object of the Chamber of Commerce is to collect all informa- 
tion useful to commercial, industrial, agricultural, and maritime in- 
terests and to hold the same at the disposition of the interested par- 
ties; to suggest measures tending to maintain, increase, and extend 
the conmiercial, industrial, and agricultural relations of Haiti with 
foreign countries; to improve the condition of commerce, industry', 
and agriculture of the country by legislative or administrative meas- 
ures relating to customs tari|fs, commercial and maritime treaties, 
and to aid in every possible way the development of business relations 
of merchants, manufacturers, and farmers established at Port au 
Prince not only with foreign countries but with the commercial centers 
and interior of Haiti. The Chamber of Commerce will also urge the 
establishment at Port au Prince and in the principal cities of the coun- 
try of a permanent exposition of the products of the soil and of the 
industry of the country as well as of the principal articles imported 
from abroad; of a similar exposition of Haitian products in the Hai- 
tian consulates and commercial, industrial, and agricultural museums 

Besides the appropriation by the Government of $1,800 American 
gold, the expenses of the organization will be defrayed by an annual 
membership fee of $5 American gold. 




By decree of September 14, 1893, an export duty of 2 cenUwoB a 
bunch on bananas exported from the northern ports of Honduras 
was established. One of the objects of this tax was to provide funds 
for the construction of suitable wharves at these shipping points, as 
the necessity for wharves at which vessels may load and unload is 
very great. Most of the loading and unloading is done from lighters, 
and as a consequence freight, and bananas in particular, are much 
damaged by bruising and by salt water. 

Abuses in the handling of the funds derived from the export tax 
and the inadequacy of the tax itself was the occasion for the issue 
by Sefior Don Miguel R. Davila, Provisional President of the 
Republic, on September 14, 1907, of the following decree: 

*' Article 1. The 2 centavos tax on each bunch of bananas ex- 
ported established by article 1 of decree No. 30 of the 14th of Sep- 
tember, 1893, is raised to 3 centavos. 

'*Art. 2. The funds available at the treasuries of the different 
municipalities derived from said tax shall be deposited in the safe 
"of the respective custom-houses. 

'*Art. 3. Tlie custom-house collectors shall in future receive the 
total aggregate derived from said tax, opening a special account to 
that end, the surplus of which shall be applied, as far as may be neces- 
sary, to the local expenses of primary education, and the payment 
shall be made in accordance witli the budgets and pay rolls furnished 
by the municipalities with the approval of the governors and the 
remainder of the product of the tax shall be accumulated ta be ap- 
plied to the construction of the aforesaid wharves. 

''Art. 4. The present law shall become effective on November 
1st next, and the Department of the Treasury is hereby authorized 
to issue the necessary provisions for the compliance thereof, and the 
aforesaid decree Xo. 30 of September 14, 1893, is hereby repealed." 



According to figures published by the statistical division of the 
Department of Finance and Public Credit of Mexico, the total value 
of imports during the three months (July to wSeptember, 1907) was 
60,007,390.43 y>» ($30,400,000), as compared with 50,091,967.58 
peso.'i (825,000,000) in the same months of the previous fiscal year, 
an increase of 1 0,815,422. S5 pesos ($5,400,000). The exports were 
valued at 04,805,036.40 pesos ($32,000,000), showing an increase of 



11,037,235.66 pesos ($5,918,000) in comparison with 53,767,800.74 
pesos ($26,883,000) during the same period of 1906-7. This in- 
crease in exports is very notable, considering the fact that they had 
undergone an important decrease during the fiscal years of 1905-6 
and 1906-7. 

The value of merchandise imported during the month of Sep- 
tember, 1907, was 20,906,073.05 pesos ($10,453,000), as against 
18,355,371.25 pesos ($9,000,000) in the same month of 1906, an 
increase of 2,550,701.80 pesos ($1,275,000). The exports in Sep- 
tember, 1907, were valued at 20,128,669.42 pesos ($10,000,000), as 
compared with 16,343,614.52 pesos ($8,000,000), an increase of 
3,785,054.90 pesos ($1,392,000). 

In the following table are indicated the kinds of mercnandise 
received during the period in reference, the classification having been 
made in accordance with the import tariff in force, the figures for the 
corresponding period of 1906-7 being given for purposes of comparison : 

(Silver valuation.] 


Animml BubRtftnces: , . .. 

V49eUkl)k! iiMbEitance« 

Mineral aubiitartces. ....... 

Dry ffaodi ,,,.,.„. . -* 

Cbcmkift] flubHtiLnfCs, 

1}rv«r*se» , . . , 

Paper and itj appllcalionfl 
Madkinerv and apparatus. 


Armi and e^loiives.,^.,. 
MiHKlIiUbeoiii...... ,., 

Total mi|H>Ttii.. 

Ffrst qtuLiler ot Qseal year— 






20. 752. 353, SO 

7, 47:1, 2R4 e«S 

1, 731, 075. M 
1,547, 25^.53 


1,079, £83.84 

tiO, 907. 300.43 


i, 742.607. 71 
94a. 147. 34 


In accordance with the official export classification the articles of 
merchandise shipped to foreign countries during the periods in refer- 
ence were as follows : 

[Silver valuation.] 


U i neral oroduct s : 




Other mineral products 
Ve^Btabte products: 



Freeh DroiU 


Giber prodoeu — 

First quarter of fiscal year- 
1907-8. 1 1000-7. 

042, 867. 94 

073, 335. 75 
003, 820. 80 








EXPORTS— Continued. 



Animal products 

Manufucture<l products 

Total exportation: 

Precious metals 

Other artieles 

Grand totul 

First quarter of fiscal year— 


729, 474. 47 







Following is a resume of the valuations of Mexican imports during 
the periods under comparison with reference to their countries of 
oririii : 

First quarter of fiscal yea 
1907-8. 1906-7. 


Europe 23, 296. 795. 35 

Asia ' 436,242.33 

Africa ! 25, 523. 73 

North America I 36, 699, 490. 35 

Central America. 
South America . 

West Indies 















Total 60.907.390.43 50,091.967.58 

The United States appear in the import Hst at the head of all coun- 
tries, the imports therefrom l>eing valued at 36,557,312.29 pesos 
($18,278,656.14), over half of the total value of imports. 

Germany heads the list of European countries with imports valued 
at 7,569,413.96 pesos ($3,784,000), followed by Great Britain, which 
country fonnerly occupied first place, with 6,528,114.99 pesos 
($3,264,000); France occupies the third place with 4,915,814.90 p^^wff 
($2,457,000), followed by Spain with 1,867,870.81 pesos ($933,935.40). 

The valuations of exports during the periods in reference, as re- 
gards the countries of destinatitm, were as follows: 


First quarter of fiscal year- 
1907 S. 1906-7. 

Kurope III. 290. 042. 27 

Asia .'iOO.OO 

North America 44. 47.'».372. 79 

Central America 22H. ia"».9?> 

South America lft,o:».;» 

West Indies 7rn,«U9.00 ' 






Total «i4.S().-,.aw.40 

53. TV 

MEXICO. » 81 

On the export list the United States appear also at the head, being 
credited with 44,402,475.79 pesos ($22,201,237.89) out of 64,805,030.40 
pesos ($32,402,518.20), the total value of exports. Of the European 
countries. Great Britain receives the greater number of exports, her 
share being 9,651,701.59 pesos ($4,820,000), followed by Germany, 
with 5,523,526.99 pesos ($2,761,000); France, with 1,807,648.50 p^sos 
($903,000); Belgium, with 1,175,541.19 pesos ($587,000), and Spain, 
with 1,109,074 pesos ($554,000). 


On December 14, 1907, Licenciado Jose Yves Limantour, Minister 
of Finance of Mexico, in accordance with his annual custom, sent to 
the National Congress the Treasury statement for the fiscal year 
1906-7 and the budget statement embodying an estimate of revenue 
and expenditure for 1908-9, the values being in gold pesos ($0,498 
IJ. S. currency). 

The normal revenue estimate is placed at $103,385,000 and the 
total proposed expenditure at $103,203,824.63, leaving a revenue 
surplus of $181,175.37. 

In commenting on the economic and financial situation of the 
country Minister Limantour states that at the close of 1906 it was 
thought that the succeeding year would be unmarked by any varia- 
tion in the generally prosperous conditions prevailing throughout the 
Republic, which expectations have been confirmed by a material 
development and economic vitality indicative of continued growth 
and healthy vigor. 

Import duties and consular fees show a considerable increase, an 
advance of more than 16 per cent being noted as compared with the 
preceding year although the tariff rates have remained unchanged. 
The sale of common document stamps also reveals a marked increase 
in the volume of internal business transactions with the added circum- 
stance that during the coiurse of the fiscal year 1906-7 the schedule of 
the stamp revenue was modified in such manner as to reduce con- 
siderably the rates payable on the greater part of the operations thus 

In regard to the Federal contribution which is assessed on all taxes 
and all forms of revenue collected by state and municipal authorities 
a fair gain is also observable, thus proving a continued growth in tax 
collections. The demand for special stamps for the payment of the 
required taxes on mines, tobacco, alcoholic beverages, cotton textiles, 
and explosives also indicate a sustained expansion in the industries 

The earnings of the postal and telegraph Unes show considerable 
growth while in the Federal District activity in real estate deals and 


in commercial and industrial enterprises as a whole was greater than 
in previous years. 

In regard to the agricultural yield of the year it is stated that 
returns at hand make it impossible to forecast the probable avail- 
ability of the country's crops as applied to national needs. The 
importation of foreign com and wheat is one of the most decisive 
factors in determining the status of the local money market owing 
to the large remittances abroad necessitated by the condition. 

The production and exportation of precious metals, which with 
copper and lead constitute more than 95 per cent of the mineral out- 
put, is given as follows: Gold production, $36,563,898.24; gold expor- 
tation, $23,873,713.94; silver production, $77,088,827; silver expor- 
tation, $99,861,790.06. The gold output is thus sho^^^l to have 
remained practically stationary, while that of silver advanced by 
$1,483,221.73 over 1905-6. Copper and lead declined in the reported 
output owing to the closing down of some low-grade mines, while 
zinc, antimony, and various other mineral substances were mined 
on a larger scale. 

An analysis of the figiu*es of the foreign commerce of the country 
shows that imports figured for $233,363,388.85 in 1906-7 as com- 
pared with $220,004,755 in the i)receding fiscal year, showing a 
gain of $13,358,633.85. Free goods show a falling off of $11,000,000 
while dutiable articles scored a gain of more than $24,000,000. 

Increased imports are noted in animal substances, textiles and 
manufactures thereof, (»hemical and pharmaceutical products, and, 
in general, in all the tariff groups of imported merchandise. The 
groat(»st and most significant increase is shown, however, in mar 
chinery and ap|)aratus of all kinds, imports under this head advanc- 
ing from $20,410,722.73 to $27,735,743.65, a gain of 87,325,020.92. 
Owing to the heavy importation of freight cars and automobiles the 
classification of vehicles ranks next among imi)orts slu»wing a marked 
advance, the figures for the two years l)eing $9,000,308.49 and 
S4,595,157.5S, respt^ctively. The decline of $7, S71, 480.15 noted in 
regard to imports of mineral substances is largc^ly explainable by the 
fact that in 1905-6 large quantities of Mexican coins were minted in 
the United States, and though the record for such transactions in 
liK)6-7 amounted to $23,000,000 it was much less than that noted 
for the preceding year. 

Export figures show a total of $248,()1S,()1() as compared with 
$271,13S,S09.32 in 1905-6. This seeming decline in export values is 
explained by Minister Limantour as follows: 

** In last year's budget bill it was stated that, on the assumption 
tlmt S39,0()(),()()() in gold imported in 1905-6 gave rise to an artificial 
exo(Kis of silver jksos to an e<|uivalent amount, the total value of 
exiK)rts, making allowance for this fact, was not $271,000,000, but 


$232,000,000. Admitting the soundness of this reasoning in the 
absence of more precise data, it may be held that, inasmuch as the 
total exports for 1906-7, viz, $248,000,000, included no less than 
13,000,000 silver pesos sent abroad in exchange for Mexican and for- 
eign gold coins which in turn figure on the side of imports, the amount 
in question must be deducted from the exports, so that the latter may 
be regarded as having amounted to $235,000,000. Bearing these 
explanations in mind it is perceived that the exports of native goods in 
1906-7 were a little in excess ($3,000,000) of the exports of 1905-6. 
These latter were far superior to the showing of any preceding years/' 

Other than gold and silver, the exports of metals for the year show 
the following figures: Copper, $28,800,000; lead, $3,644,739; others 
(including zinc and antimony), $4,072,982. 

Vegetable products exported comprised henequen, $31,440,246; 
ixtle, $3,813,176; coffee, $7,237,529; leaf tobacco, $1,894,830; chick 
pease, $4,084,521; chewing gum, $2,144,724; cabinet woods, $2,169,'- 
778; dyewoods, $739,810; rubber, including guayule, $6,678,926; 
guayule plants, $61,225. 

Foremost among the vegetable products of which the exportation 
has increased are: Rubber, including guayule, whose shipment began 
five years ago and which now exceeds $6,500,600 per year; chick 
pease, whose export has increased threefold in the same period; 
ixtle, which advanced from $3,000,000 to $3,800,000, and chicle, or 
chewing gum, of which the gain has been 50 per cent. Henequen 
remains at approximately $30,000,000 and the quantity shipped 
fluctuates between 82,000 tons and 110,000 tons, which was the figure 
reached in 1906-7. The year was not favorable to coffee, which shows 
a decline in exportation value of $2,000,000. 

The value of animal products shipped abroad was $11,151,928, 
showing a decline of $571,497 as compared with the preceding year. 
The chief items were cattle, $1 ,201 ,693, and untanned hides, $8,875,09 1 . 
The decline noted in cattle exports was owing to the closing of Cuban 
markets to Mexican animals and the increasing demand at home for 
live stock. Untanned hides constitute a line of exports that is gain- 
ing in importance yearly. 

Other items of export consist of refined sugar, $1,164,339; coarse 
sugar, $26,612; cotton-seed meal and cakes, $846,280; palmetto hats, 
$631,219; tanned hides and skins, $34,883, and manufactured tobacco 

The sugar industry is becoming of increasing importance in spite of 
the fluctuations observable in exports of that article. Improved 
methods of manufacture have been introduced and the local demand 
has increased on account of the cheapening of the product. The 
tobacco industry is stUl subject to* numerous vicissitudes, showing 
that the difficulties arising from Cuban competition have not yet been 


From the fore«]:oing statement Minister Limantour sums up the 
foreign trade balance as follows: Total imports in 1906-7, $233,363,- 
388; total exports, $248,018,010; excess of imports, $14,654,622. 

There is a great difference between this excess and that shown by 
the returns for the year 1905-6, which was $51,134,054, and also, 
though on a lesser scale, between said excess and that noted for 
1904-5, which was $30,315,489. 

Commenting thereon Minister Limantour states: 

*^ Extended explanations have been given in other years in regard 
to those factors which, while affecting the value of imports and ex- 
ports, do not and can not figure in the fiscal statistics which onh- 
record the natural and manufactured products and the quantities in 
specie that arrive and depart. It has also been explained that the 
Mexican nation has to make very heavy payments abroad every year 
in the shape of interest on capital invested in the country and of 
profits on business enterprises whose owners reside in foreign parts, 
and to such payments have to be added those which are made strictlj' 
in settlement for articles imported. There can not be the smallest 
doubt that last year's excess of exports, amounting to over $14,000,000, 
was totally insuHicicnt to meet this indebtedness. Not even the 
excess in 1905-6, amounting to $51,000,000, suiliced for the object in 
question. In order to understand this aflirmation it is necessary- to 
remember that all the bonds of our public debt, with the exception of 
a relatively small proportion, are held abroad and that the service of 
that debt calls for payments of no less than $24,000,000 in a year; 
that, in addition to the debt of \ho Federal Government, some of the 
States and municipalities owe debts of which the bonds are chiefly 
held abroad and of which the annual serv^icc amounts to not less than 
$1,0()(),()0(); that the railroad companies have to remit abroad more 
than 825,0()(),()()() a year in payment of interest on their securities, 
and that the banks distribute annually millions of pesos in dividends 
outside of the Kepublic. All these items, plus interest and profits 
distributed by private concerns, amount in the aggregate to a sum 
far in excess of the dillerence in favor of exports in our international 
trade balance, and hence the conclusion has been reached that the 
balance between d(»l)it and credit, considering as such. resi>ectively, 
the remittances of funds, drafts, securities, and merchandise which we 
have to sc^nd annually abroad and which we are entitled in turn to 
receive from outsi<le, is made good year afttT year by the natural and 
s|)ontaneous investment in J^lexico of foreign capital.^* 

T\\o status of the various railways in operatitm throughout the 
Kepublic is shown to be satisfactory, increased percentages being 
noted in all branches of tradic. The figures for the year show passen- 
gers carried, 10,187,121, an increase of 10.7 per cent; earnings from 
passenger trafiic, $15,942,770, an increase of 30.7 per cent; tons of 


freight transported, 9,538,354, an increase of 6.4 per cent; earnings 
from freight transported, $53,529,981, an increase of 9.3 per cent. 

The passenger increase was largest on the Mexican Central and 
the gain in freight traffic on the National and Mexican Central lines 
would have been greater had they possessed the adequate supply of 
rolling stock. The falling off in the tonnage returns of Tehuantepec 
National Railway, as compared with the freight transported in 1905-6, 
is explainable by the cessation of the carriage of materials for the port 
works at Salina Cruz and Coatzacoalcos. Tliis is offset, however, by 
the increase in the rates of traflic across the Isthmus, so that a sub- 
stantial gain in the earnings is reported. 

The assets and liabilities of the banks of the country balanced on 
June 30, 1907, at $723,763,584.96, as againsf $628,881,834.84 on the 
same date of the preceding year. The subscribed capital increased 
from $146,600,000 on June 30, 1906, to $162,600,000 a year later, 
showing an increase of $16,000,000. The holdings of cash dimin- 
ished by $3,583,652.51, which was undoubtedly occasioned b}^ the 
withdrawal of pesos for shipment abroad to the amount of $13,000,000. 

The foreign debt of the country was reduced in the last fiscal year 
by $4,289,293.94, but the interior debt was increased by the issue of 5 
per cent bonds to the amount of $2,107,200 paid as subsidy to the 
Kansas City, Mexico. and Orient, Merida and Valladolid, and Pan- 
American railways. 

The monetary situation of the country" has improved considerably 
since last xesLr. The scarcity of subsidiaiy coins which then pre- 
vailed has altogether disappeared and the circulation of gold is much 
more abundant. This is in part nullified by the exportation of silver 
pesos, which was due in 1906-7 as in 1905-6 to the rise in the price 
of bar silver as compared ^-ith the gold value of the silver contained 
in the peso. 

The total mintage of coins from the time of the installation of the 
monetary reform on May 5, 1905, up to June 30, 1907, was $95,561,- 
570.70. Deducting from this amount the $75,416,231 in silver 
pesos export^ and the $14,456,923.17 represent hig old pieces re- 
coined, it is shown that increase in circulation of coin up to June 30, 
1907, was $5,688,416.53. By the end of NoA^ember, 1907, the 
increase had risen to more than $11,000,000. 

The exchange and currency commission has discharged the fimc- 
tions of its office with marked ability and has succeeded in two years 
in replacing almost all the old currency with coins stnick in accord- 
ance i^nth the monetary law of 1905. It has distributed the new 
coins all over the national territory, meeting the numerous difficulties 
which the scarcity or abundance of the circulating medium has occa- 
sioned in each locality; it has attracted gold to the Republic in con- 
siderable quantities, retaining within the countr}- a large proportion 


of tlie native product, and has materially contributed toward steady- 
ing the rate of exchange with foreign nations. 

During tlie eariy months of 1907 the value of real estate and the 
quotations of industrial, mining, and commercial securities continued 
to rise, and a comparison with similar quotations with those of 1906 
would, in general, show satisfactory results. By the middle of the 
year, however, the stringency in foreign money markets began to 
aflFect the Mexican situation and capital became more and more 
reluctant to engage in ilexican undertakings. The fiscal year 1908-0 
will suffer from this anomolous and uneasy condition, but the Mexican 
Republic continues to indicate strength and vitality in its public 
resources which place it on a satisfactory plane among the nations of 
the world. 

In the budget estimate of revenues for the fiscal year 1908-9 taxes 
on foreign commerce are placed at $49,600,000; internal taxes at 
$32,055,000; special taxes in the Federal District and territories, 
$10,930,000; public services, $0,405,000; revenue from national lands, 
$265,000, and profits and minor sources, $4,130,000. 


According to statistics recently published by the General Bureau 
of Posts of the Mexican Republic the revenues derived from the postal 
serv^ice during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1907, amounted to 
4,031,124.86 pesos ($2,015,562.43), as compared with 3,653,315.87 
pesos ($1,826,657.03) in 1905-6, an increase of 377,808.99 pesos 
($188,904.49), or 10.34 per cent. 


The postal revenues collected in the Mexican Republic during the 
first ({uarter of the (iscal year 1907-8 (from July to September, 1907) 
amounted to 1,043,065.88 pesos (§521,532.94), as compared with 
930,837.20 pesos (.?469,918.6()), an increase of 103,228.68 pesos 
($51,614.34), or 10.98 per cent. 


Duriuj^ the first three months of the iiscal year 1907-8 there were 
exported from the port of Pro^reso, Yucatan, 25,937,342 kilograms 
of hene(|uen, vaUuMl at 6,323,765 pisos (S3.161.S82.50). During the 
same quarter the value* of national nierchandisi^ im{>orted through 
sai<l port was 3,727,500 pesos (§1,863,750), while the imports of foreign 
merchandise amounted to 2,320,773 pesos (SI, 160, 386.50). 


The Lsthmian defense commi.^sion charj^ed with a study of the 

Mexi<*an ports of Salina Cruz and C'oatzacoalcos, the Atlantic and 

'fie termini of the Tehuantep<»c Railwaj', has concluded its study 


of conditions at Salina Cruz and will follow up its investigation at 
Coatzocoalcos in the near future. It is estimated that the defense 
works recommended ^nll entail an outlay of $20,000,000 Mexican. 
Two years must elapse before the preliminary reports and investiga- 
tions will be completed and the actual constructive work begun. 

Plans for constructing at Salina Cruz what shall be the largest dry 
dock in the world are being prepared by the Mexican Government, 
and Coatzacoalcos has been converted into a first-class deep-water 
harbor. It is the intention to equip these ports for the adequate 
handling of the enormous traffic induced by the opening of the Tehuan- 
tepec Une. A considerable part of this traffic comes from Hawaii, 
^gar being shipped to New York over this route in large quantities. 

The new line of steamers which a Chinese company has put on 
between China and Salina Cruz is expected to greatly develop this 
trade route. A large immigration station for Chinese is being built. 

Most modern sanitary methods are adopted for the benefit of the 
ports, and pure drinking water is conveyed to SaUna Cruz in pipes 
from a point 8 miles distant. 


The usual monthly circular issued by the Department of Finance 
of the Mexican Republic announces that the legal price per kilogram 
of pure silver during the month of January, 1908, is $37.21 Mexican 
currency, according to calculations provided in the decree of March 
25, 1905. This price will be the basis for the payment of the stamp 
tax and customs duties when silver is used throughout the Republic. 


The President of the Mexican Republic promulgated on December 
21, 1907, a law of the National Congress amending paragraph 125 of 
the customs tariff in force go as to increase the import duties on com- 
mon rock candy, and refined sugar of all kinds from 2.50 pesos 
($1.25) per 100 kilograms, gross weight, to 5.00 pesos ($2.50) per 100 
kilograms, gross weight. Said law will become effective at midnight, 
February 15, 1908. 


A large turpentine factory has recently been put into operation in 
the neighborhood of Morelia, State of Michoacan, according to the 
'^Mexican Herald'' of November 4, 1907, the intention of the pro- 
moters of the enterprise being to turn out sufficient quantities of the 
commodity to enable Mexico to be a factor in the turpentine market. 
The capacity of the factory is said to be 200,000 gallons annually. 
The conditions for the favorable outcome of the work are highly 
24181— Bun. 


favorable both by reason of the large tracts of pine that abound in 
the State of Michoacan and the approaching completion of such rail- 
road lines as will put the product of the factory on the market without 
loss of time or great expense. 


The erection and operation of a fully equipped plant for the manu- 
facture of hubs, spokes, rims, axles, and all kinds of wagon parts is to 
be undertaken in the State of Oaxaca by a United States company. 
The company has purchased 125,000 acres of land containing vast 
quantities of hard woods and will put up one of the most modem and 
complete plants in the Republic not only for the manufacture of 
vehicle parts but also will eventually manufacture furniture. Tlie 
mill and macliinery required for the enterprise has already been pur- 
chased, the mill plant to have a capacity of 100,000 feet of lumber 

The company desires to create a demand and market in Mexico for 
their entire outinit, but will ship and export considerable quantities 
to the United States and Europe, as their close proximity to Coatza- 
coalcos gives them great shipping advantages. 


The '^ South American Journal " for November 23, 1907, states 
that the plant for the Mexican oil industry which is being installed 
by Messrs. S. Pearson & Sons is to be put into operation. The be- 
ginnings of this industry date hack for several years, when experi- 
mental work was coninienced by drilling on the Isthmus of Tehuan- 
tepec, and properties have since been opened up in Tabasco and Vera- 
cruz, (iovernment concessions are held by the firm mentioned in 
the States of Veracruz, Tabasco. Chiapas, and Campeche, as well as 
in San Luis Potosi and in Taniaulipas. Over (his extensive ai'ea, 
which represents about 1,000,000 acres, mnnerous indications of oil 
have been found, and as the result of this Mic<'essful exjdoratory work 
it was chHi(le<l to erect a large refinery at Minatitlan, conveniently 
situated on the river Coatzacoaleo^ *J0 nlile^ above Puerto Mexico 
(Coatzacnalco^), the terminal p(U'l of the Tehuantepec Railway on 
the Athiiitie >i.]e. 

1'his ix^tinery and the works connected with it are rapidly nearing 
completion and it is expected that it will be in active oi>eration 
early in lt)oS. I'he invnii-e^. which cover an area of about half 
a stjuaiv iiiile. are <lesigned to treat from ^00 to 700 tons of oil |>er 
day. and both in construction and erjuipment have been designed on 
the most uHxItM-n lines. From the refinery a main pipe line some 15 
miles lon;r extend- in>o the oil {vA\]<. jiu<l from the terminus of the 
main line branch lines of pipe diverge to the three fields from which 


at t\\e outset the supplies of raw material will be drawn. The neces- 
sary power and pumping plant has now been installed and test runs 

The storage tanks inehide two large tanks each of (»,000 tons capac- 
ity and a main storage tank in connection with the refinery itself 
with a capacity of 100,000 tons. 

The location of the refinery at Minatitlan places it not only within 
a short distance of the sources of supply, but in an admirable situa- 
tion to meet the requirements of transport. Ships of 0.000 to 7.000 
ions capacity will be able to lie alongside the refinery, and already a 
steamer of 3,000 tons capacity has been built by Messrs. Pearson & 
Sons for the oil traffic. 

The oil from these fields has a paraffin base, and is stated to pr<^- 
duce very satisfactory percentages of motor spirit, benzine, and illu- 
minating and lubricating oils. Mexican railway engineers are about 
to emplo}' oil fuel on a large scale. The older lines, such as the Mexi- 
can and the Mexican Central, already have satisfactory experience 
with liquid fuel, and all the locomotives of the new Isthmian Rail- 
way have been designed for the employment of oil fuel. Some ex- 
{)erimental employment of Mexican oil has Ix^n made, but for all 
practical purposes the railway companies have had to rely upon 
jmported Texas oil, the use of which is accompanied by a high import 

The Mexican Oil Company {Compaflla Mexicana de Fetroleo) has 
at present under exploitation five wells, in all of which the oil rises 
to the surface; three of these wells are situated at the foot of the La 
Paz hill and two in the place called " La Laguna," their depth and 
capacity of daily production l)eing as follows: 


No. 4. of La Paz . 

No. f>. of La Pa« . 

No. 2. of La l.Acruna 

Xo. 3. of La I^gtina, known r» "Well of April 2n(I ' 
















Well Xo. 1 has been under exploitation for four years, and its pro- 
ducing capacity has not been diminished up to the present day. Well 
Xo. 3 has two concentric tubes in order that its boring^ may be con- 
tinued without interrupting its production: it is expected that this 
well will be able to produce 4,000 barrels daily when it has a gi*eater 

The company has at present two oil deposits, one with a capacity 
for 450,000 barrels and the other for 200,000 barrels. It has, besides, 
several steel tanks with a total capacity of 300,000 barrels. Another 


deposit, which will have a capacity for 1,000,000 barrels, is being 
excavated. Materials for the constriictiou of two steel tanks have 
already been received ; these tanks will have a capacity of 56,000 bar- 
rels each, and will be erected at the station of Ebano on the Central 

P^our thousand barrels of oil are delivered daily to the Central Rail- 
road Company, and in accordance with the contract entered into 
therewith, this amount will be increased to 7,000 barrels. This com- 
pany furnishes oil also to the navigation, packing, and electric light 
companies of Tampico, their average monthly consumption amount- 
ing to 1,500 barrels. 

During the first six months of 1007 the company shipped to Xew 
York and Europe 2,910 tons of asphalt and 1,04(5 tons to different 
points of the Republic. 

The company employs 100 skilled laborei*s and 800 workmen. 


[•'Diario oficial" 1 1 June 1, 1907.] 

Sole Article. During a period of one year computed from July 1 
next tlie decree dated June 2, 1906, prolonging the operation of decree 
dated May 30, 1905, shall continue to have effect. In virtue thereof 
foreign goods designated, to be in the future designated by the Execu- 
tive, imported through the custom-houses in the territorj' of Quintana- 
Roo for consumption in that district of the Republic, were to be 
exempt^Ml from the payment of import duty and port dues of every 



On December 1, 1907, the President of Nicaragua addressed an 
important message to the National Legislative Assembly in which the 
work of the Executive during the two preceding years was outlined. 

Special reference was made to the internecine troubles of the Inde- 
pendent States of CVntral America culminating in the Washington 
conference for the maintenance of peace. 

In regard to relations with the Ignited States, President Zelaya 
states that ' 'Ilis Excellency President TnEODORE Roosevelt has, in 
all recent Central American difficidties, graciously offered his friendly 
offices toward reconciliaticm. I can assure you that our relations 
with the Ignited States of America are sincere and cordial, for the 
small differences that have arisen in regard to some contracts ceded 
by my Government to the American citizens, Herbert Emert and 
Samuel Weil, will, I am very confident, be satisfactorily adjusted/' 


He also reports a satisfactory outcome of the mission of the Minister 
of Foreign Affairs, Senor Don J. D. Gamez, who visited the United 
States and Mexico as a personal and confidential agent for the purpose 
of discussing matters relating to Central America. 

The treaty of friendship, commerce, and navigation, as also the 
consular convention with the German Empire, have been prorouged 
for ten years. Treaties have been agreed upon with Great Britain 
covering the recognition of Nicaraguan sovereignty over the Mosquito 
Reservation and the annulment of the port privileges of San Juan del 

With Italy and Belgium treaties have been made of friendship, 
commerce, and navigation, covering also extradition and consular 

Important steps are being taken for the collection of statistics and 
the codification of commercial laws, while legislative reforms are 
urgently recommended by the Executive. 


According to a recent Presidential decree, from January 8, 1908, 
all consumers of matches in Nicaragua must purchase these articles 
from Government agents only. These oflBcials are empowered to 
take over such stocks (at cost price) as may be in the hands of 
merchants, and also from such individuals who, in the estimation of 
the official, may have a greater quantity than is deemed necessary for 
immediate use. The fact that these may have been in their pos- 
session one month or one year previous to that time, and regularly 
entered at customs and receipted for by proper officials, will not 
avail. All persons having such goods in their possession on January 
1, 1908, must notifj' the Government agent, or be liable to indictment 
as smugglers and punished as such. 

At various times the Government has decreed similar monopolies 
upon certain products, such as tobacco, alcohol, *' aguardiente '' (native 
rum), explosives, gunpowder, and shot, and the revenues have been 
collected by the Government for a time, but it has invariably resulted 
in being leased by individuals upon pajTnent of a specified sum or 
annuity during the life of the contract, and the prices of the com- 
modities have been excessively increased. Matches are not manu- 
factured in the Republic at the present time, but it is rumored that 
a factory will soon be erected for the purpose, with an up-to-date 
equipment. The supply now comes principally from Sweden and 
Germany, importations from the United States during the past year 
amounting only to about 20 per cent of the total consumption. 


On October 18, 1907, the President of the Republic of Nicaragua 
approved the charter of incorporation of the Atlantic Industrial Com- 
pany, formed for the purpose of exploiting the national rubber forests 
existing in the Department of Zelaya, the Districts of Prinsapolka 
and Rio Grande, and in the Bocay Mountain, which comprises the 
forests of Jinotega and Comarca, Cape Gracias a Dios, and a small 
part of the Department of Segovia. The company will also engage in 
other business relating to the extraction and exportation of rubber. 
Its capital is $300,000 and it is the transferee of the concession granted 
by the Government to Messrs. Guerrero and Moreira for the 
exploitation of said forests during ten years from September 10, 1905. 


[From the "Official Odzrtte" of Xoveniber 2(i. 1907.] 

Article 1. The State protects within its territorj' the exclusive 
ownership of such trade-marks as are authorized m conformity \^Tith 
this law. 

Art. 2. A trade-mark is a special sign applied to an agricultural 
or industrial article, or to a commercial article, to warn the public 
of its origin and to distmguish it from other products of the same kind. 

Art. 3. The designation of the sign wliich shall constitute a trade- 
mark shall be made by the producer of the article to which said 
trade-mark is to be applied, but the following shall not be used as 
trade-marks in the Republic: 

I. Generic names, simple geographic names, and the names of 
individuals or associations, unless the trade-mark contains, in addi- 
tion, other distinguishing characteristics serving to distinguish the 
article to wliich it is to be applied. 

II. All signs in conflict v.ith good morals or wliich may tend to 
ridicule ideas, persons, objects, or institutions, which, in the opinion 
of the Department of Fomento, are worthy of consideration by the 
people in gt*neral. 

III. The coat <»f arms, escutcheons, and national emblems. 

IV. The coat of arms, escutcheons, or emblems of natipns, st-ates, 
or foreign political corporations, without their respective consent. 

V. The names, signatures, and j)ictures of living persons, without 
their consent. 

VI. Trade-marks, identical or substantially identical to those 
already registered, whenever it is souj^ht by the former to protect 
[>roducts of the same kind as thos<» pr(»tected by the latter. 

Art. 4. The Government shall establish a special office for the 
registration of trado-niarks. In the nu*an\vhih' the General Office 
of Public Works shall fulfill these dulii's and the Chief of said office 
shall make said registration. 


Art. 5. Applications for registration shall be made on stamped 
paper of the sixth class and filed in the Department of Fomento, 
signed by the party in interest, or by his attorney, who shall have at 
least an authentic power of attorney, and said appUcation shall 
contain the following: 

(a) The name of the owner of the trade-mark, liis domicile and 

(6) The name and place of the manufactory or establishment in 
which the s^ticle to which said mark is to be applied is produced. 

(c) The designation and description of the articles or products 
sought to be distinguished by means of the trade-mark. 

(d) The description of the trade-mark, illustrated with a facsimile 
of the same reproduced in triplicate. 

(e) In case the trade-mark is indented or in relief, or should it rep- 
resent any other characteristics that can not be made known in a 
graphic manner, two identical copies shall be filed setting forth all the 
particulars and details. 

Art. 6. The fee for the registration of trade-marks is $25, renewable 
every ten years. Delay in the renewal does not forfeit the right to 
exclu^ve use of the trade-mark, but until said renewal is made the 
party in interest is not entitled to prosecute counterfeiters of the 
trade-mark and of the article protected thereby. 

Art. 7. After the application for the registration of a trade-mark 
has been filed the Department of Fomento shall request information 
of the chief of the registration oflSce. This officer shall examine the 
documents filed in order to satisfy himself as to whether the legal 
requisites have been complied with and shall make the proper report 
within three days. In case of a favorable report the Minister of 
Fomento shall give the order for registration after the respective fees 
have been p€tid. 

Art. 8. The registration of a trade-mark shall always be made 
without prejudice to third persons and under the exclusive respon- 
sibility of the applicant. 

Art. 9. After the registration the chief of the office shall issue, in 
favor of the party in interest, a certified copy of the registration, 
written on stamped paper of the first class, and said document shall 
constitute the title to the exclusive use of the trade-mark. 

Art. 10. Such questions as might arise concerning the right to 
the exclusive use of the trade-mark or concerning the priority of the 
registration thereof and of its identity with others already registered 
shall be decided by the common courts. 

Art. 11. Whenever there has been a controversy before the court 
the judgment rendered shall be inserted in the certificate of regis- 


Art. 12. 'Whenever the application for the trade-mark referred to 
in article 5 is filed the Department shall cause the same to be pub- 
lished in the official newspaper three times in succession. At the 
expiration of ninety days, if no opposition has been made, the Depart- 
ment shall decide to grant to the applicant the title of ownership of 
the trade-mark, which shall be written on a sheet of stamped paper 
of the first class. 

Art. 13. When there is opposition the Department shall direct 
the parties in interest to discuss their rights before the proper common 
court and shall only issue the title to the person whom the court 
declares to have the best right to it. 

Art. 14. Trade-marks shall not be transferred except with the 
establishment in which the articles to which they apply are produced. 
Therefore, the transfer of a trade-mark carries with it the right of 
industrial or commercial exploitation of the products protected 
thereby. The transfer is not subject to any special formality and 
shall be made in accordance with the common law, but it must be 
registered in the trade-mark office, since without this requisite it is 
not valid as against third parties. 

Art. 15. The registration of a trade-mark shall be void whenever 
made in violation of this law, as well as when the registered trade- 
mark has been previously registered by some one else, in which case 
it shall be judicially declared void at the request of the party in 

The decision of nullity shall be made known to the Department of 
Fomento by the judge or court who has taken cognizance of the same 
in the last hearing. 

Art. 16. The action requesting the nulhty of the registration of 
the trade-mark may be tried by any one who considers himself 
injured thereby, as well as by the Government attorney in c&se the 
public interest is involved. 

Art. 17. Controversies concerning nullity referred to in the fore- 
going article shall be decided by the common courts, and the judg- 
ments contained in said decision shall be registered in the respective 

Art. 18. The following shall be considered to have committed the 
offense referred to in article 319 of the penal code and shall be pun- 
ished by the penalties established therein: 

(a) Whoever applies to the articles or objects which he sells or 
manufactures any trade-mark already legally registered in favor of 
another person. 

(6) Whoever applies to the articles or objects which he sells or 
proiluces any trade-mark which is an imitation of one legally regis- 
tered in such a way that it might at first sight be taken for the lawful 

- . PANAMA. 95 

(c) Whoever applies to the aforesaid articles any trade-mark 
which, though legally registered, is made to appear as another by 
means of any addition, subtraction, or alteration. 

(d) Whoever puts on sale or circulates articles bearing the trade- 
marks referred to in the foregoing sections. 

Art. 19. Articles or objects that are the subject-matter of the 
offenses referred to in the foregoing article are subject to confiscation, 
but whenever the owner of a legally registered trade-mark is the 
accuser he shall be entitled to the adjudication in his favor of all the 
products found bearing the legal trade-mark, whether they are in the 
possession of the delinquent or in possession of a commission mer- 
chant ur consignee. 

Art. 20. The trade-marks shall be kept permanently in the regis- 
tration office as well as the books in which the corresponding details 
of the trade-marks are recorded, and both shall be examined by who- 
ever desires to do so during certain hours set apart to that end, and 
certified copies of the registration may be had at the expense of the 
applicant on payment of $1 for each certification issued in addition, 
to the expense of making the copy. 

Art. 21. The shape, color, statements, or designations, if they do 
not constitute by themselves the essential characteristics of the 
special commercial article of the industrial product, shall not be con- 
sidered as a trade-mark. 

Art. 22. The duration of the ownership of trade-marks is indefi- 
nite, but when the establishment, manufactory, or business in which 
said trade-mark is used has been closed or the production suspended 
for more than a year the trade-mark shall be considered abandoned. 

Art. 23. Drawings and industrial facsimiles are comprised in the 
provisions of this law. 

Art. 24. The provisions of the present law shall be applied when- 
ever they are not in conflict with international pacts on the matter, 
especially concerning trade-marks entered into during the Second 
International American Conference of January 27, 1002. 

Art. 25. This law shall become effective from the date of its publi- 
cation in the * ^Official Gazette.'^ 



United States Consul James C. Kellogg, of Colon, furnishes the 
following information concerning the trade of Bocas del Toro, Panama, 
for the fiscal year ended Jime 30, 1907: 

'*The value of the imports into the port of Bocas del Toro during 
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1907, amounted to $968;409; an increase 


of $197,535 over the corresponding period of 1906. The imports con- 
sisted of 232,269 packages of general merchandise, valued at $841,941, 
and 41 1,119 cubic feet of lumber, worth $126,468. The greatest por- 
tion of the imports came from the United States, and consisted chiefly 
of beer, bridge material, vegetables, cotton goods, clothing, coal, 
canned goods, confectionery, flour, furniture, lumber, machinery, 
shoes, etc. The imports from'Europe were ale, jewelry, laces, matches, 
perfimierv-, notions, stationery, etc., and from the West Indies cane 
sugar, rum, cigars, and cigarettes. 

**The exports from the port during the year amounted to $839,037, 
a decrease of $596,850 as compared with the fisc'al year 1906. The 
articles were: Bananas, valued at $803,126; cocoa, $1,666; sarsapa- 
rilla, $11,891; cocoanuts, $846; hides, $270; rubber, $6,908; shells, 
$13,460, and dried turtle meat, $870. With the exception of bananas, 
which went to the United States, the entire exports were shippe<l to 
Europe. In the coining year it is exi>ected that bananas will be 
shipped to Europe, and in order to meet the demands of the expected 
increase of commerce the Hamburg-American Line is building steam- 
ei^s to bo equipped with refrigerating apparatus, and these vesseb 
will l)e put into the trade to carr>" banana cargoes. 

^*The United States outranked all other countries in the trade with 
Bocas del Toro, notwithstanding the large numl>er of Europeans en- 
gaged in business there and who, to a certain extent, create a demand 
for European goods. The i)()pulation of Bocas del Toro is 4,954, of 
Avhich 2,272 are Europeans, 50 are Americans, and the remainder 
natives of Panama and the other Central American States. In the 
interior, on the ])anana farms, are thousands of Jamaicans and many 
Americans and other foreigners.*' 


["(hmtit OrrUil" N'n. 3.Vi. of September -1. lOOai-l 

Akticlk 1. A tax of 5i) centesimos of balboa shall be paid on every 
1,000 cocoanuts or fraction exported. 

Art. 2. This tax shall be paid by the shipper at the pay office of 
the locality from which the ship proceeded to sea. 

Akt. 3. The Executive shall lay down regulations for collection 
of the tax ini])ose(l by the present law. 

Akticlk 1. All persons clesiring to export inerchandLse to any 
lH»rt of the Republic shall present to the cousidar agent or the person 
acting in his stead, iu the i>lace where the shipment is to be made, 
an invoice in quadru)>licate wherein shall be stated: 

The name of the exporter, place of origin, the name of the person 
to whom the merchandise is sent, the name of the port to which it is 


sent, and the name of the vessel; the marks on the parcels, their 
respective numbers, a description of the merchandise, with the orig- 
inal prices, the total weight in kilograms, the number of bottles or 
half bottles contained in each case or barrel, if the merchandise con- 
sist of liquid substances, and the equivalent in liters. 

It is hereby prohibited to enter in the same invoice parcels with 
different destinations, or for different o>\Tkers or consignees, even 
though the point of destination were the same. 

Consular invoices made out without the requisites herein prescribed 
shall be subject to a fine equal to 5 per cent of the total value of the 

Art. 2. Import duties shall be collected as heretofore, in accord- 
ance with the laws in force: Provided, however , That from the publi- 
cation of the present decree no allowance or reduction shall be made 
for damages, breakages, leakages, or other injuries, whatever their 
nature: And provided further, That no attention shall be given to 
claims wherein the refund of duties paid is sought. 

Art. 3. Sparkling wines inferior to champagne shall pay a duty 
at the rate of 50 centavos per liter, and cider, kola-champagne, ginger 
beer, and other similar beverages 20 centavos per liter, the same as 
beer of any kind referred to in the tariff prescribed by law 88 of 1904. 

Art. 4. The collection of duties upon tobacco, cigars, and ciga- 
rettes shall be put into effect upon the goods as they are sold; that 
is to say, with the boxes or packages containing them, and excluding 
from the impost the larger boxes or packings which contain the 
former smaller ones. 



On December 2, 1907, the Paraguayan Congress met in extraor- 
<linary session to receive a project from the Government for the 
creation of a mixed bank to be called '* Banco de la Repuhlica'^ (Bank 
of the Republic). The main points in the project are: 

Period of continuance, fifty years; the syndicate to subscribe the 
first series of the capital of $4,000,000 gold; no other bank to be 
granted the same privileges; capital to be 820,000,000 gold, in 
series, the first to be of $6,000,000, of which the Government is to take 
$2,000,000 and the syndicate, $4,000,000; the privileges of the bank 
to be the issue of notes and bonds, to be intrusted with the Treasury 
operations, and to be the financial agent of the State; all public funds 
to be deposited ther^; to establish a mortgage sectiim with the 
right to issue cedulas: freedom from all taxation: the notes issued 
by the bank to be convertible at par, each dollar paper having a 


value of 10 cents gold; these notes to be received by the State and 
private individuals as gold up to $1,000; the bank to hold a gold 
reserve equivalent to a tliird of its note issue; to have the sole right 
to issue nickel coins and silver coins of $1 and $2; the €k>vemment 
to name three directors, and the shareholders six; 10 per cent of the 
profits to go to the reserve fund until this reaches 20 per cent of the 
capital; a conversion fund to be opened, to which 10 per cent of the 
profits are to go, as well as the product of the export tax on hides, 
and wliich is to be used solely for conversion of the actual paper 
currency; all old paper currency paid in for account of the conversion 
at the rate of 10 cents gold per dollar to be destroyed; the State to 
gradually increase the conversion fund in the proportion necessary 
to cancel the present issue within eight years. 



The following treaty of commerce and customs was concluded 
between Peru and Bolivia on November 27, 1905; ratifications 
exchanged in Lima on January 30, 1906; and pubUcation made in 
''El Peruano'' of February 14, 1906. 

Article I. Peru and Bolivia hereby establish their commercial 
relations on the basis of perfect reciprocity. 

Art. II. Both countries grant free commercial transit of all natural 
Oi- manufactured products of cither of them as well as those of foreign 
countries imported tlurough the routes of Mollendo and Puno to 
i^a Paz and Mollendo to Pelechuco, via Cojate, and vice versa. 
* ♦ ♦ * ♦ * # 

Art. V. Cattle of every description intended for consumption in 
Peni or Bolivia, crossing the territory of the other country in transiti 
shall not be liable to any charges, except the local rates which are or 
may hereafter be established on the transit of cattle originating from 
the country collecting the tax. 

Art. VI. For the mutual convenience of the inhabitants of the 
contiguous zcmes of the Republics, the importation of the following 
articles, if proceeding from either of the two countries, shall be free 
from all fiscal or municipal tax, whether in Peru or in Bolivia, and also 
exempted from the production of all consular or customs documents. 
Fresh fruits, fresh fish, fresh shrimps, fresh meat, cheese, milk, eggs, 
potatoes, chunoy quinua, canagnd, maize, barley in the grain. Nor 
shall any fiscal or n^unicipal tax be levied in either country on the 
specified quantities of the following products: Mutton up to 10 kilo- 
grams; dried meat and gieaves (chicharronfH) up to 23 kilograms; 

PERU. . 99 

butter up to 6 kilograms; wool of sheep, alpacas, or lamas up to 12 
kilograms; ox hides or sheep skins up to 23 kilograms; coca up to 12 
kilograms; cocoa up to 6 kilograms; coffee up to 12 kilograms; and 
chocolate up to 5 kilograms. 

He )ic 9ie Jle :|c ale ale 

Art. VIII. The treaty dated June 7, 1881, is hereby wholly 
abolished, as well as the additional protocols thereto. 

Art. IX. After the approval hereof and the exchange of ratifica- 
tions, the present treaty shall take effect from July 1 next, the com- 
mercial treaty of 1881 being, therefore, maintained until that date. 

Art. X. The present treaty shall be binding for five years and shall 
be deemed to continue indefinitely unless either of the two contracting • 
parties shall have given a year's notice in advance to terminate the 


With the inauguration of the new steamsliip service between New 
York and Callao by the National Steamship and Floating Dock Com- 
pany of Callao (Compania Nddonal de Vapores y Dique del CaUao) 
via Panama, a great economic advance in the commercial intercourse 
of the two sections will be brought about. This enterprise, which 
will, it is anticipated, be in full operation early in 1008, is capitalized 
for $15,000,000 and is to receive a subsidy from the Peruvian Govern- 
ment of $1,500,000. Fast steamers are now imder construction for 
the line in England and the purpose is to make the run from Panama 
to Callao in five instead of eleven or twelve days, as at present. 

Callao is the largest port on the Pacific between San Francisco and 
Valparaiso and a great impetus will be afforded to its development 
through the greater expedition in the dispatch of its business rela- 
tions with the ports of Europe and the United-States afforded by this 
new steamship route. 


The revenues collected at the fluvial custom-house of Iquitos, Peru, 
during the first ten months of 1907, amoimted to £217,363.3.33, as 
compared with £139,754.8.32, sum collected in the same period of 


On September 12, 1907, the Chamber of Deputies of the Peruvian 
Congress approved a bill providing for the construction of a railroad 
hne which, starting from the city of Cuzco and passing through the 
Provinces of Calca and Urubamba, or Anta and T^rubamba, shall 
terminate at the city of Santa Ana, capital of the Province of La 
Convencion. . ,. >:' 

100 I^'Tl:R^^vTIo^^vL buueal* or the ameukax bepubucs. 


l"« Prmano " No. i.. ..f Ki'Itiimpj* LM. IJHW.] 

Article 1. In the custtun-lunisi's of the Department of Loreto 
the articles comprised in secti«»n 7 of tlie customs tariff are to pay an 
import duty of 15 per cent «)ii (lie valuations stated therein. 

Art. 2. The followinjc are to l)e admitted free of duty: Live cattle; 
vesst»ls, steam or other, ])ut tt)<:ether or not, and naval stores; coal; 
tools and machinery of all kinds for agriculture and industry; rails 
and accessories, and all rollino: stock f(»r railways; coined gold; 
hooks and school re(|uisites; furnaces for industrial use; copper stills 
for rectifyin*;; pans <»f iron or co])i>er wei^hin*^ more than 46 Idlo- 
• grams; cups and other appliances used exclusively for the collection 
of rubher. 

Art. .3. All other merchaudist* im])orted shall pay 30 per c«nt on 
the valuation stated in the tarill', except t^old and silver jewelry set 
witli ])recious stones, and unset ])recious stones, which shall pay 3 
per cent; ;j:old and silver mamifactures, which shall pay 10 percent, 
and wooden matches, wliich shall ])ay the specific import and con- 
sumption dvties fixed hv the larifV. 

Art. 4. All nihher ex])<»rted through the same custom-houses, 
whatever its class or (|uality, shall ])ay a duty of 20 cent<ti'os per kilo- 
gram (gn)ss weight), or 24 cmtaros (net weight) when not packed 
in cases. * * * 

(■•/;/ J'mtoiio" Sn. 7, oi M;iix-h lo. \m>.] 

Sr)LE article. The importation of live cattle for consumption 
shall be exempt fn»m duty during a period of four years. 

f-'/.V Vtrvtint,'' \'>. -J. '.f .Inly II, VMWu] 

From and after June 1, lOOO, tiic sea custcun-houses of the Repub- 
lic shall, in accordance willi arlidc 4 of the law of January 27 last, 
levy on export at i«)ii of India nibljcr 20 arituros ])er kilogram (gross 
weighty or 24 vvnhiroH per kilognim (net weight) wlien not packed in 

[•• /;/ J'tnunio" So. \i. i.f .Ijuiiiitry r.». I'M):.] 

Article 1. A tax of 2 ])er cent shall be levied on the net amount 
of import duitcs payable on merchandise entcM'ifig the Department of 
Piura, with tlie exception of '^Tocpiilla" straw. 

^ ^ *<: 'A' '■':■ :>,' 4t 

Art. i). The tax esta])lisho(I by tlie present hiw shall be collected 
by the customs at Paita during ten years from the date of promulga-. 
tion hereof. 

[••/;/ Pinuino" Nil. l."», vi Ki'l-nmry 1«.. i'.Hi7.] 

Sole article. Machint»s called '^amtunnin^.s," registering but not 
stamping tickets for amount of iheir recei])L-, shall ])ay an import 
duty, of 10 per.cent cm such value as the Executive, in exercise of his 
llo\^.^^s, fehdlE assets thereon. 


i"El Peruano" No. 16, of February 23, 1907.] 

From and after March 1, 1907, there shall be levied at the Sala- 
verry custom-h9Use an additional tax of 2 per cent, established for 
providing the city of Trujillo with a water supply. 

[•' El Prruano*' No. 16, of February 23, 1907.] 

From and after March 1, 1907, there shall be levied at the Paita 
custom-house an additional tax of 2 per cent, established for carry- 
ing out public works in the Department of Piura. 

[ • rCl Peruano" No. 21. of April 11, 1(«)7.] 

In virtue of the present resolution, the customs shall appraise 
macliines called '^corUometros'' (cash registers) at £10 each. 



According to official figures recently received from Salvador, the 
custom-houses of the Republic collected during the first quarter of 
1907 a total revenue of 1,087,249.45 pesos ($543,624.72), which, com- 
pared with the revenues of the same months of 1906, shows a decrease 
of 291,808.85 pesos ($145,904.42). 



Following is the latest statement, from figures compiled by the 
Bureau of Statistics, United States Department of Commerce and 
Labor, showing the value of the trade between the United States and 
Latin- American countries. The report is for the month of November, 
1907, with a comparative statement for the corresponding month of 
the previous year; also for the eleven months ending November, 1907, 
as compared with the same period of the preceding year. It should be 
explained that the figures from the various custom-houses, showing 
imports and exports for any one month, are not received at the 
Treasury Department until about the 20th of the following month, 
and some time is necessarily consumed in compilation and printing, 
so that the returns for November, for example, are not published 
until some time in January. 






Ontral American Slates: 

Costa Rica 






Total Central American States. 


West Indian States: 



Santo Domingo.. 

South American States: 





















































106, 7U 














Eleven months ending November. 


1900. I 1907 

1906. 1907. 

Central American States: 

(■oHta Uica 


Honduras , 





S5, 075. 582 


1,217,925 j 



Total Central American States. 

13.007.069 15.372.143 22. HI, 725 


West Indian States: 



Santo Domingo. 

South American States: 

46.888,0a') I 54,271,926 50.736.960 

K2..'»04.98l» I 

916.4.V2 i 

3.373.748 ! 









Colombia . . 
Paraguay . 


(Uruguay . . 
Venezuela . 

17,445,703 15,399,489 

6.144.682 , 
2,871. .309 i 
1.200 . 
2.;<03.<I51 ; 
7. 200. ♦■•20 I 














Tlie various items of import and export, with the countries of ori- 
gin and destination, were as follows: 





Articles and countries. 

Eleven months ending 

Oenttai AmtfTU^A. 


1 ■- ; -• .th Aiii-'-rii^ii 

Coffee {Cafi: cafi; cafe): 

Central America 



Other South America . . 

Copper {Cobre; cobre; cobre): 
Me: ' 



South America. 


$2, 353 



8, 7'iO, 6.'>4 



22, 149 


€!0ltpfi* umnanijJac!tur«*d {Algodbn (n rama; algodAo 
em foma; t^elt^n imn manufacture): 

aoutB Ameika 

l3Et]«M^Tan]pf colder ylxtlr; ixtU; ixtle): 


liBemtfrnn: henequen.'heruquen): 


^ Wtm\Ui 

lAiUTUt-) {Pl^tTtnnj^: bananas; banancs): 


South America , 

Oranges {Naranjas; naranja«; oranges): 



Furs and fur jklm lPUk4 ySwM/ pelles Unas; peaux) : 
South .imi*rtt'» 

Indi* rubber, crude (^Ooma el^gtica; borrachn cruda; 

Central America 



Other South \mcrica 



, 43.'., 725 


Goat tklns {Pieles de cabra: pe^Us; peaux dcc/iiv res) : : 



Other South America 

Hides of cattle {Cturos racunos; couroif de gado; cuirs 
de bitait) : 




Other South America 


15, 423 

139, 120 




l.>4, 175 



iTfmoni yfineraldehierro; mineral de ferro; viineral 
Cub* -227,101 

Lead ore ( Plomo; diumbo; plomb) : 
Mexico. 10K,012 

Su^r, not th fc No. l^i Dutdi ^-rtjindArtl [Azucar, in- . 
f trior fil K W dfi mod f Jo hfjU^mUs: fhssucar n&o 
ruperifr f t Xo*ttidfpft4trikQtfOllaTidi::sucre,pas 
audetir i!-!f 1 t^pt hollanda is Xti .W): 

Mexico. 310 

Cub* (H »S , 289 

BraxiL ' 178,9.% 

Other South America 740,928 

Tobacco and manufactures ( Tabaco y sus manufactu- 
ras; tabaco eeusmanufacturas; tabacctf;es manu- 
Cuba 1,837,187 

Wood,mMhofakny (Owba: mogno; acajou): 

Central America 77, '291 

Mexieo. 38,2:M 




30, 4<U 
42.705 I 








5,888,987 7,573,151 

2,004,390 , l,(i06,401 

42,527,097 ! 40,541,702 

8,831,394 8,540,152 

10, 085, 707 
08,383 ' 


1-20, 120 


93,943 ; 501,472 537,876 

01,4'>8 1,199,180 1,088,521 

,082,082 12,r)W,182 1,3,5.'.1,202 

427,324 .5,143,570; 
3,701 1,-202.979 ' 
38,288 309,429 : 




23,009 31,4,'«i 00.998 
214 8,749 I 4,277 

22,700 -290,380 I 17.''.,:)33 

140,220 2,4,37,18,'> 
127,040 1,570,400 ! 
87,147 2,'23<),079 

3,707 , 


193. 720 


1,458, .513 

1,312, -237 
237. 153 


,53,282 1 712,152 , 731,307 

197,900 I 1,-37,3, 520 ; .3,584,799 

2,090,0ti9 , 24,447,204 2t'), 48,3, 385 

179, 8:U 1,108,079 ! 1,100,413 

238,428 2,045,284 2, .324, 196 
424,354 , 2,532,077 ' 2,805,2«j1 

144 78,582 1,022,738 

5«i5,297 .50,344.473 00,538,015 

507,002 I -278,491 

3-2,890 I 1,7.37,019 71.3,272 

709,7tiO I 

124, 129 
98,542 I 
29,087 1 

',951,951 14,838,736 


179, 74« 

2081— Bun. 1—08- 


Articles an«i countries. 

Wool (Lana; l&, laine.) : 
South America- 
Class 1 (clothing)... 
Class 2 (combing)... 
CUissS (carpet) 

190('.. 1(107. 

Eleven months ending 

i«3r>. - 



Sl,429 . 





$0,529,807 $5,016,012 
205,838 : e\A,9iA 

759.188 410,018 

Agricultural implements (Instrvmrntoji agrlcolas; in- 
8trumento8 at agricultu ra; vtachineg agricoles) : 



Argentine Republic 



Other South America 


C&tUciOanadovacuno; gado: bltail): 



S{»uth America 

nogs ( Ccrdos; porcoa; ponr^) : 


South America 

Horses {Caballoa; cavaltos; rkcvonr): 


Sheep (Ovejait; ovclhos: brebin) : 


Books, maps, etc. (Libros, majxis, rtc; lirro.^, mapjtax, 
etc.; litres, jtiappes, etc: 

(k'ntntl America 



Argentine Republic 



Other South A morica 


Corn (Afaiz; milho: ;««/«); 

(Vntrul Anierloa 



South .VmoricM 

Oats (Arriia: aieia. aroint .• 

O'ntnil .Vmorica 



South America 

Wheat < Trigo: trigo; hit : 

Centnil America 


South .\ nii'rica 

Wheat flour {.llarina dr trigo: fnrinhn «/< tngo. turii 
dr bit ) : 

Centnii .Vnu'rica 




Colonibia * 

Other South Anii'ric.j 

Carriages, etc. i('arrtutjrf<: mrruaofn^: ioiturt.> 

Mexico : 

Soutii Aun'rica , 

Cir'*. p.ijjst'iigi'r Mild friM^bt f Trrnrn /nirn jui'-ag*' v 
cargti: nirrox di' imxmgt iro!* * tariHi: nmjun,* de 
royagnirit rt df inor('hartdix( s- • 

('••nt ral .Vnu'rica 



Argi'ntine Ui«ptil)lif 


other South A nn'rkj 

3,570 ' 
268,3S5 ; 
9,159 , 
25,0tV4 ! 

13,149 : 


84,030 I 
0,440 I 

35, 7'-io 

59,375 ; 



0. 999 






4. :t9«i 
2<). 7»M 

r.U. 17.S 
in.. -.07 


9. IhT 

272. 9")2 


12, 997 
Hi.'i, .ViO 

04. \27 

2'.*2. 41«» 
.".'{. Hiiii 
21 U. <M) 
1 1 . !».• .1 

25, 157 


15. 154 



29. .324 


S. 122 
























190 25.525 

1.2«i2 1.473.714 

170. 17ii i 324.573 




29^. 3«i(. 
10. 144 


15. r..;2 

137. ♦?.».» 
Ki. W2 
22. 4««) 





118. dU 


112. 311 








1881, 2W 












^ 44,889 













673. 9M 





Articles and countries. 

Cycles and parts of (Bicidetas y su9 accesorios: bicy- 
clos e partes; bicyclettes et leurs parties): 



Argentine Republic 


Otber South America 

Cloeks and WAtches (Relo^^ 4e pared y boistilo; reio- 
9ios de boUo y parede; h^rioges et montreff) : 

Ceatral America 


AngentiDS Republic 



Other Soath America 

Coal (Carb^: carvAo; chaibou): 



Copper ( Cdbre; cobre; cuirre): 


Cotton, imammiiasturei (Ai§9ddn en ruma; aJ^odUo 
em rama; coton non manvfacturi): 


Cotton cloths ( Tejidos de algoddn; fazendas de algo- 
4»o: cokm matmfacturt): 

CHitrul America 



Argentine Repablic 



C^jIotu tnii , . . . 

VerM»/iii<th , ,* 

Otl*r Soaih Amn^a 

Wesnng a|Hr«l {tt&pn de algoddn; roupa de algod&o; 
rrtnen/wj de ntttni : 

Cesitrml Ameileii 

190(). 1007. 

j Eleven months ending 
I November— 



(SaimAmj mimih; miumon) : 

Soitli 'Aiii«Ti"?a ] . . 

I And nots { FruMt y nueces; fruHa.s e nozes; 
GifttTvi Amer k Li 

Smth America 

<2hico*e and grape migar {Olucosas; glucotett; glu- 

Affn«tu» Ro|mWii> 
Other S^omth Ail 


y ejrfT»ii#*'0«. ajUlHTWg ^imricos e scientificos; ap- 


Aigentine Republic . . . 


Other SoaCh America. 












30,834 , 
13,510 I 







12. 434 




76, 164 






5.'), 228 






13, 541 

17,402 1 
9,760 ■ 

15,999 : 
66.982 I 
73,081 I 




756. 100 
43.-), 481 



163.. >41 

158. 7:^ 


06. 102 

357. rm 

118. \M 
.W. 5.=>;{ 

15, 346 











156. 028 
184. 79S 



Articles and countries. 

Instrnments— Continued. 
Telegraph and telephone instruments (Instrumentoa 

telfor&ficosytelefdnicos; instrumentostrlegraphicos 

€ telephonicoa; instruments Uligraphiquea et UU- 

phomques) : 

Central America 



Argentine Rebublic 


Other South America , 

Electrical machinery ( ^faqttinaria cUctrica: machinas 

electricas; machines clectriques) : 

Central America , 

Mexico , 


Argentine Republic 


Other South America 

Iron and steel, manofarturers of: 

Steel rails {Carrilcs de accro; trilhos de qqo; rails 

Central America 


South America 

Stnictural iron and steel (IJicrro y accro para construe- 

cidn.-fcrro e a<iO para construcg&o; fer et acicr pour 

la construction) : 



South America 

Wire (Alambre; arame; pi defer) : 

Central America 

Mexico , 


Argentine Republic , 


Other South America 

Builders' hardware, etc. ( Matrrialcs dr metal para 

construccidn; fcrragins; materiaux de construction 

fnfer et acicr): 

Central America 



Argentine Republic 





Other South America 

Metal working machinery {Maquinaria /xini trabajnr 

metales; machinismos para trabalhar cm mital; 

machines pour travaiUrr Irs metaui): 


South America 

Pipes and nttlnes ( Caeriila; tubos; tuyoux) : 

Central America 



Argentine Republic 

Other South America 

Sewing machines and parts of ( ^tuqvinus de coser y 

sus acce.jtorios; machinas de coftr e cicrrxorio.*; ma- 
chines h coudre et leurs parti* s): 

Central America 



Arpentine Republic 



Other South America 

Steam engines and parts of ( Locomotorax u acce.sorio^ \ 

locomotivas c acce^orios; locomoti/s (t Irurx par- . 

ties): \ 

Central America 

Mexico I 


Argentine Republic 

Brazil : 

Other South America 

11KK>. 1907. 

Eleven months ending 




44, 175 

2,000 . 
114,689 i 
130,903 ! 




1,3. 100 

27. 445 
12. .'iW 


321. S39 
14.3. 49K 
.31*.. 517 

$18, 448 







67.910 ' 721 ; 825 
107,438 : 2.572,779 





35.243 i 
155. S37 i 
29.261 I 
38,691 : 





64,118 ' 





























633, 2M 




Artldo and couutriea. 

Typpwritiiffi ninttiijieit and ptirtsi at CMemn^rnfoi p 

ckirtf! d ^( Ti>f ft leu.r4 part it*}; 

Cei^trna ATOtrJcft,. , 

MexiKi. „.,.,..„, .,. „ 


ArgrntiiM Rppubttc^ .,*,*,,.,„.*. 

Br»tll ..,,:..„,. 

rolombitt .._..._,_.,., 

Otiwr South Amerldi 

Le^thfT. ottier than sok i CuerQ, di rfi'nio dii de xudan; 
coura, ndo para jtdIoj^ rulr^, auire4 que po^r jre- 

Dpntr«l AiQQi'tca »...,.--. . , 

f\ib*., , 

Ar^atii3« Republic-*,., 

Br&xU .., ,,....,., .,,..^.,.,...^. 

Otb^ South Ami^ilai , *.,.„,.,„,,,.. „ , 

Bnol9 and phncs < Calad<K: cai^adosj eluiuAMure*) i 

Central Amcuiea. .... .....„,„ _ 

MvjAc(>. .„....,.„.,.... 

Ccilombla , » ..,....*.,.„. , 

Oth«r Sooth Amprtefi ........,.._..„_,. 

WMt lAd ddlrj- prodiirt!^: 
rnstnl Amerks, „ , , , . 

Of hff South Atnprtc« ..,..,„.,...,*._.___ 

Bwl, sattpd or pkklnl ( Cawne de saca Mlada. 6 mto- 
bad&; car^t dt tfaecat mi^a; bauf sail) : 

Oiaitnl Aanerlca _.._... ......._..,.,. 

Soutb Am^rktt ,„.. .^^.. ...,,, 

TOlow (S^tor tebo; ^wrf/J: 

CfTitral America .....„., 

lli^iLico. -,»,.,,„*„___, 

t*ulx«„... ,. ^. 

vhi^,.......... ....,,.,.,.,..:..,. ..,..„.,...... 

Otlv>r South America . - - .^... .„., 

Centnl A merka ..............,.,^... 

U^\co. ...................^......^.. 


BrmcU , 

Othe^r ^utli Aiiie'ric* „„, 

MtmM (Jomonci; presHntm; ji^mbomjiy. 

refitr»l Americ*,...,. ,.,.,, .,,., 


Cufcia.. ............^.. 

V#iirEit«!A.....„ ,. .....^.^. *.,.... ...... 

Oihi^r ^outh Aii3ffrb?& .....^ ... 

W^ik iOimede jm^rt^^ tame de p&rt^»; fwn:) : 

Calta. ..... 

ffmith Am^ricft , ,. 

Ocaira Amtrkfi. 


Cnbft ,.. 

BfMll ..-. .., 

Chlte .,. -. , 

ColiHzthkA ....^. ............ . , , _ 

Veo^^xurJji ., 

Othtr South AiDprloi ] . 

Butter ( M^nitmtiikt; maitfci'pa; bcur/r}: 

C«Eltr»l AmcncA.^ ...... ^... ... .„„„,.. 


Cub*,.,,.., ,.„... ,..,,. 

BTmx.i\.. .,. 

VrD0«Urlii ...., .. ,...,., 

Other SfRith Amf^rin ,„. h.,., 

Cbev«e iOittto; Meiio; fmmage)i 

' AmetVA........... ....... ....... .,. 

CentnT J 







17, me I 


132, M8 










a. (.53 














2, WW 


Eler^n tuunth^ ending 
Novemb - 





16, €m 

70,775 I 

n,fi35 I 

l,2fll I 

lii.790 I 

l.3lg I 

3.055 I 
r>.23t> I 
24.315 , 
ir,M7 \ 
1,K52 I 

10, 14g 

.52. 190 



ie,,U5 , 
a.2ea ' 


ID.07S i 









339, -MS 




142,566 I 
27», 872 


447,223 i 

1.358,f>07 ; 





4W,381 I 


103, e5C 


r.13,784 ; 
230,870 j 

4m, 070 


137. 43P 

\m, \m 





2 Hi, 019 

120, G«5 






114 jao 







SO, 578 
57», 301 


42, h20 




Artk'los uikI conntrios. 

Naval Rtores: 
Rosin, tar, etc. {Resina, alquftran, rlc; resinn e alca- 
troo; resine et goudron) : 


ATgentin« Republic 


Other South America 

Turpentine (Aguarraft; agvnraz; ttribenthine): 

Central America 


Argentine Republic 



Other South Ani»'rica 



Mineral, crude (Aceites minerales, crudos; oleoa min- 
ernrs, cms: huilfs, minerales, bruten) : 



lUtimiimtlliig {Armtrxpata aiumttrfido: olrnn jnim i1- 
iu m inata^: huiles d "4ciia imife j : 

(i^intrt^l AmiTTloa 

Cuba ! 

Arg<»ntiue Republic ; 

B razil 


Other South America 

Lubricating (Aceites para la Ivhricaci^n: nJros jxira 
hihrificcuiiko: huiles ii gnHstfcr): \ 

Mexico I 

Cuba I 

Argentine Kepublie ' 

Brazil ' 


Paraflln (P(/m/?nff; paraffina: jmraffinc): 

Central America 

MfTf ico I 

Soul h A cieritni '■ 

'Vefpf^tttblp* iArHtf vrnctaleii: o/*v;.< rrf/et lU.^: UuiUs . 

Omlfal A merlcsi i 



Argrniini' Republic 


Chill" ■ 

OtinT Soutli AiinTicji ' 

Paper (Papel: paprl; papier): 


Artjenlini' Repul>iie. 



Other South Aineric; 

Tobticco, unmanJifaclunHl iTolMicoem rotnu: t.ilMirco 
lido mnnutmhirndo: tuh-.ic non vmnuf.utvri ■: 

Central .Vnn-riea 


Anient in<» Ri'pulijic 


OtluT South AnuTien 

ManufacturfHi ( Tahaco rhiltoradt,: ttitHWCi mauutm- 
(iiradfj: ttitftir mamtfitrfurh: 

<: Ti Irm I America 

AVoo*!^ iin-tniinulur uf*Kl ( Mudfrn ;tin hhrnd,/: 
iitini nfl* ma vftitt md'i; hni.^ hnif): 

Cfljitra AnnTk-n 



Animtiui' Republic 

Dther Sdiitli AiihtIim 

I/UmliT { .Sfudrnis: irhtdfir.rf 

Ci'Utral Anirriea 



Arp'iitiU" Republic 



^♦»u.T South America , 

hois de cottyfiui thn) ■ 









124, 134 





II. aw 


3. 3ti3 

IS. 740 



0. 1?M« 

I Eleven months ending 
; Koveml)er— 

190i». ! 1007. 









20, .584 

30. 101 
3. 3.M) 

8, l(i3 







.^'>. i:(o 






63. «» 




088, A51 


60,879 I 
477,865 I 





148.025 I 

2.W.329 ! 

32.111 I 

152.602 I 

74.U'i<i , 


««. 147 • 
:W.804 I 
15. 128 I 



151. e» 






737. «8 



605. 882 

952. n? 



229. 101 

144. (Q3 



DO. 000 



82. WW 


bhi. 7x0 





i:i<). I7ii 





Ho. 190 



Ha. 027 



:i. i:m\ 

124. a?j 


S3. 91 7 








l.V).s»i«» ; 




• i 




iT.ui:. 1 



in. .-,4.-. 



n«. i:u 

1H««.SL>7 ! 






Articles and countries. 

1906. 1907. 

Furniture ( Muebles; mobilia; meubles) : i 

Central America $23,080 $42,682 

Mexico ' 99.004 I 89,598 

Cuba t 45,070 ] 53,782 

Argentine Republic ! 30.908 40,202 

Brazil i 7,180 «.460 

Chile I 3,488 7,504 

Colombia i 1,913 1.533 

Venezuelii ' 2,626 2, 737 

Other South America 14.378 23.641 

Eleven months ending 












86. 751 










Figures showing the values of exports of rubber goods from the 
United States give a grand total of $6,214,910 in the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1907, as compared with $5,692,385 in the preceding twelve 

The distribution was as follows: To Europe, $2,956,184; North 
America, $2,070,255; South America, $251,832; Asia, $359,418; 
Oceania, $435,478; Africa, $141,743. 

With the exception of Canada, which received United States rubber 
manufactures to the value of $1,046,659, Mexico was the leading im- 
porter of this class of mechandise in America, the total purchases 
representing $556,801. The figures reported for the United Kingdom 
are alone in excess of the two noted, i[)eing $1,644,516. 



Uruguayan customs receipts for October, 1907, aggregated $1,014,- 
719.84, as compared with $1,127,889 in the same month of 1906, a 
decrease of $113,169 bemg thus indicated. 

For the ten months ending October, 1907, the receipts show a gain 
of $265,232 as compared with the corresponding period of the preced- 
ing year, the totals for the two years being $11,271,871 and $11,00Q,- 
639, respectively, from January to October, inclusive. 


Among the provisions of the Uruguayan tax law for 1908, as sub- 
mitted by the legishiture to the Government and practically sanc- 
tioned, is a chiuse whereby the tax on the premiums of foreign insur- 
ance companies in the Republic is raised from 3 to 7 per cent. Both 
domestic and foreign companies are required to deposit guarantees 
for considerable amounts. 



The revenue of tlie municipality of Montevideo during 1905-6 
amounted to $1,446,168.74, as compared with $1,265,250.69 in the 
preceding fiscal year. It was the largest recorded revenue in seven 



A govennental decree dated November 14, 1907, imposes the fol- 
lowing surtaxes on various articles imported into Venezuela: 

Surtax of 10 per cent of the customs duty: Maize, rice, and wheat 
in the grain; beans (haricot and Lima); black-eye pease; lentils; hogs' 
lard; butter; beer. 

Surtax of 25 per cent of the customs duty: Common bottles of 
ordinary black or transparent glass suitable for bottling liquors; 
sterilized milk and aerated waters; sheet glass or crystal not silvered, 
wiiite or colored; potatoes; saddletrees or frames; raw cotton; straw 
hats, untrimmed; brown and wood-pulp paper. 


CGaccta Oficiar No. 10125. of July 12, 1907.) 

This resolution provides that used empty l)ags introduced from 
abroad for exporting therein cotton seed produced in the country are 
to be cleared through the customs of the Republic, free from payment 
of import duties, after due examination, and subject to importers 
furnishing proof that the bags are intended for said puri>ose. 

I'Gacrta Oficial" No. lOKX), of August 10, 1907.) 

Inasmuch as the present customs import tariff law contains no 
reference to the substance known as ''white Roman cement," gener- 
ally intended to l)e used in manufacturing moldings, etc., for build- 
ings, the present resolution provides that white cement, or "^estucor 
<iwa," imported through the custom-houses of the Republic, shall l)e 
assessed under Class II of the tariff. 

{(fficfta Oficial" No. lOlM. of Soptf-mlMT lii. 1907.) 

The undermentioned articles, not being specially provided for in 
the existing customs law, intended for use in breweries of the country 
shall, on importaticm, be included in the following classes of the 
tariff: Anhydrous amm<miac gas for the manufacture of ice, in 
Class II; chloride of calcium for the manufacture of ice, in Class III; 
malted or roasted barley in the grain for the maimfacture of beer, in 
Class II; tin and cork bottle stoi)pers bearing the name of the factory 
intending to use them, in Class IV. 




Consul Alfred A. Winslow, of Valparaiso, states that from 1830 
until 1907 the nitrate fields of Peru and Chile have produced 
36,443,327 tons of nitrate, valued at $1,112,728,765 United States 
gold. He adds: 

** About two-fifths of this was produced during the last ten years. 
There has been much said about the exhaustion of the nitrate mines 
or beds, but from the best information obtainable they are good for 
two hundred or three hundred years, even at double the production, 
which is about 2,000,000 tons per year. Fully one-half the produc- 
tion has been net profit, but a new process has been invented that 
will do for the nitrate business what the cyanide process did for the 
gold production. Heretofore from 9 to 10 per cent has been left in 
the waste, but with the new process it is claimed that there will not 
be a loss of 2 per cent and at a less cost of production than by the 
old method. Even the waste or tailings can be worked with a great 


^^ El Economista Argentino^' publishes an interesting article on the 
financial status of the various Republics of Latin-America by Mr. 
Gabriel Carbasco, in which the revenues and expenditures of each 
are recorded, with the pro rata distribution of the same among the 
population of the countries. The figures are, in the main, in refer- 
ence to the year 1905, and are expressed in gold. 



I Per hciid of population. 

Expcn<titiire. Jlovcinue. Kxpcndilun^ Revenue. 

Aroentine Republic. 





Costa Rica 


Dominican Republic. 






Nicaragua (1903). 


Pangoay (1904).. 





4, i\js, vm 

Jtl, 1.^,000 



!,<«*. fiOO 

5, 070, 000 
I**. 174. 000 
11. Odd, 000 

Total , 425,471,000 



127, 47*, 000 


J. 427. 000 





ID, AM). Ci 10 
11, COO, 000 

4int .777,000 


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CJiii6ii iBternacieval 4e Bepiildioas Ameiricanas. 

Vol. XXVI. ENERO 190S. No. 1. 

La recepci6n que ei Gobi«rno y pueblo brasilefio hicieron & la 
amiadm de los Estados Unidos cuando entr6 en el puerto de Rio de 
Janein> d 12 de enero fu^ tan gennina y cordial, y la hospitalidad 
que 8e le brindd <iuraiate la estancia de diez dias hi6 tan espl^ndida 
J general, que los oficiales y tripulaciones jamfis las olvidar^n. En 
nin^na ^oca de la Ustoria de los viajes de la marina ainericana 
por el extranjero se ha hecho un esfuerzo mayor por demosti^ar 
cu&n altiunente se ha apreciado su prescenoia que el que ha hecho el 
Brasii en Rio <le Janeiro. 

A juzgar por las manifestaciones de quo hast a ahora so tienen 
noticias, pareoe que la recepci6n que el Oohiorno y pueblo j)oruanos 
Je harin & los ofidales y tripulaci6n do los buquos on el Callao y en 
Lima, ha de ser caracterizada por el mismo ^ado do sincoridad y 
mafpiificescia que la de Rio de Janeiro. Por ni^s quo Punt a Arenas, 
que es «1 tinico punto dd territorio chileno en el cual hard oscala la 
arniada, est4 distante de Valparaiso, quo os el piiorto principal, y do 
Santiago, que *s la capital, el Gobiemo Chileno ostd haciondo los 
preparatives conduccntes para dar la bienvonida a la annada, do 
tal manora que tanto la oficialidad como la tripulacion lian de con- 
serrar gratos I'ccuerdos de su breve estancia on aguas chilonas. 

La presencia de la aimada de los Estados Fnidos on a«:uus sud- 
americanas, en su viaje hacia el Pacifico,, est a contribuyondo en 
gran manera a despertar un intoros todavia mayor on todos los 
Estados Unidos en los asuntos do las Ropilhlicas latiiioanioricanas. 
Vn ^an niimoro de cartas llegan a osta Olicina j)r()ce(loiitos no solo 
de los peri6dicos y otras publicacionos, sino do particuhiros inij)ul- 
sados, segdn lo hacen constar, por el deseo do (oner mas informos 
acerca de los pa&ses y puertos que dicha armada visit^ini 6 j)or los 
cuaies pasar^ <lurante su extenso viaje. Por ojomplo, a varios 
centeeares de periddicos se les ban proporcionado datos complotos y 
descriptivofi acerca de Rio de Janeiro, Punta Aienas y el Callao, A 



fin (le que puedan publicar articulos en los cuales les describir&n 
estos puntos a sus lectores. A proposito cle lo que queda expuesto, 
debe hacerse constar que antes de que la armada emprendiese el 
viaje, esta Oficina le facilit6 a los oficiales y tripulacion de cada buque 
una coleccion de las publicaciones que la Oficina ha hecho relativas 
& la America Latina, a fin de que al pasar por el continente de la 
America del Sur pudieran informarse por si mismos acerca del mismo. 
Las afectuosas cartas en las cuales los capitanes de los buques han 
dado las gracias m6s sinceras por este cumplido por parte de la 
Oficina, demuestran lo mucho que han apreciado dicha atenci6n. 


En la reunion que el Consejo Directivo de la Oficina celebr6 el 8 
de enero, se presento una resolucion proponiendo que la pr6xima 
Conferencia Panamericana Internacional se celebre en Buenos Aires en 
1910. Se aplazo tomar una determinaci6n acerca de dicha resoiu- 
ci6n hasta la proxima reunion del Consejo Directivo, que se celebrar& 
el 5 de febrcro de 1905, k fin de que los diferentes miembros del 
consejo pudieran ponerse en comunicacion con sus respectivos Gobier- 
nos y determinar su actitud sobre este particular. Al suspenderse 
las sesiones de la conferencia ([uese celebr6 en Rio de Janeiro en 1906, 
se creyo generalmente ([ue la proxima conferencia se celebrarfa en 
Buenos Aires, pero se acordo dejar a juicio del Consejo Directivo de 
la Oficina el determinar m6s tarde el verdadero lugar y la fecha en 
que dicha conferencia habria de celebrarse. La raz6n principal para 
preferir el ano de 1910 al de 1911 A 1912, ha sido la circunstancia de 
que la Republica Argentina celebrara en dicho ano el centenario de 
su independencia, y con tal motivo ha resuelto celebrar una gran 
exp()sici6n. En vista del gran progreso, asi politico como comercial, 
que se advierte en la America Latina, y de las relaciones m4s intimas 
que est^n desarrollandose entre los Estados Unidos y sus Republicas 
hermanas, la Cuarta Conferencia Panamericana de seguro ha de 
tener que resolver nmchos asuntos de trascendencia para todos los 
paises interesados y ha de ejercer gran influencia en sus futuras 


Ya el BoLETfx ha Uamado especialmente la atenci6n hacia la expo- 
sicion que el Oobiomo Brasileno celebrara en Rio de Janeiro el pr6ximo 
verano, y hacia la que el Gobienio Argentino se propone celebrar en 
Buenos Aires en 1910. Ahora el Gobierno del Ecuador anuncia que 
tambifin celebrara una exposicion en Quito en 1909, y ya le ha enviado 


una invitaci6n al Gobierno de los Estados Unidos para que tome parte 
en ella. A fin de corresponder ^ esta invitaci6n, el Presidente 
Roosevelt ha enviado un mensaje al Congreso recomend6,ndole que 
haga una asignaci6n especial con este fin. Los Gobiemos del Brasil 
y de la Reptiblica Argentina no se proponen invitar d los palses 
extranjeros para que tomen parte en dichas exposiciones, por mds que 
k sus fabricantes y comerciantes se les permitird exhibir sus artlculos 
bajo condiciones especiales. Como quiera que el Ecuador le ha 
suplicado especiahnente k los Estados Unidos que tome parte en 
(liclia exposici6n, se espera que el Congreso asigne la cantidad de 
dinero necesaria para efectuar la construcci6n de un edificio apropiado 
y enviar una extensa colecci6n de artlculos ^ la exposici6n. Dentro 
de poco tiempo estard, terminado el ferrocarril que va de Guayaquil, 
situada en la costa del Ecuador, hasta Quito, que es la capital, situada 
en el interior, de manera que los pasajeros desde que desembarcan en 
Guayaquil hasta el terreno de la exposici6n en Quito, pueden hacer el 
viaje en veinticuatro horas en una linea de ferrocarril que es una de 
las maravillas del mundo en cuanto & las grandes dificultades de 
ingeniena que ha tenido que veneer y el paisaje que ofrece al viajero. 
La misma ciudad de Quito es sin duda una de las ciudades interesantes 
de la America del Sur, y su clima muy es agradable. Estd situada 
como ^ 10,000 pies sobre el nivel del mar y exenta del excesivo calor 
que se siente en la parte baja de los Tr6picos, en tanto que la proxi- 
midad k qucf se halla del ecundor la libra de un frio intenso. Cuando 
se abra la exposicion podrfi, hacerse el viaje de Nueva York 6, Quito en 
menos de diez dias, y por tanto muchos norteamericanos debieran 
concurrir k la expresada exposici6n. 


LaCompaiiia de Vapores de Lamport y Holt merece ser felicitada 
per las mejoras que est^ introduciendo en su servncio de vapores 
entre Nueva York, Rfo de Janeiro y Buenos Aires. Ilasta ahora la 
queja principal se fundaba en que habia muy pocos vapores que 
ofrecieran las debidas comodidades d los pasajeros que haclan la 
travesia entre el puerto principal de los Estados Unidos y los puertos 
de escala de la costa oriental de la America del Sur. Dicha compaiila 
ha agregado tres nuevos buques, cada uno de los cuales tiene una 
capacidad de 9,000 toneladas de carga y excelentes comodidades 
para 150 pasajeros de primera clase, 50 de segimda y para pasajeros 
de tercera clase. Dichos vapores son nuevos, y el que se denomina 
Verdi hard el primer viaje. Para celebrar este importante aconte- 
cimiento, el dia 14 de enero se di6 un gran banquete d bordo del 
Verdif en Nueva York, al cual asistieron muchas personas promi- 


nentes de Nueva York y de otras partes del pais que cst&n interesadas 
en el desarrollo del comercio con la America del Sur. Todos los que 
tuvieron ocasi6n de visit ar e inspec<*ionar el vapor qiiedaron suma- 
mente satisfechos de sus excelentes condiciones, y se sintieron 
dispuestos k emprender en seguida un viaje k la America del Sur. 
Es de esperarse que los viajeros de todos los Estados Unidos, que 
hasta ahora habian vacilado ir a la America del Sur d cavsa de las 
pocas comodidades que los vapores ofreclan, se auimen y resuelvan 
hacer dicho viaje, ahora que pueden contar con vapores excelentes. 
En cambio, se espera que los sudaniericanos prominentes que hasta 
aliora vacilaban venir a los Estados I'nidos a causa de las pocas 
comodidades de los vapores, se decidan ahora 6 emprender el viaje. 
No existe ningiin medio mas eficaz de fomentar las relaciones cordiales 
entre diferentes paises que el canje mutuode viajes y de impresiones. 


Todos los c[ue estan intoresados en el fomento de relaciones mfis 
fntimas entre los Estados Unidos y la America T^atina se ban mos- 
trado nmy satisfechos con las referencias (|ue el Presidente Roose- 
velt hizo a la Oficina Internacional en su mensaje, reproducido en 
la (iltima edicion del Boletix. Despu^s de la referencia que hizo en 
el monsaje, el Presidente lo (»scril>i6 una carta al Profesor L. S, 
RowE, de la Universidad de Pensilvania, en la cual expone la espe- 
cial c<mveniencia de <[ue se establez(*a una aso<4aci6n intelectual 
intima enlro la America del Norte y la del Sur, y demuestra un 
profundi) interes en los proyeclos <|ue en tal sentido se lleven d cabo. 
En esla edicion del Boletix se reproduce esta carta del Presidente. 


El Senor II. (\ Pmi.Lirs, wSccrctario de la CVmferencia del La^^o 
Mohonk sohro el Arbitrajc Internacional, le participa a la Oficina 
que la sesion de lOOS se ha de celehrar en los dias 20, 21 y 22 de 
mayo, y (|ue s<' intent a consa<:rar inucha atencion a los asuntos 
panamiTicaiios. Kl expresado sivretario espera i^ue esta Oficina y 
su (\)iisejo Directive) s(» tomen especial interes en diclia conferencia, 
y (jue este dehidamente represent ada en sus deliberaciones. En su 
conuinicacion, el S(»fior Puillips dice lo si;:uiente: **Creo que puede 
decirse sin exa<!:eracion (|ue la atencion <|ue la Conferencia Pan- 
americana del ano pasado Ita llamado ha sido muy beneficiosa para 
la causa general del arbitrajc, y i{\w una conferencia semejante este 
ano, si se anuncia extensanu'nte, dara residtados todavfa mis 


El Presidents Rafael Reyes, do Coloml>ia, y ol Seilor Vasquez 
CoBO, Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores, han tornado una niedida 
importante & fin de que Colombia sea m&s conocida en el orbe entero, 
estableoiendo en Bogota una Oficina Central Colonibiana de Informa- 
cion, que tendra sucursales en Londres, Paris, Briiselas, Hauiburgo, 
Barcelona y Nueva York. En el decreto que eon tal fm expidio el 
Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores, se hace constar que a estas sucur- 
sales se les suniinLstraran peri6dicos y otras publicacioiu\s oficiales (|ue 
revistan un interes general y puedan contribuir a proporcionar in- 
fuiuies al publico en Europa y en los Est ados Unidos relativos a Co- 
lombia y & las oportunidades que en ella existen para la inversion de 
capital extranjero. El Ministro tambien anuncia ([ue la expresada 
oficina ha de mantener correspondencia con la Oficina Internacional 
de las Republicas Americanas establecida en Washington, y suphca 
que est* (iltima preste 4 la oficina colombiana la cooperaci6n que 
pueda para Uevar u cabo su importante obra. 


El informe sobre las condiciones comerciales en Colombia que ha 
preparado el Sefior Charles M. Pepper, Agente Especial del De- 
partamento de Comercio y Trabajo, y (jue pubUco recientemente la 
Oficina de Fabricantes, resulta muy oportuno e interesante. En 
dicho informe se mencionan detalladamente todos los hechos rela- 
tives al trafico, comercio, recursos y oportunidades en Colombia que 
deben conocer todos los que fie propongan a hacer negocios con dicha 
Repflblica 6 invertir capital en ella. El Senor Peppek hizo un viaje a 
Colombia y estudi6 detenidamente sus condiciones antes de prcparar 
este informe. En la actualidad continila haciendo sus invest igacio- 
nes en el Ecuador, Perfl y otros pafses sudamericanos, y publicara 
foHetos relativos a ellos. 

LA asoc:iaciox xacioxal de fabricaxtes. 

La Asociaci^n Xacional de Fabricantes, que tienc su oficina principal 
en el No. 170 Broadway, en la ciudad de Nueva York,ycuyo president e 
es el Seflor James W. Van Cleave, de San Luis, Missouri, est^ desa- 
rroUando un rasgo auxiliar de su oi^anizacion que reviste gran im])or- 
tancia. En la edici6n de diciembrc de la revista intitulada '^The 
American Industries," se describe gr^ficamentc c6mo dicha a;sociaci6n 
se propone suministrar fi sus miembros todos los informes que deseen 
relativos 6 las condiciones del comercio en pafses extranjeros. Al 
mismo tiempo se llama e^pecialmente la atencion hacia el hecho do 


que a los comerciantes extranjeros sienipre se les suininistran gratis 
los informes que soliciten acerca de los asuntos comerciales 6 indus- 
triales. Si un exportador 6 comerciante de cualquiera ciudad 6 pals 
sudamericano desea hacer negocios en los Estados Unidos, desde luego 
puede escribir 6, la Asociacion Nacional de Fabricantes y recibir en 
contestacion los datos que desea en cuanto A las razones sociales con 
las cuales debe ponerse en comunicaci6n. Esto ha de contribuir en 
gran manera al incremento del comei»io entre los Estados Unidos y 
sus Republicas hermanas. Esta Oficina se complace en dar fe de la 
oferta de cooperaci6n que ha recibido de la expresada asociaci6n para 
foinentar el comorcio panamericano, y, d su vez, siempre le ha de ser 
grato proporcionarles fi, los miembros de ella que se propongan invadir 
el campo latinoamericano cualesquiera informes que le sea posible 


La activa participacion que ha tornado la Oficina en la Tercera 
Convencion Sanitaria Intemacional, que se celebro en la ciudad de 
Mexico en diciembre de 1907, esta demostrada en el infomie del 
Senor Don Francisco J. Yanes, Secretario de la Oficina, que estuvo 
presente en las sesiones de la mencionada conferencia como Repre- 
sentante Especial de la Oficina Intemacional de las Reptiblicas Ame- 
ricanas. El Senor Yanes hace especial menci6n en su informe, no 
solamentedol progreso de Mexico en la higiene modema,sino tambi^n 
del creciente interns que se ha despertado en el pais por la obra de la 
Oficina Panamericana de Wasliington. 


Las cifras publicadas por la Soccion de Estadistica del Departa- 
mento do Hacienda de la Kepublica Argentina, relativas al co- 
mercio exterior de los prinieros nueve meses de 1907, demuestran que 
el balance de trafico a favor del pais es de $38,043,393, ascendiendo 
el valor de las importaciones a $202,835,218 y el de las exportaciones 
^ $240,878,611. C()ni])arando estas cifras con las correspondientes 
al mismo periodo de 1906, se observa un incremento satisfactorio 
tanto en uno conio en otro ranio del comercio, siendo el de las importa- 
ciones de $5,519,704 y el de las exportaciones de $16,247,350. 

El desarrollo de la agricultura nacional esta patentizado en las 
estadisticas oficiales del area de terrenos sembrados durante 1907 
con trigo, lino y avena, que coinpara<las con las de 1906 indican 
aunientos de iinportancia. Las niedidas adoptadas para el despacho 
adecuado deproductos nacionales i\stan en consonancia con el progreso 


general de que goza el pais, en tanto que una ley recienteniente 
aprobada, que declara libre la importaci6n do toda clase de niaqui- 
naria, instrunientos y materiales para la minerla y la metalurgia,. 
promete maj-or actividad en este ramo de la vida industrial. 


A pesar de la baja que sufrieron los valores de los dos productos 
principales del Brasil — el cafe y la gonia — durante los meses de 
agosto y septiembre de 1907, el balance del comercio d favor de la 
Republica arroja un aumento notable para el trdfico exterior de los 
primeros nueve meses de 1907, en comparacion con el del niisma 
periodo de 1906, avanzando de $53,000,000 k $63,000,000. Las 
importaciones estuvieron avaluadas en $147,000,000 y las exporta- 
ciones en $210,000,000. En ambos ranios del comercio se registraron 
aumentos satisfactorios, y la considerable importacion de maquinaria 
y materiales para obras piiblicas continu6 hasta cerrarse el ano. 

Una medida de importancia para el fomento de las industrial 
nacionales fu6 la autorizaci6n para un nuevo banco de agricultura 
con capital de $10,000,000, el cual facilitar^ en todo lo posible el 
desarrollo de la agricultura, adelantando capital y concediendo 
cr6<lito k empresas garantizadas. 

El progreso de la agricultura recibira un impidso mayor con el 
establecimiento de colonias japonesas en los Estados de Sao Paulo y 
Rio Janeiro, habi^ndose celebrado ya los contratos para la introduc- 
cion de los colonos. 


En este ntimero se publican valiosos informes sobre la fabricacion 
de goma y algod6n en la Republica de Colombia, los cuales fueron 
onviados al Departamento de Estado de los Estados Unidos por el 
Consul I. A. Manning, de Cartagena. El incremento del cultivo de la 
goma en la Republica queda demostrado por el liecho de que durante 
el alio de 1906 las exportaciones de Cartagena liicieron un total de 
lo9,5H0 kilogramos, en tanto que solo durante los primeros nueve 
meses de 1907 se exportaron 136,680 kilogramos. Xo solamente se 
estan organizando plantaciones de gran extension, sino (juc tambien 
se ban implantado medidas preventivas contra la destrucci6n de la 

Tambien se publican, por considerarse de interes, varias modifica- 
eiones arancelarias que entraron en vigor durante el ano de 1907. 

24181— BiiJUl— 08 ^9 


Adeinas de sus dobores como delegado de Costa Rica on la Con- 
ferencia de Paz Centroamericana (juo so colebro en Washinjicton, el 
Senor Don Lris Axdeusox fiie tambi^n honrado por su Gobierno 
con el noinbramiento de Enviado Extraordinario y Ministro Pleni- 
potenciario en niision especial cerca del Gobiemo de los Estados 
Unidos. Con tal caracter fue recibido oficialmente el 12 de noviem- 
bre de 1907, y presento al Presidente Roosevelt los cordiales saludos 
del Presidente Goxzales Viqi ez. y del Gobiemo y del pueblo de 
Costa Rica. 

Un decreto presidencial del 2 de diciembre creo las juntas de apri- 
cultnra cuyos deberes tenderan al foment o y desarrollo de la a«:ri- 
cultiira nacionai, siendo el deseo del Gobiemo colocar el valor indus- 
trial de los demas productos del pais 6 la niisma altura que el que aliura 
ocupa el banano. 

En relation con el cultivo de esta fruta, el Ministro de los Estada^ 
Unidos en San Jos^ inforuia que en vista de que los plantadores y 
exportadores no ban acej)tado el dereclio de 1 centavo impuesto 
sobre cada racimo (habiendose aprobado la ley c[ue lo impuso con 
sujeci6n a diclia aceptacion), el estudo de la industria queda tal como 
era antes de la creacion de dicho impuesto. 


El censo de la Republica de Cuba, toniado en 1907, arroja una 
poblacion total de 2.()2S,2S2 habitant es, en comparacion con 1,572,845 
que acuso el levant ado en 1S99. Las Provincias de la Ilabana y 
Santa Clara son las nuis populosas. La inmigracion del afio econ6- 
mieo de 1906-7 sufrio una disminucion de 23,080 en comparacion con 
el ejereicio anterior. 

Las rent as aduaneras recaudadas en el Puerto de la Ilabana durante 
el afio de 1907 aseendieron a §20,005,048.12, suma que arroja un 
aumento de ?1, 500. 000 sobre 1900. Para atender al servicio sani- 
tario de varios municipios y comliatir la iiebre amarilla el Gobiemo 
lia destinado hi cantidad de S:)50.iMMi. 


Al dar la bieiivenida al Sefior Don Am'u.vl Cruz Diaz, mievo Mi- 
nistro de Chile en los Estados Cnidos, la Ofieina Panamericana se 
coinj)hu'e en reronocer los valiosos servicio.^ prestados por su ante- 
cesor, el Senor AValkek-Mautinez, que en la actualidad represeiita 
al Depart amento de Santia*ro ante el Senado de hi Repliblica. EH 
S( fior Curz, al hacer la present arion de su> eredeneinles al Presidente 


do l.os Estftdos Unidoa, ei 16 d^ noviembre de 1907, manifest^ que su 
Gabiomo desea que se mantengan para siempro las relacioncs cor- 
diales que existen entre los dos paises, y el Presidente Roosevelt 
expres6 el mismo deseo por parte del pueblo de los Estados Unidos. 

El cultivo del lino en Chile recibira la protecci6n del Gobienio si 
se aprueba el proyecto de ley que concede premios d la producci6n de la 
fibra, presentado por el Ejecutivo al Congreso el 25 de octubre de k) 
1907. El proyecto mencionado dispone la cantidad de $150,000 para 
el pago de los preniios para el lino producido, fabricado y exportado 
durante el espacio de doce aiios. 

El progreso coniercial del pais esta patentizado por el hecho de 
que las rentas aduaneras recaudas durante los priineros nueve mescs 
dt» 1907 ascendieron (i $20,000,000, arrojando un auinento dc 
$3,000,000 i^obre las de igual periodo del ano anterior. 


Para conmemorar el primer centenario de la independencia de Sur 
Am^ricA (10 de agosto de 1809), se celebrara en Quito una exposi- 
cion nocional en 1909. Ei decreto que dispone dicha celebraci6n fue 
diotado por el Presidente Alfaro en el mes de octubre de 1907. La 
exposicion comprenderi no solainente los recursos minerales, fo- 
rest ales, agrlcolas, pecuarios, etc., del pais, sino que tambi^n incluird 
exhibiciones artisticas 6 lustowas de intores internacional ; se ban 
ofrecido premios por artfculos que versen sobre materias patrioticas 
e liistoricas. Se ha invitado k otras naciones para que participen en 
la exposicion. 


La inau^iraci6n del Ferrocarril Tnteroceani<'o do Guatemala, de 
San Jos^, en el Pacifico, a Puerto Barrios, en el Atlantico, que se 
celebr6 el 19 de enero de 1908, da mucho interes y valor al folleto 
recientemente publicado por el Seftor Don Victor Aguilar Pelaez, 
Consul de la Reptiblica en Liverpool y Manch(»ster. Por el interes 
que ha despertado esta seccion de la America Central, se ix»produce 
en este nilmero la mayor parte del folleto mencionado, la cual con- 
tiene un resumen del comercio y las condiciones economicas del 
l>ais en 1906. 

La entrada en la capital del primer tren de Puerto Barrios fue 
objeto de grandes festejos y ceremonias, y para conmemorar (A suceso 
se estd celebrando una exposicion nacional. Representantcs es- 
pecialesde naciones extranjeras estuvieron presentes en dicha iiiauo:u- 
rari6n. Este frrocarril, que facilitara orrandemente el transport e 
de los productos nacionales, tiene una extensi6n de 260 millas y paten- 
tiza el desanroUd de esta progresiva Repiiblica. 


En conformidad con un decreto prosidencial del 30 de noviembro 
de 1907, en Port-au-Prince sc ha establecido una cdmera de comercio 
con el fin de fomentar los intereses comerciales, agricolas, industrialcs 
y maritimos de la Repdblica ITaitiana. Se ha hecho una asignacion 
de $1,800 para sufragar los gastos de la organizaci6n, y el Presidente 
de la Republica ha sido nombrado presidente honorario de aqu61Ia. 
Dicha organizacion no solo divulgard los debidos informes relativos 
d los productos 6 industrias del pais, sino que tambifin ha de hacer 
las veces de im in termed iario para efectuar la distribuci6n local de 
datos oxtranjeros que so consideren valiosos j)ara el pafs. 



A fin de hacer frente a las exigemias acerca de la obtencion de 
muelles que reunan mejores condiciones y mejores medios para 
efectuar el embarque de los bananos en los puertos del norte de 
Honduras, el Gobierno ha aumentado el impuesto sobre cada racimo 
de bananos de 2 centavos, que antes se cobraban, d 3 centavos, 
debiendo dedicarse el producto de dicho impuesto d las mejoras que 
se juzguen convenientes. 


La i)ublicaci6n anual del informe del Licenciado Jose Ives Liman- 
Toi'R — renoml)rrtdo vSecretario de Hacienda de la Repfiblica Mexi- 
cana- -acerca del Tesoro Xacicmal y su resefia del estado econ6mico 
del pais, hace 6poca en los anales mexicanos. Todas las personam 
(|ue (leseen tener un conocimiento exacto de los asuntos mexicanos 
deben leer el informe (jue el expresado Secret ario present6 al Congreso 
Nacional el 14 de diciembre de 1907. En esta edici6n del Boletin 
se publica un resumen (|ue comprende los puntos mas culminantea 
de <licho informe, y en ellos se (hunuestran las condiciones sati^ 
factorias c[ue pr<»valecen en to<la esta parte importante de la Uni6n 

El informe acerca del comercio correspondiente al primer trimestre* 
del ano economico de 1907-8, muestra un aumento de mds de 
$5,000,000 en el valor tantode las importacionescomode lascxporta- 
ciones do la Republica, y resulta tanto mas satisfactorio cuanto que 
en los periodos corresj)ondientes de los dos anos ec(m6mici)8 ante- 
riores ocurrio una ba ja en el valor de las exportaciones hechas de los 
puertos mexicanos. 


Las mejoras que se estdn introducienclo y que se han proyectado en 
los t^rminos del AtlAntico y del Pacifico del Feirocarril dc Tehuante- 
pec, est&n siendo objeto de gran interns entre los que se proponen 
fomentar el comercio transismian^, y se trata de que wSalina Cruz y 
Coatzacoalcos se coloquen al nivel de otros puertos del mundo en 
cuanto k los medios de trasbordo de morcancias. 


El mensaje que el Presidente Zelaya le dirigio al Congreso Nica- 
raguense el P cle diciembre de 1907, es un documento iinportante que 
contiene la opinion del Ejecutivo acerca de la Conferencia de Paz 
celebrada en Washington y de sus causas y resultados. 

La concesi6n que el Gobiemo le hizo 4 los Senores Guerrero y 
MoREiRA para efectuar la explotaci6n de bosques de goma de la Repii- 
blica durante un periodo de diez afios, d contar del 10 de septiembre de 
1905, ha sido traspasada d la ^* Atlantic Industrial Company," que 
continuarfi, los trabajos ya emprendidos por los antiguos concesio- 
narios con arreglo 4 las cldusulas del contrato gubernamental. 

La nueva ley de marcas de fdbrica que fue promulgada el 27 de 
noviembre de 1907, ha de influir poderosamente en la protecci6n 
in<lustrial en Nicaragua, y tiene por objeto protoger tanto los negocios 
extranjeros como los del pals. 


El infonne que ha presentado el Sefior James C. Kellogg, Consul 
de los Estados Unides en Col6n, Panamit, acerca del Puerto de Bocas 
del Toro, muestra que por m&s que las importaciones por dicho puerto 
durante el afto econ6mico de 1907 se aunientaron en c()mparaci6n 
con el afio anterior, hubo una dismimici6n en el valor de las expor- 
taciones. Se espera que la exportaci6n de bananos a Europa, para la 
cual se han hecho extensos preparativos provcyendo los vapores de 
aparatos refrigeradores, ha de producir niejores resultados en el 
pjresente afto. Dicese que los Estados I'nidos hacen mas negocios 
en este puerto que las denies naciones. 


Al Congreso Pai-aguayo se le ha presentado un proyecto para 
llcvard caboelestablecimientodeun banco mixtoconlaautorizacion 
del Gobiemo, que se denominara ^^ Banco de La Republica," con un 
capital de $20,000,000 oro. En esta edicion del Boletin se publican 
las varias operaciones de este banco. 


La inaugiiraoi6n de un niicvo servicio do Ta|>ores entre Nueva York 
y el Callao, via Panama, ha de traer consigo un gran adelanto eco- 
n6mico en las relaciones de estas dos rej2:iones comerciales. Se espera 
que esta empresa, bajo los auspicios ile la ^'National Steamship and 
Floating Dock Company of Callao/' estara operando por eompleto 
& principios de 1908, y ademiis de contar eon un capital de $1 5,000,000, 
tiene una subvencion de $1,500^000 del Gobierno pemano. 


En los ultimos datos estadisticos ([ue se han obtenido se atlvierte 
una disminucion de $145,904.42 en la renta <le aduana del Salvador, 
que en el ])rimer trimestre de 1907 ascendio a $543,624.72, en com- 
paracion con el periodo correspondiento de 1907. 


Por mas ([ue la renta de aihiana del l^niguay mostr6 ima poqueila 
disminucion en octubre de 1907, en comparacion con la del mes ctv- 
resp:)iidi(Mite (h 1900, el valor total correspondiente al perfdo de 
diez menses (pie termino en octubre, nuiestra un aumento, puesto que 
en los dos anos do referencia, en los meses de enero a octubre. dicho 
valor ascendio a S11,271,S71 y SI 1.000, 5:59, respectivameiite. 

Se han efectuado cambios import antes en la ley de impuestos 
uruguaya de 190S, tal como ha sido i)n»sentada por la legislatura al 
Gobierno. Vmy de los precept os de dicha ley eleva de 3 centavos que 
antes se cobraban a 7 centavos el impuestosobre compaAfasdesegu- 
ros extranjeras estal>lecidas en la RepilbHca. 


Por un dccrcto del 1 [ de noviembre de 1907 el Gobierno Venezulano 
ha impuesto un recargo a varias substancias aliment icias y articulos 
de uso domestic ). Otros articMlos est an C(unprendidos en las reeien- 
tes modificacione^ arancelarias. 




EI Primer Congreso Cientifico Panamericano so celebro en 1898 
en Buenos Aires, capital de la Reptiblica Argentina; la soguncla sesi6n 
del Congreso se efectu6 en 1901 on Montevideo, capital del Uruguay, 
y la tercera se celebro en 1905 en Rio de Janeiro, capital del Brasil. 

Ahora se ha resuelto celebrar la cuarta sesion en Santiago, capital 
de Civile, en h)s diez primeros dias del nies de diciembre de 1908, y con 
tal iin el Gobiemo chileno ha en\dado las invitaciones correspon- 

Adem&s, se ha resuelto extender la esfera de accion d(^l Congreso 
de manera que incluya todas las Republicas Americanas, y con tal fin 
el Gobiemo cliileno ha invitado oficiahnente al Gobiemo do los Est^- 
dos Unid(K<?. Al niisnio tiempt), el Congreso, en vez de donominarso 
C\iarto Congreso Cientifico Latinoamericano, so denominara Primer 
Congreso Cientifico Panamericano, cual corrospondo a su aumontada 
representacion. Mds adelante en la presente se insert a ol mensajo 
ilel Presidente Roosevelt al transmitir al Congreso ol informo del 
Secretario Root acerca de este asunto. El Presidente en su citado 
mensaje aprueba sinceramente la recomendacion del Sefior Root, a 
sabi^r: Que se haga una asignacion suficiente para que los Estados 
Unidos sean debidamente representados en dicho (\)ngreso. 

*"A1 Senado y Cdmara de Representante($: 

**Adjunto remito para la consideracion de las rospectivas C^maras 
del Congreso, un infomie del Secretario de Estado en el cual expone la 
conveniencia de que se tome una pronta dotorminacion d fin do que 
correspondiendo & la invitacion del Gdbierno do (^hilo, el Gobiorno do 
los Estado:; Uni<los pueda ser dignamente roprosontado en el Primer 
Congreso Cientifico Panamericano que so ha do (•olo!)rar {}\\ Santiaji:o, 
Chile, en los diez primeros dias del mes do diciembre iV' 1^K)S. 

**Apruebo sinceramente las recomondaciono^ quo se hacon on osto 

informo, y espero que el Congreso tonga a bion hacor oportunamontc^ la 

dobida asignacion para que el Gobiemo puoda corrospondor do una 

manera apropiada k la invitaci6n del Gobiorno de Chile, onviando 

delegados k un Congreso que no puedo monos do rovostir grnn intc^ros 

e importancia para los Gobiernos y pueblos do todas las Ko|)u})Ii(as 


"Theodore ]{oosevelt. 

"Casa Blanxa. diciejiiihre 21 dv 10^7.^' 
*'Al Presidente: 

**El Gobiemo de Chile ha invitado al Gobiorno do los Kslados 
Unidos para que tome parte y sea roprosontado por medio do delegados 


en cl Congrcso Cientifico Panainoricano que so ha de reunir bajo sus 
auspicios eii la ciiidad de Santiago, capital dc dicha Keptiblica, durante 
dicz (lias, comenzando el V de diciembrc de 1908. Los trabajos del 
Congreso ban de coniprender nueve secoiones, que se consagfaran 
respectivamente a las matematicas piuas y aplicadas, la fisica, 
ciencias naturales, ingenierla, medicina 6 liigiene, antropologla, juris- 
prudencia y sociologla, pedagogia, y agricultura 6 industria animal. 

"Ilasta ahora se ban celebrado los siguientes Congresos Cientificos 
Latinoamericanos: En 1898 en Buenos Aires, en 1901 en Montevideo, 
y en 1905 en Rio de Janeiro. Conio resultado de estas confereneias 
previas, el Congreso de 1908 sera el Primer Congreso Panamericano. 
Ila de estudiar y discutir muchos asuntos de suma importancia en los 
cuales estAn especial y mutuamente interesadas todas las Reptiblicas 
Aniericanas, y tendr^ por objeto principal reunir los m&s prominentes 
hombres de ciencia de este hemisferio para investigar muclios 
j)roblemas eminentemente americanos y efectuar un intercambio de 
experiencias y opiniones que debe redundar en beneficio de todas las 
naciones interesadas. 

**Por consiguiente, es sumamente propio ([ue los Estados Unidos 
sean debidamente representados en este importante Primer Con- 
greso Cientifico Panamericano, y (|ue aprovecben esta oportunidad 
])ara cooperar en investigaciones cientificas con los representantes 
de otras Kepiiblicas Americanas. Es digno de tomarse en conside- 
racion (|ue am^n del benefico ([ue ban de recibir los intereses pura- 
mente cientificos ])()r virtud de dicbo Congreso, y ademas de las venta- 
jas ([ue se derivaran de un intercambio de im])resiones y del trato 
de hombres de ciencia de los ])aises americanos y la buena inteligencia 
y amistosas rehicicmes (pie asi se ban de cslimular, existen nuicbas 
r(dacion(\s especialos (jue surg(^« i\v\ intimo contacto entre los Estados 
Tnidos y varios pais(\s latinoamericanos, que s(m ccmsiguientes al 
cnsanche de nueslro coiuercio, (1 incremento de nucstras inversiones 
de capital y a hi construcci(m del Canal dc Panama, lo cual hace (jue 
una comiin inteligencia y libre cand>io de impresioncvs sobr<» asuntos 
cientHicos n\sulte de gran importancia practica. 

*'A fin de (jue nuestra represent aci(')n j)ueda Uevarse a cabo, tengo 
(»1 honor de rcconuMidar (pK* se i)ida al Congreso (pic asigne la suma 
de S^MjOOO, (') la cantidad de esa suma (pie sea n(»cesaria, para <|ue los 
Kslados Tnidos puedan enviar un niimcro de (hd(*gados <|ue corres- 
pon(hi al niimero de seccion(\s en (pie s(» ha d(* dividir el Congreso, 
junto C(m un Secretario y un habilitado, y para sufragar otros gastos 

**Com() (piiera (pie es de di\<ear (pie todas las conuinicaciones A 
obras cientificas (pie hayan dc pr(\"^entarse on cl Congreso se reoiban 
antes del 30 de s(»ptiembre, se (\sj)era (pie la autori/a<*i<)n para que 


oste Gobienio tomo parte en dicho Cougreso sea concedida tan 
pronto como sea posible, y que en seguida piieda disponerse de la 

'\Se somete respetiiosaniente. 

•^Elihu Root. 
**Departamexto de Estado, 

'* ^SashingtoUy diciembre 19 de 1907 y 


A continiiacion i>e publica el informe presentado a Mr. John Bar- 
rett, Director 4le la Oficina Internacional de las Repiiblica.s America- 
nas, por el Senor Don Francisco J. Yanes, Secretario de la misma, 
relativo a los trabajos de la Tercera Conferencia Sanitaria Interna- 
cional, (|ue se celebr6 en la Ciiidad de ilexico en diciembre de 1907^ 
}• en la cual tom6 parte como representante especial de la oficina: 

'' Washington, D. C, 31 de diciemhre de 19U7, 

**Sexor: Tengo el honor de someter k la consideracion de listed el 
siguiente informe, relativo k la Tercera Conferencia Sanitaria Inter- 
nacional que se c^lebro en la Ciudad de Mexico del 2 al 7 de diciembre 
de 1907, y en la cual esiuve presente con el caracter de representante 
especial de la Oficina Internacional de las Republicas Americana^s, de 
conforniidad con sus instnicciones de f(»clia 27 de noviembre de 1907. 

•*La convocatoria para la reuni6n de la Tercera Conferencia Sani- 
taria Internacional y el programa provisional fiieron transmitidos por 
la Oficina Internacional de las Repi1blica.s Americanas a los distintos 
Gobiernos de la Union, por medio de- los miembros del Consejo 
Directivo de la Oficina, con fecha 11 de julio de 1907, 3' de acuerdo 
con la convocatoria y el programa mencionados, la Tercera Con- 
ferencia Sanitaria Internacional se declar6 constituida a las 10 de 
la niailana del martes, 2 de diciembre de 1907, en el Gran Salon del 
Departamento de Ilaqienda situado en el Palacio Xacional. En esta 
s(»si6n inaugural pronunciaron discursos de bienv(*nida los Sefiores Don 
Ramon Corral, Vicepresidente de la Republica y Secretario de lo 
Interior, y el Doctor Eduardo Liceaoa, presidente de la Convencion 
y de la <lelegaci6n mexicana. Todas las delegaciones presentes con- 
test aron con breves y apropiados discursos. 
. '*Los siguientes delegados estaban presentes en la sesion inaugural: 

'^Brasil, — Dr. Oswaldo de Goncalvez Cruz. 

'"Chile. — Doctore43 Ernesto Soza y Pedro Lautaro Ferrer. 

'"Colombia. — Doctores Ricardo Gutierres Lee y Genaro Payan. 

'"Casta Rica. — Doctor Juan Jose Ulloa. 


''Ouba, — Doctorcs Hugo Roberts y Juan Guiteras. 

^"Ecuador, — Doctor Juan Horacio Esteves. 

^^Guatemdla, — Doctores Salvador Ortega y Jose Azirdlv. 

^^ Honduras, — Doctor Luis Lazo Arrlvga. 

^^ Mexico. — Doctor E. Lickaga, LiccMiciado Josk Algara, e In^o- 
niero H. Elguero. 

''Salvador, — Doctor Rodolfo B. Gonzalez. 

''Estados Vnidos. — Doctores Walter Wyman, R. II. Von Ezoorf, 
P. T. Straus, James Gatewood. Charles Harrington, W. G. 
Owen, Rhett Goode. y H. L. E. Johnson. 

^^El Doctor E. Fernandez Espiro, del Urutriiay, llego liacia el 
final de la confereiicia, a causa de retrasos que sufrio durante el viaje. 

''Los siguientes delegad(»s fueron elegidos vicei)residentes: Doctor 
Walter Wyman, de los Estadas I'nidos; Doctor Oswaldo de Gon- 
^ALVEZ Cruz, del Brasil; Doctor Juan J. Ulloa, de Costa Rica; 
Doctor Juan Guiteras, de Cuba; Doctor Ernesto Soza, de Chile; 
Doctor Salvador Ortega, de Guatemala; Doctor Luis L-vzo ^Vkria- 
ga, de Honduras, y Doctor (iregorio Mendizabal, de Nicaragua. 

"Las sitruientes coniisiones fueron nombradas: De credenciales; 
consultiva; de fiebn* aniarilla; de peste bubonica: de tracoma, 
beriberi, y menin<j:itis cerebro-espinal, y de tuberculosis. 

'^A causa del retraso inotivado por varios descarrilamientos de 
trenes de niercancias no llegue a la ciudad de Mexico sino hasta la 
maAana del 3 de diciembre, raz6n por la cual no estuve presente en 
la sesion inau<j:ural. 

*'A1 presentar mis credenciales al Doctor Eduardo Liceaga, y k 
propuesta del Cirujano (ieneral Wyman, <(ue hi6 unaniniamente 
aprobada, se hicieron extensivas las [)rerrojrativas de la Convencidn 
al Kepresentante Especial de la Oficina. 

Al dar las jrracias a la Convencion por su cortes recibimiento mani- 
fest^ que la Oficina tomaba un ^rande interes por el altruista y luinia- 
nitario trabajo (pie Uevaba a cal)o, y que, como reprt^sentante 
especial de esta institucion, era (»1 portador 4le los cord iales saludos, 
no solo del Consejo Directive, sino tambien <lel Director, quien me 
habia encomendado i)ers(>nalinente la placcntera mision de presentar 
j\ la Cimferencia la expresion d(* siis biienos deseos. Dije» adem&s, 
que el Director hubiera veni<l(» personalmente a saludar A los <lele^ad<»s 
si no hubiera sido por el liecbo de que en acjuellos momentos tenia 
lujrar bajo nuestro tecbo otro suceso <le importancia universal — la 
Conferencia de Paz Centroamericana fpie iinpidio su salida <le la 
capital d(» los Ivstados rnidos. Tambien manifeste que en aquelhis 
momentos la Oficina sentia una gran satisfaccion porque todos los 
pais<»s de la America Latina parecian estar (»cupad4)s en obras nia^as 
y nobles— por una parte, las He])ubli(as dc la Anu'rica Central se 
hnUn))nn ajustando sus diferencias en Washin<rton y plantando los 


einiientos de su future bicnestar, en tanto quo por otra, la luayoria 
tie los paises Utinoaniericanos se hallaba coiigregaila en la hospita- 
lariaCiudad de Mexico trabajando por la causa conuni de la humanidail. 

El proj^rama preparado por la delegaciou niexicana incluia, ademas 
de las niaterias de que habiade tratarse en la Conveneion, una recep- 
cion dada por Su Excelencia el General Porfirio Diaz, Presidente de 
la Republica, visitas a la Xueva Casa de ConxM)s, ii la Penitenciaria, 
al Castillo de Chapultepeo, al Cons<»jo SufHTior <le Salubridad, a las 
obras tie provision tie aguas potables y a Xochiniiico, a los nuevos 
aIrede<lores Uamados **Colonias," al Hospital (Jeneral, y a la estacion 
de tH>inbas de inyec< ion de aguas para el lavado de aUujeHs, asi conio 
tand>ien conciertos, banquetes y otros actos de (oftesia y bospit^ilidad. 

**En el dia de la ultima sesion, 7 de dioiend>re de 1007, la Comision 
CVinsultiva, a euya consideration st^ sonietieron todas 1ms ])r<)[)uestas 
que requirian accion import ante, recomendo ([ue la Convencion 
ad4>ptara las siguientes resohuiones: 

*'Adliesi^n por parte del Brasil,Colond)ia y el Tn^guay a hi Con- 
voDcioii Sanitarin de W6i^hington. 

* ' Codificacion de t^nias las leye^ y rt^glamentos sauitarios de los 
gobiernos representados en la convencion, para que scan trasmitidos 
k la Ofk'ina Sanitaria Intornacional en Washington i;na vez codiii- 
cad OS. 

"Autorizar 4 la Oficiaa Sanitaria Inleinacional en Washington 
]>ara que establezca relaciones con el * Bureau International vSanitaire ' 
de Paris, de acuerdo con la n*coniendaci6n de la Tercera Conferen- 
cia Panamericana de Rio Janeiro. 

'*Orclenar al secretario de la Convencion que induya en la publi- 
cacion de Urs trabajos de la Tercera (\)nvenci6n Sanitaria Interna- 
cional, un sumario de todas las resolucion(^s adoptadas por las c<m- 
venciones anteriores que se celebraron en Washington. 

**Solicitar de todos k>s gobiemos de la America qi-o imphuitcn en 
sus resptHJtivos paises la vacunacion obligatoria. 

*'Crfstionar con liw gobiemos repres<*ntados en la Convencion hi 
c<»nveniencia de declarar libix* de todo dennho ^ impuesto la qiiinina, 
lela metalica fina a pnieba de moscpiitos y otros materiales usados 
para la proteccion contra estos insectos y el petroleo cnido. 

**K<*coraendar 6 los distintos gobiern(xs el estabhviiniento <le dis- 
jjeiLsarios en puntos determinados para la distribiiciou gratis, l)«jo 
ciertas condiciones, de quinina entre pobres. 

••Recoincndar una propaganda activa en escuelas, fabricas,cnarte- 
les y otrossitiospflblicoscon elfm de instniiral pueblo en la etiologia, 
profiiaxia y tratamiento del paludism<». 

**Kecomendar la publicacion de folletos, cpie scan distribuidos 
gratuitaniente, en los cuales se conteiigau brcvcnientc y en forma 
prtotica y sencilla conociniientos concernientes a las luAiTi^s \nv\\\v\\vv\s. 


'^Recomendar que las avtoridades marltimas incluyan en sits in- 
formes de sanidad estadlsticas relativas ^ la mortalidad cavsada por 
el paludismo. 

'^Kecoiiiendar fi, los distintos gobiemos que prohiban la innii- 
graci6n de personas qiie si»fren de traconia 6 beriberi. 

"Recomendar la adopcion devarias medidas indicadas para la pre- 
venci6n de la tuberculosis en vapores y ferrocarriles. 

^^Recomendar la nacionalizaci6n y centralizaci6n de las auto- 
ridades de sanidad. 

'*Tambi6n fueron adoptadas otras resoluciones que afectan 
directamentc las relaciones de laOficina Intemacional de las Reptibli- 
GBs Americanas con la Convenci6n Sanitaria; una presentada per el 
Doct6r LicEAGA, al efecto de que las convocatorias para las confe- 
rencias sanitarias, adem6s de ser trasmitidas por dicha Qficina, lo sean 
tambi^n por el gobiemo del pais en donde se haya de celebrar la 
reuni6n. El Cirujano General Wyman, de los Estados Unidos, pro- 
puso una resolvci6n pidiendo que se desrine un local en la Oficina 
Intemacional de las Reptiblicas Americanas para un empleado 
especial que atienda k los asuntos relativos a las conferencias sanita- 

'*E1 Doctor Ulloa, de Costa Rica, present6 tambi^n una pro- 
puesta rogando & los delegados que remitan uno 6 dos ejemplares 
de sus respect ivos informes, li otros trabajos, & laBibliot^cade Col6n 
de la Oficina Intemacional de las Republicas Americanas. 

'^Al disponerse el establecimiento de la Oficina de Inforaaacidn 
Sanitaria en Montevideo, se (lecidi6 que, con el fin de facilitar el 
trabajo, el Brasil, la Argentina, el Paraguay, Chile y el Perti comuni- 
quen directamente con Montevideo, y que los demds palses latino- 
americanos lo hagan con la Oficina Sanitaria de Washington. 

^^Si bien los delegados del Brasil, Chile y el Uruguay demostraron 
su buena vohmtad de que la Cuarta Conferencia se celebrarA en las 
capitales de sus respectivos i)alses, al discutirse la seleccion del lugar 
para hi proxinui conferencia, el Doctor Cruz, del Brasil, propuso que 
se (lesignara la ciudad de San Jos^ de Costa Rica con tal objeto, lo 
que se acordo por aclamacion. Entonces se deci<li6 que la reu- 
nion tuviera lugar en el mes de <licieml)re de 1909. El Doctor JuAK 
J. Ulloa fu6 elegi<lo unanimamente vtymo presidente dela pr6xima 

**La preparacion final de los informes y trabajos de la convenci6n 
estA encomenchida al Doctor Ulloa, de (\)sta Rica. Secretario de la 
(Vnvencion, quien los remitini <lentro de breve tiempo & la Oficina 
Intemacional de las Re])ublicas Americanas ])ara su publicaci6n y 


"A propuesta del Doctor Fernandez Espiko, del Uruguay, los 
funcionarios de la Oficina Sanitaria Inteinacional fueron un^nima- 
iiiente reelegidos para el pr6ximo periodo. 

'* Despufe de los breves discursos do despedida que pronuneiaron 
los delegados y el presidente, Doctor Liceaga, se declaro terminada 
la Conferencia hasta que se volviera & reunir en 1909. 

** Antes de dar t^rmino & esta breve memoria sobre los trabajos de 
la Tercera Conferencia Sanitaria Tntemacional, bar6 mencion especial 
del enorme progreso que ha hecho Mexico en el estableciniiento de 
eondiciones sanitarias modemas en sus principales ciudades y puertos. 
EI Gobiemo Federal ha destinado las siguientes sumas para el sanea- 
miento de la capital de la Keptiblica y de los puertos principales: 

Pritos mfxicanos. 

riudad do M^xiro $28, 517. 900. 17 

Puerto de Manziinillo 7.882,760.00 

Puerto de Veracruz 3. 804. 493. 94 

Puerto de Tampico 2, 999. 779. 73 

Puerto de Salina Truz 1, 190, 31 3. 30 

Puerto M/»xi(o 1, 276, 114. 50 

Total 45.831.301.64 

"Del presupuesto que antecede todavia (juedan por gastar 801/- 
913.06 pesos. 

**Las cantidades invertidas hasta ahora en el saneaniiento de la 
Ciudad de Mexico ban- sido conio sigue : 

Pfsos mcTicanos. 

Obras de desagiie del valle de Mexico $15, 967, 778. 17 

Saneaniiento general de la ciudad S. 210. 138. 25 

Ohra? f^ara el abasteciraiento de aguas 4. .339, 983. 75 


**Tainbi^n es digno de mencion especial el interes (|ue todos los 
mexicanos, desde las autoridades mas altas hasta los particulares, 
demuestran en la obra que estd llevando k cabo la Oficina Inter- 
nacional de las Repliblicas Americanas. Parece ((ue todos participan 
de la opini6n gtoeral de que la Oficina ha entrado por fin en una 
verdadera era de reorganizaci6n 'desde cjue la Tercera Conferencia 
Panamericana se reuni6 en Rio Janeiro y ensancho su esfera de 
accion, tanto comercialmente como tambien desde un punto de 
vista moral yde influencia, y,finalmente,p()r la razon de que pronto 
contari con su propio edificio. Observe c|ue el Boletin es leido 
y apreciado y que las mejoras introducidas en el son favorable- 
mente comentadas por los lectores mexicanos. 

*'Soy de Ud. atento servidor, 

"Francisco J. Yanes." 
" Al Honorable Sr. John Barrett, 

^^ Director de la Oficina Iniemaiional de las Rcpuhlicas Americanas, 




El Profesor L. S. Rowe, do la l^iiiversidad de Pensilvania, que 
file uno de los delogados de los Est ados Unidos a la Tercera Confe- 
rencia Intemacional Americana que se celebro eu Rio de Janeiro en 
julio de 1906, despues que terniiuo la Conferencia, emprendio un 
extenso viaje por la America del Siir, enel cual invirtio aiio y medio. 

Despues de su regreso de la America del Sur, el Profesor Rowe ha 
tenido una conferencia con el Presidente Roosevelt acerea de los 
fines y resultados de su viaje, y sohre todo tocante a los planes que ha 
formulado para cultivar relaciones intelectuales mas intimas entre los 
Est ados I'nidos y las Repiihlicas liermanas del sur. El Boletiv 
tiene el ^rusto de publicar la sijruiente carta de aprobaci6n que el Presi- 
dente Roosevelt le lia dirijiido al Profesor Rowe: 

**!Mi estimado Senoh Rowe: Me hasidosumamenie«rraloplaticar 
con listed accrca do los result ados de su viaje por la America del Sur, 
asi como en cuanto a los varios proyecios ([ue tiene listed enlamente 
para foment ar relaciones inielectuales mils intimas entre las regiones 
del norte y del sur del Coiuinente Americano. Creo de suiua impor- 
tancia que ademas de las relaciones amistosars que existen entre los 
Gobiernos de las Republicas Americanas, se fornien y cuUiven estre- 
chos vinculos per.soualcs entre lo^ primeros pen*>adores de est as Repu- 
blicas. Diclias rclacionc^s pcisonalcs piopenden poderosa y eiicaz- 
mente a destruir las necia> prcvcncioiics y c(»ncept(>s err6neos que sou 
cons<»cuencia dc la falla del mutuo conocimiento. p]n este hemis- 
ferio occidental, cada una dc nuesiras Republicas puede aprender 
y ensenar a su vcz ciuindo sc pone en contacts con sus Repiiblieas 

**Xo crci) que existan factores (pie se adapten meji>r a la eonsuma- 
cion de este jrran tin (juc las univcrsitladcsdcd Continente Americano. 
Hay muchos problenuis economic<»s. snciale^ e iiulustriales — pasando 
por alto otros de indole ])uraniente cienldira (jue son eminent**- 
niente americano> y dc tras(eTidencia continental. Me<liante la co- 
opcracion de los pensadon*s e inv(»<i!^Mdorcs de nuestras diferentes 
miciones, puede bacersc (pie la expericncia acumuladn de este homi;^ 
ferio (^jerza la debiila inilu(M\cia (mi <»sto> problemas, haciendo mils 
probable su f(diz solucion. La coiuunidad dc ideas y aeeion que de 
esta mancra sc dcspi(M'ta lia dc prestar tambit'n un st»rvici<i patri6tico 
nniy<n' al unir intiniamenie cada vez mas todos los pueblos del hemis- 
ferio occidtMital. 

"Dc todo corazon dcsco (pic este [>roy(»clo obtengai lui 6xilo coni- 

"Qucdo de u.sted sincerainente. 

"TuEoiK)KE Roosevelt." 



El Conpjreso Intemacional sobre la Tuberculosis se celcbrara on la 
oiudad do Wdsluno:ton durante los dias comprendidos del 21 de 
septiembre al 12 de cwtubre de 1908. 

Ix>s preparativos para la coiiferencia se estan Uevando (i cabo 
con actividad por todos los Estados Unidos }' eu varios jmises d(4 
extranjero. llasta la ftH*ha se ban or«:anizado comisiones nacionales 
en Francia, iVlemania, Suecia, Austria, Holanda, Grecia, Bulji^ariji, 
Cuba. Venezuela, Brasil y Costa Rica. I^a comision francesa, pre- 
siditla per el Doct<)r Ixuis Laxdoizy, de la Facultad de Medicina 
do la Universidad de Paris, est a compuesta de mas de troscientos 
eniinentes medicos de Francia. 

El Doctor A. Herrera Vegas, presidente de la comision venezo- 
lana. lo es tambi^n de la Li^a iVnti tuberculosa A'enczolana y miembro 
de la Academia Nacional de Medicina de Caracas; el Doctor P. 
ArosTA Ortiz, vicepresidente, es director del Hospital de Var<>:as, 
y el Doctor L. RiVZETTi, uno de los mieinbros do la comision, es A'ice- 
rector de la Universidad de Venezuela y secretario permanente de 
la Academia Xacional de Medicina. 

Todos los miembros de la coniisi6n brasilena se hallan iiit(Tesados 
activamente en la campana autitubercidosa (|iio so lleva a calx) en 
su pais. Entre ellos se ballan el Doctor J. J. Azevedo Lima, de Kio 
Janeiro, presidente de la JA^a. Antituberculosa Brasilena; el Doctor 
OswALiK) Cruz, Director General del Departamento de Sanidad 
Pilldica; el Doctor J. J. Seabka y el Doctor Cipriaxo de Fkeitas, 
de Rio Janeiro. 

El presidente de la comision cubana es el Doctor Giitehas, pro- 
fesor que fu6 do patolo^ia en la I'niversidad de Pensilvania y (lue 
actualniente lo es de la Universidad de la Habana. El Doctor J. L. 
cTacobsex, vicepresidente de la comision, es el presidente de la Lijra 
Antituberculosa Cubana. El secretario de la comision es el Doctor 
M. G. Lebeeik), de la Habana. Esta comision cuenta con dos 
miembnw de reputacion universal, el Doctor Ahistides AcaiAMONTK, 
el unico miembro superviviente de la famosa comision del Ejcrcito 
Americano para el estudio de lafiebra amarilla, yel Doctor Carlos J. 
FiNiJiT, a <iuien le fu6 concedida recientement^ la medalla "Mary 
McKinley" por la Asociacion de Liverj)()ol para el Estudio de Enfer- 
ine<lades Tropicales. 

IjB, comisi6n costarricense lia ele<rido coiuo presidente al Doctor 
Liis P. Jimenez, y como secretario al Doctor Teodoko Picaoo. Jjos 
dem&s miembros son los I)(K*tores Teodoko Prestinaky, Ben.tamiv 
Hernandez, y Marcos Zuniga. Todos estos senores son de la 
ciudad de San Jos6. 




El Sefior Gabriel Carrasco publira en el •Eeonomista Argentino" 
un interesante articulo sobre el estado financiero do las varias Repii- 
blicas (le la America Latina, en el cual so consij^nan los inp-esos y 
e«^esos (le cada pais, junto con una distribucion prorrata de diohos 
in^resos y eo;resos entre los habitantes de los expresados paises. 
Las cifras se refieren mavormente al afio de 1905: 

KeinlblU a Argentina . . . 




. Colombia 

I'osta Kica 


KepHblica DoiiiiiiiLinia . 






NicarapuH (IfKW). 
Paraguay (IIMM). 





Venezuela (lywi). 























12. 42 

12. 7.1 









Ift. 138.000 












13, aw. (WO 







»V S5 








a. 24 





1.684. OCW 












19, 471. (KM) 



19. .-.I*,0(K) 




42.-., 471, 000 







La Oficina de Estadistica del (iobierno Argentmo ha expedido su 
boletin iv<^ular, intitulado ''El Coniercio Exterior Argentino, *' que 
conipiende el coniercio extranjero de la Republica durante los nueve 
prinieros* ni(\s(\s transcurridos de enero a septienibre de 1907. El 
valor de las inipo. tacion(\s durante dicho periodo se calcula en 
$2()2,S35,21S en oi'o, lo cual niuestra un auniento de S5,519,704 on 
coniparaci(')n con los niisnios nueve nieses de 1906; el valor de las 
exportacioiH\s se calcula on $24(),S7S,()11, o sea un auniento de 
$10,247,350 r(\specto (1(4 periodo convspondiente del aflo anterior. 
El valor de las import acion(\s inipouibles .se calcula en $128,184,517 
y (^1 de las iniportaciont^s lii)r(\s de d(»i (vho en S74,(>oO,701, en tanto 
(jue el valor de las iiii|)oi*tacion(N dc* oro y plata se calculaii en 
$23,440,940. En la lista de c^xpoitacioiu^s los productos imponibles 
se valuanni en SSfiS, en tanto (jue vl valor de los ]>roduct<)s que se 
expoitaroii libn^s de derecbos asrendit') a $240,877,743 vol valor de 
-///.uf expoi'iticionos do oro y plata ascendi<> a $2S1,750. 


Por las cifras que anteceden se adviertc que el aumento del valor 
de las exportaciones de productos de la Republica eomparado con el 
de las importaciones en los nueve meses de referencia asciende L 
$38,043,393, en tanto que el valor de las importaciones de oro y plata. 
excedi6 en $23,159,193 al de las exportaciones de dichos me tales. 

En la distribuci6n de las importaciones por paises de procedencia^ 
el valor de las que se hicieron del Reino Unido, que va a la cabeza 
de la lista de dichos pafses, ascendi6 d $71,964,236; sigue Alemania,. 
que representa $32,131,549; los Estados Unidos, que representan 
$26,476,423; Francia, $18,447,927; Italia, $17,577,375; B^lgica, $11,- 
471,881 ;Brasil, $5,371,957; Espaiia, $5,191,250; Uruguay, $1,874,291 ; 
Austria-Hungrla, $1,731,721; los Paises Bajos, $1,162,336; Paraguay,. 
$983,143; Chile, $313,955; Bolivia, $105,457, y Africa, $15,997. 

Bajo la denominaci6n general de '^Otros paises de procedencia,'*' 
se incluyen Australia, que representa $44,418; Canadd, $687,141 p 
Colombia, $2,493; Cuba, $386,964; China, $404,409; Dinamarca,. 
$38,744; Ecuador, $23,528; Egipto, $1,103; Grecia, $31,555; Guate- 
mala, $689; Jap6n, $147,764; Mexico, $3,622; Noruega, $336,171;. 
Persia, $547; Peru, $531,843; Portugal, $208,287; Posesiones fran- 
cesas, $6,875; Colonias holandesas, $30,039; Colonias britdnicas,, 
$2,641,515; Colonias norteamericanas, $9,855; Rumania, $1,675; 
Rusia, $261,815; Salvador, $708; Republica Dominicana, $287; 
Suecia, $280,076; Suiza, $1,567,371; Turquia, $30,044, y Venezuela,, 

En comparacion con los nueve primcros meses de 1906, se ad- 
viertcn aumentos tanto en los articulos como en el valor de los que 
se han importado de los siguientes paises: Alemania, $3,617,968; 
Reino Unido, $2,803,301; B^lgica, $2,262,096; Austria-IIungria,. 
$545,587; Uruguay, $520,521; Brasil, $598,085; Paraguay, $84,318, y 
Bolivia, $10,862. 

Se nota una baja en el valor de las importaciones hechas de los paises 
siguientes: Francia, $2,216,698; Italia, $1,009,397; Estados Unidos, 
$719,829; Espafia, $358,155; Chile, $132,410; Raises Bajos, $27,344, 
y Africa, $5,265. 

En los nueve primeros meses de 1905, el Reino Unido va a la 
cabeza de los paises que han recibido exportaciones de la Republica 
Argentina, habidndole comprado articulos por valor de $40,501,376, 
luego sigue Alemania, que le compro $28,784,527; Francia, 828,- 
351,594;^ B^lgica, $24,637,882; Brasil, $10,388,686; los Estados 
Unidos, $8,627,941; los Raises Bajos, $3,526,970; Italia, $3,283,705; 
Uruguay, $2,839,833; Chile, $1,586,677; Africa, $1,326,650; i:spafia, 
$1,287,154; Bolivia, $543,853; Austria-IIungria, $521,492, y Para- 
guay, $117,139. 

Bajo la denominaci6n de ^'Otros paises de procedencia'' se in- 
cluyen 4 Cuba, que representa $217,81 1 ; Dinamarca, $89,238 *, Norvie^e.^ 
S4181— Bun. 1—08 10 


$1,061,144; Perd, $90,613; Portugal, $25,401; Colonias francesas, 
$664; Colonias briUnicas, $45,197, j Suecia, $665,149. 

El valor de las exportaciones de los palses que & contmuaci6n se 
expresan, muestra los siguientes aumentos: Reino Unido, $9,300,538; 
B61gic^, $5,027,366; Francia, $3,711^702; Brasil, $1,598,683; Palses 
Bajos, $1,189,856; Austria-Himgria, $486,951; Ctule, $430,984, y 
Bolivia, $246,076. 

En el valor de las exportaciones se notan las siguientes bajas: A 
Africa, $1,557,171; k los Estados Unidos, $1,701,312; k Italia, 
$1,526,770; al Uruguay, $977,049; d Espaiia, $574,033; & Alemania, 
$399,408, y al Paraguay, $17,709. 

En la d^cada transcurrida de 1898 k 1907, el valor de las importap- 
ciones en los nueve primeros meses de 1906 excede al de todos los 
afios anteriores, en tanto que durante dicho perlodo tlnicamente en 
1905 hubo un aumento en el valor de las exportaciones, habiendo 
ascendido 6stas A $247,110,133. 

El valor de las iniportaciones del aflo se calcula oficialmente en 
$268,655,017, en comparaci6n con $269,970,521 en 1906; al paso que 
el valor de las exportaciones se calcula en $318,622,501, ccHitra $292,- 
253,829 en el aiio anterior. 

En las importacionos que se hicieron en los nueve primeros meses 
de 1907, se muestran los siguientes articulos y su valor, jimto con los 
respectivos aumentos 6 bajas en comparacion con el perlodo corres- 
pondiente de 1906: 


Animalos vivos 

Substancias alimonticias 

Tabaco y sus aplicaciones 

Vinos y lieoros 

Tojidos i\o diforontes claso« 

Acoi tes, ote 

I'roducto.s qiilmioos y farinao«''iiticos . 

Tinturas y tintos 

MadiTas y sus artofa/'tos 

J*aiM*l y sus artofaotos 

CuiTo y sus art<'fa<'tos 

lllcrro, acoro y sus art»»fiu'tos 

Otros motalos y sus artcfat't*^'' 

Tiistruineiitos iW apricultura 

Vehlculos y siis actrsorios 


Matoriales do const riK'iMon 

Articulos ol<?ctrieos y sus aixrcsorio-^. . 
Otros iirtlcuios " 

Xuevc mesos de 

Comparaci6n con 



SI, 280, 472 

- 184,^ 


+ 1.4Z7.2S0 


- 313.171 


- 122.00S 


- 7.292.130 


+ 152.4?» 


+ &3.eao 


- 77.482 


+ 99.630 


+ 4eo.«B 

1., ''.19.115 

- 259.532 

21,881, aw 

- 3,045.906 


- 972. SOS 


- 1.394.407 




- 412. nu 

1.-.. 784, 492 

+ 4i94.(MO 


+ 287.154 


+ 47,210 

T^os articulo.s do cxi)()rtaci6u y la.s comparaciones corrospou- 
dioutcs (Ml los (los i)crio(los fueron como si^ue: 


Pmduclos ih- hi fTMnadiTfji 

J nxlta-tos aj:rIcol;is 

rroiliift(»s dc los l»os<ju< s. 
I'rodurtos dc las niin-is. , , 

I*ro<luctos dc la chxu , 

/'rot/ijcios (Jh'fTsoii 

Xucvo mcfloii 


do 1907. 

con 1906. 


31. 464. KB 


+ 19. .'24, 731 


- 80S. 130 


+ 302.712 


- 98.78S 

- 1.217,240 




El Ministro Argentino de Obras Ptiblicas ha preparado una relaci6n 
que muestra el material rodante que hay en el servicio de varias 
compafkias de ferrocarriles de la Reptiblica al terminar el aiio de 1907, 
para demostrar los medios con que cuentan para hacer frente d las 
exigencias consiguientes al trasporte de las cosechas. 

Los medios con que contaban las empresas y sus respectivos 
aumentos en comparacion con el aflo de 1906 son los siguientes: 


Gran FcrrocarrU del Sur 

Ferrocanll del Oeste 

Ferrocarrll de Rosario 

Ferrocarril Central Argentino 

Ferrocarril del Padfico 

Gran Ferrocarril del Oeste 

Ferrocarril Andino 

Ferrocarril de la Provincia de Santa ¥6 

Ferrocarril Central de Cordoba 

Ferrocarril de Cordoba y Rosario 

Ferrocarril Nacional Central del Norte . 
Ferrocarril del Norte Argentino 



ras do tre- 

de los Ga- 

nes de 

rros en 


























10, 250 

de au- 


No se muestra ningun aumento en las lineas que son propiedad del 
Est ado. 

Los cobertizos para granos, etc., que laiy en las estaciones per- 
tenecientes & los ferrocarriles y fi, particulares, tienen una capacidad 
total de 795,455 metres cuadrados. Esto no incluye los cobertizos, 
almacenes de dep6sito y elevadores que hay en las estaciones termi- 
nates 6 en los puertos que, considerados en conjunto, representan una 
capacidad de 2,266,421 toneladas. 


Una ley argentina de fecha 30 de septiembre de 1907, declara libre 
de derechos de aduana, durante un periodo de dicz aiios, la entrada 
de maquinaria, herramientas y materiales neccsarios para la instala- 
ci6n y operaci6n de los establecimientos niineros y metaliirgicos que 
se construyan 6 que ya existan en la Reptiblica. Dicha ley tambien 
comprende la maquinaria, herramientas y materiales para la excava- 
cion de pozos. 

- A fin de obtener la exenci6n de que se trata, los interesados tienen 
que hacer una solicitud por escrito d la achiana por la ciial se dosoe 
efectuar la importaci6n. Los costos consiguientes a la comprobacion 
de los materiales serdn por cuenta del solicitante. 


MESES DE 1907. 

En los nueve primeros meses de 1907 los ingrcsos derivados de las 
contribuciones intemas ascendieron d $31,493,006.17 ei\ pa\>e\ \wviW^OL«u 


y $21,641 en oro, en comparaci6n con $28,744,276.68 en papel y 
$19,634.16 en oro durante el periodo correspondiente del afio anterior. 



La estadistica de la producci6n azucarera en Tucumdn corres- 
pondiente & cinco meses, marzo, junio, julio, agosto y septiembre 
de 1907, acusa una disminucion con respecto & la del mismo perfodo 
de 1906. El producto durante los perlodos que se comparan t\i6 
como se expresa d continuaci6n : 











90.728 88,291 

La diferencia en contra de 1907 es, pues, de 2,437 toneladas. 
Esta baja fue causada por las heladas, las cuales hicieron mucho 
dafio en las plantaciones. Esta disminuci6n, & su vez, ha motivado 
el alza de los precios del aziicar. 


Con el fin de evitar la congestion del trdfico, que siempre ocurre 
en el piicrto de Buenos Aires cuando el embarque de. cereales est4 
en su apogeo, el Ministro de Agricultura de la Republica Argentina 
ha presentado un proyecto de ley sobre la construcci6n en el puerto 
de la capital de graneros provisionals con capacidad para 100,000 
toneladas de cereales. Los vagones que lleguen al puerto y no 
puedan descargar dircctamente en los buciues respectivos dentro de 
las veinticuatro horas ([uc les concede la ley, lo hardn en dichos 
graneros. La carga desde d dcposito al bucjue se hara por elevaci6n, 
con un sistenia de cintas y canalotas. 

Con la capacidad de 100,000 toneladas, y suponiendo un plazo 
m&ximo de alniacenaje de (luince a veinte dias, podrin alojarse en 
dichos depositos, durante los priineros siete meses de trabajo m&s 
activo alrededor de 1,000,000 toneladas de cereal. 


La Oficina de Estadistica del Depart amento de Agricultura de la 
Republica Argentina publico recientemente las cifras definitivas del 
drea de terrenos scmbrados en el pais durante 1907. Varfan un poco 
de los cdlculos (jue se publicaron anteriormente, teniendo el 4rea sem- 
})rada de trigo 27,000 hectdreas menos, la de lino 24,000 hcct&reas 
mcnos, y la do avena 42,000 hectdreas m&s. 

BRASIL. 139 

Estas cifras definitivas, en comparaci6n con las de 1906, son como 







El Poder Ejecutivo de la Reptiblica se ha servido autorizar la 
acuflaci6n de 2,553,781 pesos en monedas de nlquel para completar 
un total de 12,000,000. 

El Ministro Plenipotenciario de la Repiiblica en Londres tiene la 
orden de adquirir 5,000,000 discos para monedas de 20 centavos, 
11,022,000 para pieaas de 10 centavos, y 9,093,787 para el tipo de 5 




Los datos estadisticos relativos al comercio extranjero del Brasil 
en los nueve meses transcurridos de enero k septiembre de 1907, 
muestran que el valor total de importaciones ascendi6 k 468,559:983$ 
($147,000,000), en comparaci6n con 337,984:983$ ($114,500,000) en 
los mismos meses de 1906, y el valor de las exportaciones ascendio k 
669,286:556$ ($210,500,000), contra 498,691:572$ ($168,500,000) en el 
periodo correspondiente del ano anterior, mostrandose asl un aumento 
de m&s de $22,000,000 en el valor de las importaciones y de $42,000,000 
en el de las exportaciones en el periodo citado de 1907, y mostrtodose 
que el valor de las exportaciones de la Repiiblica, comparado con el 
de las importaciones, de $53,000,000 en los nueve primeros meses de 
1906, ascendi6 k $62,000,000 en los nueve primeros meses de 1907. 

La mayor parte de este aumento en el valor de las exportaciones 
respecto del de las importaciones ocurrio en los siete primeros meses 
del aflo de 1907, puesto que en los meses de agosto y septiembre una 
merma en el valor de los dos productos de exportaci6n, k saber, el 
caf6 y la goma, produjo una baja en la lista de articulos de exportaci6n 
en comparaci6n con la de los mismos meses de 1906. Porotra parte, 
el valor de las importaciones en los do meses que se ha hecho refe- 
rencia continu6 subiendo k causa de la demanda que tuvieron la 
maquinaria y materiales que se necesitaron para las numerosas 6 
importantes obras ptiblicas que estdn en vias de construccion en la 



En los nueve primeros meses comprendidos de enero & septiembre 
de 1907, los ingresos de aduana en las varias aduanas de la Reptiblica 
del Brasil ascendieron k 218,5558000 ($72,123,150), en comparaci6n 
con 175,177$000 ($57,808,410) en el periodo correspondiente del afio 
anterior, 6 sea un aumento de m^s de $14,000,000. 



En virtud de un decreto del Presidente de la Repiiblica de Colombia, 
fechado el 5 de diciembre de 1907, la importaci6n de maiz y arroz por 
los puertos del Atltotico queda libre de derechog hasta el 1® de mayo 
de 1908. Es medida ha sido adoptada con motivo de los dafLos 

causados por la langosta. 




El wSefior Don Luis Anderson, Enviado Extraordinario y Ministro 
Plenipotenciario de Costa Kica, en una misi6n especial ante el Gobiemo 
de los Estados Unidos, fiie recibido con tal carficter por el Presidente 
Roosevelt el dia 12 de noviembre de 1907. Al presentar sus cre- 
denciales el Senor Anderson pronuncio el siguiente discurso: 

'^ExcELENTisiMo Senor Presidente: Por generosa mediaci6n de 
Vuestra P^xcelencia y del Excelentisimo Senor Presidente de los Esta- 
dos Unidos Mexicanos, se reunira en breve en esta Capital el Congreso 
de Plcnipotenciarios de las cinco Kepiiblicas de Centro America, que 
para bien de la civilizacion y la dicha de aquellos paises, ha de poner 
iin a pasadas diferencias entrc cllos y asogurarles para siempre las 
})en(liciones de una paz solida, bajo cuya a la protectora puedan 
marchar & la roalizacion de los niagnificos destinos que las virtudes 
de su hijos y sus ri(iuezas naturalcs \os aseguran. 

'^ Costa Kica, que ama con amor entrafiable a sus hermanas del Istmo 
y que vive con ellas en completa armonia, aprecia llena de gratitud tan 
noble y humanitaria excitativa, porque tiene fc en que ella ser& el 
caniino seguro para que la paz de que disfruta y que es la llaye de 
su dicha presente alcance a toda hi faniilia controamericana. 

''llonrado por mi Cobierno con ol canicter de Delegado & laConfe- 
ronciii de Paz, el wSefior Presidente CJoxzai.ez Viquez ha querido 
/y)rovechar mi prcsencia en esta Capital, para confiarme la misiAn 


especi&l, tan grata como sefialadamente honrosa, de ser mensajero 
de m4s cordial saludo del pueblo y del Gobierno de Costa Rica para 
est a noble naci6n y su ilustre mandatario. 

**E1 desarroUo maravilloso con que los Estados Unidos de America 
asombran al mundo, su creciente prosperidad y el bienestar de este 
pueblo cuyos destinos pesan en los destinos de la raza liumana, liijos 
son del culto k la libertad y ^ la justicia que los fundadores de la 
Repfiblica encamaron en el coraz6n de sus liombres. Este culto 
transportado de vuestras instituciones d las de nuestros paises, cons- 
tituye la piedra angular de la fratemidad americana d cuya sombra 
viven y desarrollan, se aman y se respetan las naciones todas del 
nuevo Continente. For la libertad y la justicia deseamos que cada 
vez sean m&s y m6.s estrechas las relaciones que unen d la pequena y 
libre Costa Rica, con la poderosa Nacion norteamericana. 

Al poner en vuestras manos la carta que me acredita como Enviado 
Extraordinario y Ministro Plenipotenciario en misi6n especial cerca 
del Gobierno de Vuestra Excelencia nada es tan grato para ml como 
el significaros los sentimientos de afecto y gratitud de los costarri- 
censes para el pueblo y el Gobierno de los Estados Unidos de America 
y los votos que hacen por vuestra ventura personal.'' 

El Presidente Roosevelt contest6 como sigue: 

**Senor Ministro: Me es muy grato recibiros como Enviado 
Extraordinario y Ministro Plenipotenciario de Costa Rica en una 
Misi6n Especial k los Estados Unidos, sobre todo cuando dicha misi6n 
tiene por objeto hacer lo que est6 d vuestro alcance para obtener una 
paz duradera y verdadera hermandad entre los pueblos de la 
America Central. 

**Aprecio cumplidamente vuestro reconocimiento de la parte que 
este Gobierno, juntamente con el de Mexico, se ha tornado para que se 
efectde la conferencia que pronto se celebrarfi, en esta ciudad, y 
correspondo cordialmente d los parabienes del pueblo y Gobierno 
de Costa Rica que el Presidente VIquez os ha supUcado que hagais 
presentes al pueblo y Gobierno de los Estados Unidos. 

**E1 mantenimiento de la paz y la prosperidad entre las naciones de 
la America Central, asl como el fomento de relaciones aniistosas y 
cortesia de vecindad entre ellas y este pals, siempre han sido muy 
caras para el pueblo y Gobierno de los Estados Unidos; y si los 
trabajos de la Conferencia dan por rcsultado contribuir a que la 
realizacidn de tan laudables fines sea mds cierta, todos tcndremos 
derecho & participar de la gloria de un hecho de ial trasccndencia. 

*'Senor Ministro, conozco vuestra fama asi como el cclo y habilidad 
con que hab^is servido k vuestro pais, y cstoy seguro de que habeis de 
desplegar esas mismas cualidades en la Conferencia para obtener los 
nobles fines que la han inspirado. 

En conclusi6n, os ruego, Senor Ministro, que hagais ^rci§>eTA.^ ^ 
Presidente YfQUEZ mis fervientes votos por su WieueslaT ^^x^oxi^r 



El dia 7 de dicembre de 1907 se celebr6 un contrato entre el Go- 
bierno de la Reptiblicade Costa Rica y los Senores Marcial Peralta 
y H. E. Bryant, por el cual fetos se obligan & foimiar una sociedad 
anonima con un capital de $100,000 oro, por lo menos, y que 
podr& aumentarse hasta $500,000 oro. El objeto de la sociedad es 
el cultivo y la fabricaci6n de fibras de cualquier especie en el pais, y 
estara, por consiguiente, en la obligaci6n de sembrar por lo menos 
500,000 de plantas. Un aiio despu^s de que el contrato haya sido 
aprobado por el Poder Legislativo los concesionarios deberdn esta- 
blecer en el canton del Paralso una fdbrica de cordelerla, alpargatas, 
sombreros, telas, sacos, etc. La compafiia deber4 manufacturar en 
el pais toda la fibra que ella 6 los particulares produzcan, y venderi 
en el mismo los artlculos que fabricare. El Gobiemo garantiza & 
la sociedad un 6 por ciento anual de ganancia sobre el capital de 
$100,000, con tal que ^stos se hayan invertido en la compra 6 insta- 
laci6n de maquinas y en la siembra de las fibras. Los concesionarios 
deberdn liacer un deposito de $5,000 para garantizar el cumpli- 
miento de las condiciones del contrato. 


El Gobierno de la Repiiblica de Costa Rica, con fecha 5 de noviem- 
bre de 1907, celebro un contrato con la ^* United Fruit Company,'^ 
por el cual esta se obliga a importar petr61eo crudo de Tejas en can- 
tidad suficiente, durante el termino del contrato, para satisfacer el 
consumo de ese articulo en el pals. La empresa se obliga & vender 
el petroleo asi importado con una utilidad no mayor de 10 por ciento 
sobre su precio de costo. La importacion de petroleo crudo queda, 
durante los veinticinco afios que durara el contrato, libre del pago de 
dercchos de aduana. 


Con el fin de iinpulsar el dcsarroUo de la agricultura nacional, ol 
Presidento de la Ropilblica de Costa Rica, on decreto de fecha 2 de 
diciembre de 1907, ha dispuesto la creaci6n de juntas de agricultura en 
todos los cantones, con excepcion del de San Jos6. Estas juntas 
estaran coinpuestas de sicte niiembros, serdn dependientes de la 
Sociedad Xacional de Agricultura, y atenderan al fomento y desarroUo 
de la agricultura en sus respectivos cantones. 




Segdn el censo levantado en 1907, el informe de cuyo resultado fu6 
sometido en diciembre al Gobernador Provisional de Cuba por el 
Director General del Censo, la poblaci6n de la Reptiblica en el pre- 
sente asciende 4 2,028,282, que se distribuye entre las distintas pro- 
vincias de la manera siguiente, dtodose las cifras correspondientes al 
censo de 1899, por via de comparacion : 




Pinar del Rio 

424, 811 
327, 716 

240, 781 

lUbana , 

239. 8C6 

Mftt«n»M* . 

Santa Clara 

457 897 




453 782 





Segiin datos que acaba de publicar la Seccion de Estadistica del 
Departamento de Hacienda de la Reptiblica de Cuba, el ntimero de 
inmigrantes Uegados k los puertos de aquella isla durante el ano fiscal 
nle 1906-7, asciepde k 29,572, de los cuales 23,831 son varones y 5,741 
hembras. El total general se distribuye del modo siguiente entre las 
^stintas nacionalidades: 

Eepafioles 22.178 

Ingleses.- 2, 044 

!Norteamericano9 1,907 

Portorriquefios. . 
Otroe antillanos. 











! Portugueses 

I Indios orientales. 
I Holandeses 


21^ j Otras nacioitalidades . 

182 I 



Coraparando el total general con el del ano de 1905-6, se observa 
una disminuci6n de 23,080 individuos en contra de 1906-7, pues cl 
de aqu^l ascendi6 4 52,652 inmigrantes. 




La ''Gaceta Oficial" correspondientc al 19 de octubre de 1907 
publica una circular en la cual se hace saber que los derechos do 
aduana se recaudar^n (inicamente sobre las mercancias que reahnente 
sean importadas y que se descarguen en Cuba, y no sobre las mer- 


canclas que se picrdan durante la navegaci6n 6 en los alij adores, aun 
cuando dichas mercanclas aparezcan en el manifiesto 6 conocimiento. 
Se revocan todas las circulares que se opongan & esta disposici6n. 

Un dccreto reciente del Gobemador Provisional de la Reptiblica 
de Cuba destina la cantidad de $350,000 para el servicio sanltario de 
varios municipios y para la adopcion de medidas preventivas contra 
la fiebre amarilla. 


Segtin cifras publicadas en ^*La Lucha" de la Habana del 2 de 
enero de 1908, las rentas aduaneras que se recaudaron en el puerto 
de la Habana durante el afio de 1907 ascendieron d la cantidad de 
$20,005,048.12, en comparaci6n con $18,511,296.07, suma percibida 
en el ano de 1906. 



El Sefior Don Axibal Cnuz, Enviado Extraordinario y ^linistro 
Plenipotenciario de Chile ante el Gobiemo de los Estados Unidos, 
fu6 recibido con tal cardctor por el Presidente Roosevelt el dfa 16 
de noviembre de 1907. Al present ar sus credenciales, el Seiior Cruz 
se expreso en los siguientes t6rniinos: 

*^ExMO. Senor Presidente: Tengo la lionra de poner en manos 
de Yuestra P^xcelencia dos cartas aut6grafas de Su Excelencia el 
Presidente de la Kepublica do Cliile. Una de ellas tiene por objeto 
poner termino (i la mision que desempefiaba el honorable Seiior 
Walker-Martinez, y la otra acreditamie en el cardcter de Enviado 
Extraordinario y Ministro Plenipotenciario ante el Gobiemo de 
Yuestra Excelencia. 

^'T^a mision que mi Gobiemo me ha confiado obedece principal- 
mente ul proposito de estrechar las relaciones que felizmente existen 
entre los Estados T^nidbs y la Repilblica de Chile. Para realizar ese 
proposito, que constituye el mas vivo anhelo del pueblo y Gobiemo 
chih^nos, abrij^o la esperanza de que Yuestra Excelencia querrd dis- 
pensarme la benevola acojida que ha concedido a mis predocesores. 

^'lTa«:() votos nuiy sinceros en nombre de mi Gobiemo y en el mfo 
propio por la felicidad personal de ^^lestra Hxcelencia y sus colabo- 
radores en el Gobierno y por la prosperidad y p*andeza do los Estados 
I'nidos do America.'' 

El Presidente Koosevelt contesto como si<riio: 

"Senor Ministro: Me es crrato daros la bienvenida como el nuevo 
Enviado Extraordinario y Ministro Plenipotenciario de la Reptiblioa 
de Chile ante este Gobierno, y recibir de vuestros manos las creden- 

CHILE. 145 

ciales que present4is con el expresado car&cter. Tambi^n acepto la 
carta por virtud de la cual se me anuncia el retiro de vuestro estiinado 

**La manifestacidn de vuestro prop6sito de ayudar & fortalecer 
las relaciones amistosas que en la actualidad cxisten entre los Estados 
Unidos de America y la Reptiblica de Chile, me proporciona un placer 
especial, y os aseguro, Sefior Ministro, que me alegrare de prestaros, 
por todos los medios k mi alcance, mi activa ayuda para mantener 
y perfeccionar dichas relaciones amistosas. 

"Os doy las gracias por vuestras bondadosas frases acerca de mi 
persona, y os ruego que teng&is la bondad de hacerle presente 6. Su 
Excelencia el Presidente Montt la expresi6n de mis vehementes 
deseos por la felicidad y prosperidad tanto de ^1 como del pueblo 
chileno. Aprovechar6 la primera oportunidad para acusarle recibo 
directamente k Su Excelencia el Presidente Montt de la carta de 
retiro de vuestro predecesor. 

*'Espero que vuestra estancia en esta Capital os sea tan agradable 
como estoy seguro de que ha de ser satisfactoria para ambos Gobiernos. " 


Segtin datos oficiales acabados de recibir de Chile, el desarrollo 
que Jia tenido la intemaci6n de encomiendas ])ostales durante los 
cinco alios de 1902 d 1906 fu6 como sigue: 

Valor do T,„r^„«.*« 

Alio. encomiendas }Z^']^^}^ 

inteniadas. l^'^^^'^'^^^o. 

Pesos. Pesos. 

1902 mi, 381 135, 463 

1«S 839,742 118,1)02 

1904 803. 440 1 94, 752 

l«nft 877.809 I 300.421 

190r, 1. 112. 905 349, 803 


DE 1907. 

Las aduanas de la Republica de Chile recaudaron durante los ocho 
primeros meses de 1907 una renta total de 70,117,153.75 pesos, en 
comparaci6n con la cantidad de 61,839,606.89 pesos porcibidos en cl 
mismo periodo de 1906, siendo el aumento, por lo tanto, de 8,277,- 
456.86 pesos. La recaudaci6n del mes de aiz:osto de 1907 ascendio 
& 9,082,241.81 pesos, en comparacion con 6,782,166.82 pesos en el 
mismo mes del ano 1906. 

Durante los nueve primeros meses de 1907 la renta rocaudada 
fu6 de 78,371,977.96 pesos, contra la de 68,963,529.72 i)esos co- 
rrespondiente al mismo periodo de 1906, 6 sea un aumonto de 
9,408,448.24 pesos. En el mes de septiembre de 1907 sc recaudo 
una renta de 8,254,824.21 pesos, en comparacion con la suma de 
7,123,832.83 pesos percibida en el mismo mes de 1906. 


EI President e de la Repilblica de Cliile, con fecha 25 de octubre 
de 1907, present6 al Congreso Xacional un proyecto de lev tendente 
& la protecci6n de la industria del lino y cuya parte dispositiva es 
como sigue: 

*'Articulo uxico. Se autoriza al Presidente de la Reptiblica 
para pagar una prima por quintal m^trico de lino producido y ela- 
borado en el pais que se exporte por las aduanas de Talcahuano, 
Valdivia, Puerto Montt y Ancud. 

**Esta prima regira por el t^rmino de doce afios y ser&, durante 
los seis primeros afios, de 10 pesos de 18 peniques por quintal m^trico 
de lino tascado, y de 16 pesos de 18 peniques por quintal m^trico 
de lino espadillado, y durante los seis afios restantes de 6 y de 8 pesos 
de IS peniques, respect ivamente, por quintal de lino tascado y espa- 

**E1 monto total de las primas no podra exceder de la suma de 
100,000 pesos al afio en los cuatro primeros afios de la vigencia de 
esta ley, de 150,000 pesos por afio en los cuatro siguientes,y de 200,000 
pesos por afio en los restantes. 

**Los que reclamen el beneiicio de esta ley deber&n someterse & 
las condiciones que fijo el Presidente de la Republica." 


El 16 de septiembre de 1907, el Gobierno de Chile, representado 
por su Ministro Plenipotenciario en Londres, celebr6 un contrato 
con lo*^ Sofiorcs X. M. Kotschild and Sons para la colocaci6n del 
einpre<lito de £1,100,000. quo seran eniitidos en vales del tesoro 
pagaderos en la casa bancaria de dichos sefiores, en Londres, el 24 
de niarzo de 1909. 



Con fecha :^1 <le octubre <le 1907. cl Kjecutivo de la Repilblica del 
Ecuador dicto cl (kTrcto cuyo tcxto se puhllca a continuaci6n, relative 
ii la colehracion <le una cxposicion nacional en Quito en el afio 1909: 

"Eloy Alkako, Presidente Const itucional ile la Reptiblica, con- 
si(l(*ran<l() (pie el Conj?iest) de 1902 disiniso en su decreto de 10 de 
octuhn*, que se cclcbrara una cxposicion naciimal, en la capital tie la 
Kepi'ihlica, cl 10 dc a^^osto del afio vcnich^ro de 1909, centenario pri- 
nicro del jmnicr grito Ao in<lepen(UMicia <h^ la America, dado en Quito 
el 10 de acrosto de 1S09, y (pic nada nuis diirno y provechoso que con- 
inemorar tan magno y ^lorioso aconteciniiento, con el concuiso de 


tcKlas las fuerzas de actividad de los pueblos de la Reptiblica, en la 
labor civilizadora de su propio progreso y engrandecimiento, decreta: 

'*Abt. 1^ Prepirese, desde ahora, por el Supremo Gobierno, las 
autoridades todas y los pueblos de la Reptiblica, una exposici6n na- 
cional que se instalard en Quito y se abrird el dia 10 de agosto de 1909. 

**Abt. 2**. El Gobierno del Ecuador construirA por su cuenta, y en 
el lugar conveniente del ejido de la ciudad de Quito, el gran edificio 6 
pabell6n nacional de la exposici6n, y los edificios secundarios, galerlas 
establas, pesebres, etc., destinados & la exliibicion de animales. 

"Art. 3°. El Gobierno costeard el trasporte, & la capital de la Re- 
ptiblica desde la capital de cada Provincia, de los objetos de exhibici6n. 

"Art. 4**. El concejo municipal de la ciudad de Quito, por si, y con 
la cooperaci6n efectiva y eficaz del vecindario, propenderd, desde 
ahora, y en la medida de lo posible, al embellecimiento, aseo, y sanea- 
miento de esta capital, y emprenderd, desde ahora tambi^n, en la plan- 
taci6n de una gran alameda que, partiendo de la calle pr6xima respec- 
tiva, siga por una y otro lado del gran Parque Nacional, y converja 
hacia la carretera del norte, & las orillas del cual camino ptiblico 
continard la dicha alameda hasta Cotocollao. Esta alameda serd 
plantada con drboles adultos de una especie conveniente. 

"Art. 5**. Para la direcci6n de los trabajos y labores preparato- 
rios, organizaci6n y reglamentaci6n general y especial de la exposi- 
cion nacional, recepci6n y clasificacidn de objetos, etc., se consti- 
tuye un comity central en la capital de la Reptiblica, compuesto de 
treinta ciudadanos notables, residentes en Quito, que tendrdn la 
representaci6n de todas las provincias de la Republica, dos por cada 
una de fetas. 

"Los miembros principales de este comity y los sustitutos 6 suplen- 
tes serdn nombrados por el Gobierno, quien elegird de entre los 
mismos de la junta directiva. 

"El comity central funcionara siempre bajo la presidcncia y de- 
pendencia inmediatas del Ministro de lo Interior y Obras Ptjblicas, 
y con sujeci6n & los reglamentos oficiales de la materia que expida 
el Ministro del Ramo. 

"El comity central nombrara en junta general sus coniisiones 
especiales de organizaci6n, trabajo, etc. 

"Art. 6**. Cada provincia constituira su comite local delegado 
Ha y Hijbordinado al comity central. Son miembros natos de los 
eomiUk provinciales: El Gobernador de la provincia respectiva; el 
presidenie y dos miembros delegados del concejo municipal del canton 
cabecera de In provincia, un delegado por cada uno de los otros con- 
C4!>jcifi CRntonfllpft- y dos miembros delegados por cada camara de las 
fJo Bgricultura, comercio 6 industria si las hubiere. Cada comite 
proviitdnl, consiitufdo con sus miembros natos, nombrara, en 

juniii prepi a, el ntimero de las pei-sonas notables de la ^loxmcv^ 


6 del lugar que sean necesarias para completar 15 niiembros, de que 
debe constar. Los comitfe provinciales har4n su reglamento interior 
y de trabajo y nombraran sus juntas directivas y sus comisiones 

''Art. 8**. Los concejos municipales de cada Provincia votarfin, 
desdc aliora, las sumas de dinero con las cuales tienen de contribuir 
& los gastos de coleccion, clasificaci6n, empaque, etc., de los objetos, 
productos, obras, etc., que liaya de exhibir la provincia resi)ectiva, 
y del costo de su respectivo pabell6n que se construirfi en el drea de 
terreno del campo de la cxposici6n, que designe el Gobiemo. 

''Art. 9*^. Son objcto de la exposici6n nacional: Las plantas, 
frutos, maderas, animales, mineralcs y demas productos naturales 
. del suelo y de las aguas nacionalcs; los obtenidos 6 mejorados per 
el cultivo u otro trabajo de la inteligencia y la mano del hombre; 
los objetos 6 productos del comercio, de la industria, de las artcs 
generalcs y las bellas artes nacionalcs, y, en fin, todo objeto fl obra 
material fruto del trabajo de los ciudadanos en el territorio de la 

"^Vrt. 10. Convocasc, desde ahora, a fin de que preparen opor- 
tunamente sus labores, para que concurran & ese gran certamen 
nacional, a los agricultores, comcrciantes 6 industriales, a los ciu- 
dadanos ([ue profesen 6 cultiven ciencias especulativas 6 de aplica- 
cion, jurisconsultos, cstadistas, abogados, medicos, farmac6uticos, 
higicnistas, bactereologistas, naturalistas, quimicos, fisicos, astr6no- 
mos, cosniografos, nietcreologistas, geografos, marinos, ingenieros, 
agrinicnsores, mccanicos, etc.; a los que profesen 6 cultiven las 
bellas artcs, 6 cjcrzan 6 cnscncn artes y oficios liberales, y & todo 
aquel ((ue rcprescnte una 6 mas fuerzas efectivas del trabajo 
nacional, on todas las manifcstacioncs litiles de la actividad humana. 

''Art. 11 . So convoca espccialmente ii que concurran & la exposici6n 
nacional con sus luces v sus obras: 

"(a) A los (lircctorcs do instruccion publica; a los pedagogos pro- 
fesionalcs normalistasyde ensefianzaprimaria.ya losmaestrosymaes- 
tras (Ic las cscuclas publicas que a la diclui eiiscnanza se dediquen; y 

"(?/) A los agricultores, en todas y en cada una de las espeeialidades 
del ramo, porquc sicndo la agricultura fuentc positiva, fecunda6 inago- 
tal)le de la ri(iucza, i)rospcrida(l c independencia del hombre y <le 
los pueblos, y origcn prinicro del comercio y de la industria, y esencial- 
mcnte agricola la nacion ecuatoriaua, cs un deber de los poderas pu- 
blicas y del pueblo mismo protcgcr, fomentar y darla el mayor desa- 
rroUo posiblc a la agricultura nacional. Por consiguiente, merocenin 
prefercnte atencion do parte del Gobierno y de las comisincs oficiales 
y tribunales de la exposicion nacional, el cstuilio de las objas, frutos, 
productos, informes, mclodos y sistemas que, ilirecta 6 indirccta- 
mentc, se relacionen con la agricultura en ese gran certamen del 
tnihnjn nacioiuiL 


" Abt. 12. Son tambi^n objeto de exliibici6n y concurso de la expo- 
sici6n nacional las obras literarias preceptivas, de informaci6n, descrip- 
tivas, t^cnicas 6 de estadlstica, etc., que se refieran al adelanto 
intelectual de nuestro pueblos y al progreso 6 ilustraci6n del trabajo, y 
que se sujeten & los siguientes temas: 

^' (a) M^todos modernos de enseiianza primaria: Textos; lecciones 
de cosas; trabajos manuales; cultura fisica; cducacion individual y 
colectiva; higiene escolar; escuelas primarias superores; escuelas 

(6) *' Estudio de los bosques y selvas nacionales : Desmontes ; cultivo 
y conservaci6n del Arbol; maderas de tinte, de ebanisteria, de cons- 
trucci6n naval, lurbana y rural; estudio de los terrenos 6,ridos, labo- 
rablesy depansembrar; zonas agricolas de la Reptiblica, su clima y 
meteorologia especiales ; canalizaci6n, desague y desecacion de terre- 
nos agricolas; arados, inigaci6n natural y artificial, podas, rosas y 
abonos; sombra y ventilaci6n de terrenos y plantios;. m^todos de 
siembra y cultivo 6 ingertos; florescencia, fructificacion y cosecha; 
estudio especial del cultivo del cacao, caucho, caf6, quinas, etc.; 
beneficio del caf6 para la exportacion en pcrgamino; m^todos para 
despulpar, fermentaci6n, lavado, desecaci6n al sol; aplicaci6n del 
cultivo & la menor plantaci6n, con mayor y mas rico fruto de estas 
especies vegetales; aclimataci6n y cultivo de nuevas especies vegetal es 
utiles en los terrenos nacionales; consumo interior, exportacion y 
m^lodos de exportaci6n de productos agricolas; cultivo de la cafia 
de aziicar; grado de la caiia de azticar en las diversas zonas agricolas 
de la Reptiblica; cultivo de la remolacha; fabricacion de aziicar de 
cafta y de remolacha; cultivo de uva, cepas y vides, semillas de uva; 
vinificaci6n; fabricacion y conservacion de vinos tintos; fabricacion 
de alcoholes de cana y de uva; alcohometria de vinos y alcoliolos; 
desinfecci6n y rectificaci6n de alcoholes; gramos, rizomas, tubercules, 
legumbres, hortalizas, etc., y demas vegetales alimenticios; cultivo 
sistem^tico de trigo, cebada, avena y lilpulo; fal)ricaci6n de harinas 
y polvos de trigo, cebada, lentejas y avena; fabricacion de cerveza; 
cultivo sistem&tico dela manzana en sus inojores especies; fabrica- 
ci6n de cidra; acacias titiles; algarrobo, tamarindo, cafia-flstola, etc.; 
plantas textiles y de fibra, su cultivo, beneficio, laboreo y manafac- 
tura; cultivo sistemdtico del banano (platano); especies ilnas de con- 
sumo y de exportacion; m6todos de exportacion de este fruto y 
lugares hacia donde puede dirigirse aquella; cultivo sistematico del 
algod6n; semillas y especies finas de esta planta; terrenos a proposito 
para su cultivo en el litoral y en el interior de la Kepublica; produc- 
cion nacional del algod6n, su consumo interior y sus aplicacionos 
industriales; tejidos de algod6n nacionales; consumo interior de est os 
tejidos; fabricaci6n de aceite de algodon y sus aphcaciones indus- 
triales, cultivo sistem4tico del cocotero, las mejores especies v>wvy.w^vs^ 


de esta palmera; consume y exportaci6n del coco; fabricaci6n 
de aceite de coco y sus aplicaciones industriales; cultivo siste- 
mdtico del tabaco; semillas de especies finas y su acliinataci6n en 
los terrenes nacionales; titulo de nicotina del tabaco nacional; 
cosechas, beneficio y manufactura del tabaco nacional; su pro- 
ducci6n, consume y exportaci6n en rama y manufacturado, 
recolecci6n metodica y sistemdtica de la tagua, sus mejores especies; 
exportacion y pruebas de manufactura nacional de botones y otros 
objetos cemerciales de tagua; paja tequilla; especies dtiles; cultivo 
sistem^tico, cesecha, beneficio y conservaci6n de esta paja; exporta- 
ci6n; contrabando; manufactura, exportaci6n de sombreros de paja 
tequilla; los sombreros de paja tequilla de Manabi, del cant6n de 
Santa Elena y de Azogues en los mercados extranjeros; paja mocora, 
su cultivo y cesecha; fabricaci6n de hamacas de paja mocora natural 
6 torcida; exportaci6n de hamacas y de la materia prima; cultivo 
sistemdtico de la ceiba de lana; cesecha, consume interior y exporta- 
cion, industria do esta lana vegetal; pastes y ferrajes; gramineas, 
tr6boles, henes, berragindceas, alfalfas, etc.; plantaciones y cultivo 
sistomritice del eucalipto en la costa de la Reptiblica; especies & pro- 
p6sito para diche cultivo ; especies patrenes de eucalipto para inger- 
tes; aplicaciones cemerciales e industriales de la madera de eucalipto; 
cultivo sistematice, mejeramiento 6 ingertes de frutas y flores; expor- 
taci6n do frutas; orquldeas y plantas de follaje para parques y jar- 
dines; exportacion de plantas; censervaci6n de frutas, cristalizadas 
y en jugo; debesas on general; jardinos bot&nicos; plantas medici- 
nalos; cultivo sistematice de la vainilla aromdtica, de la canela de 
Coilan y do la kola de Africa; patelogfa vegetal ysu aplicaci6n & la 
agricultura nacional. 

*' (c) Aclimatacion on los lugaros cenvoniontes del territorio de la 
Ropublica, dol gusane de soda; cendicienos del clima, en cuanto & 
tomperatura, humodad y limpioza do la atmosfora, y salubridad del 
suolo para la aclimatacion y cultivo dol gusano de soda; cultivo de 
la inorora, dol palnia-cristi, d^*l molecotonors, dol laurel rosa y de 
otras phmtas ospocialos i)ara la cria y cultivo dol gusano de soda; 
ospocios princii)alos do osto gusano, las do China, Jap6n, India, Mada- 
gascjir, Francia, Italia, Espana, Argol, Hungria, Estados Unidos de 
Aniorica, Brasil y Uruguay; onformodados dol gusano de seda en las 
divorsas motamorfosis do osto animal; los ostudios de Pasteur y otros 
a osto rospocto; higiono do la crlay cultivo dol gusano do seda; ostudio 
dol capullo, acorca do su mayor d(»sarrollo y c(mservaci6n ; cosocha, 
boni^ficio, otc, y aplicacion industrial do la soda; seda artificial. 

'* (d) Crla do gana<lo vacuno y cabrio: Soloccion de razas y especies 
suporioros; cnizamionto y mojoramionte individual y colectivo do 
ostos animalos; cultivo dol color; crla do rocontales, temeros y bece- 
rros; ceba y lechoria, razas y ospocios apropiadas para una y otra; 


m^todos racionales para ordeilar y sacrificar; tuberculosis bovina; 
establos, corrales, pastos, forrages y abrevaderos; razas superiores de 
bueyes de trabajo; aplicaciones industriales y beneficioy preparaci6n 
de cueros y astas; tenerlas; suelas, baquetas y cueros curtidos para 
uso industrial; zapateria y talabarteria; preparaci6n de pieles. 

** (e) Cria de ganado lanar: Las me j ores razas productoras de lana 
de estos animales; el camero merino; cria especial de esta especie^ 
lanar ; razas superiores de cameros para ceba y lana ; terrenos fi, pro- 
p6sito en el litoral y en el interior de la Repiiblica para la cria siste- 
m4tica de estos animales, su alimentaci6n especial, pastos y abreva- 
deros; erf a sistem&tica y aclimataci6n en el territorio de la Repfiblica- 
del ganado lanar indigena de Sud America, llamas, vicuilas, guanacos,. 
etc.; aplicaciones industriales de la lana animal; tejidos y otras^^ 
manufacturas de lana nacionales, producci6n y consumo de la lana 
nacional; fabricaci6n de lanolina. 

** (/) Crfa de ganado caballar : Razas superiores, nacionales y extran- 
jeras; cruzamiento y mehoramiento individual y colectivo de estos 
animales ; las mejores especies de caballos para tiro, trabajos agi-icolas 
6 industriales y montura; cria racional del potro, y m^todos racio- 
nales de selecci6n, quebrantamiento y educaci6n; pastos, forrajes^ 
dehesas y abrevaderos ; asnos, razas superiores ; cruzamiento y espe- 
cies hibridas; mulos nacionales y extranjeros. 

*'(jr) Cria de cerdos: Razas superiores nacionales y extranjeras; 
selecci6n y cruzamiento; ceba, dehesas y abrevaderos; alimentaci6n 
especial; fabricaci6n sistem^tica de la mantcca de cerdo; patr6n 
en oleina, etc., de la manteca de cerdo legitima; falsificaciones y 
adulteraciones; cisticercos y triquinas. 

*' (A) Cultivo de la abeja: La abeja silvestre; colmenas y placeres; 
mieles y ceras de abeja; m^todos especiales para cultivar la abeja 
en la costa y preservarla de los insectos daninos. 

'*(i) Cria sistem&tica de aves domfeticas: Razas y especies supe- 
riore-s; cruzamiento; alimentaci6n; incubaci6n artificial. 

'* (j) Cria sistem&tica de perros: Razas superiores litiles en la agri- 
cultura y la caza. 

"(k) Cria sistem&tica del gato: Razas superiores utiles; extirpa- 
ci6n de ratas y serpientes; veterinaria general; jardines zoologicos. 

'*(Z) La caza de aves: Conservaci6n de las garzas blancas y otras 
aves de plumas ricas; exportaci6n de plumas. 

"(m) La pesca en los rios, lagos y mares nacionales: M^todos 
racionales de pesca en lagos, rios y mares; especies de peces, maricosy. 
crust4ceos y moluscos, en las aguas nacionales. iQu6 especies 
nuevas pueden aclimatarse en las aguas nacionales? La pesca del 
bacalao, del lobo marino y del gal&pago en el Archipi^lago de Colon; 
conservaci6n de estas especies y de la tortuga de carey, en nuestras 
costas; conservaci6n y fomento de los bancos y criaderos de o^U^% 
24181— Bun. 1—08 11 


nacionalcs- ^Puede aclimatarse el salm6n en la costa ecuatoriana 
por donde pasa la corriente polar? 

'^ (n) Pesquerla de pcrlas en los mares nacionales. 

'^(n) Pianos y mapas de las salinas nacionales: An&lisis quimico, 
cualitativo y cuantitativo de la sal marina nacional; su titulo en 
cloniro de sodio puro; m^todos modemos de depuraci6n; cristaliza- 
ci6n y refinerla, y formas apropiadas para el expendio y exportaci6n 
de la sal marina nacional. 

"(o) Minerla nacional: M6todos de exploraci6n y de explotaci6n; 
oro, plata, cobre, estailo, mercurio vivo, cinabrio, hierro, etc., hullas, 
esquistos y petroleos. 

"(p) Petrografia nacional: Piedras preciosas; m4rmoles y alabas- 
tros; granitos de construcci6n y de estatuaria; lavas volc4nicas apro- 
piadas para construccion y otros iisos industriales; piedras areniscas 
y piedrapome/. 

" (g) Fuentes de fuerza motriz para la locomoci6n y el trabajo. 

*' (r) Conservaci6n de las vias fluviales, rios, esteros, etc. 

*'(s) Ferrocarriles nacionales: Carre teras y caminos vecinales; 
rutas nuevas interprovinciales, entre en interior y la costa y entre en 
centro y el oriente de la Reptiblica; vlas de comimicaci6n inter- 
nacionales; tel^grafos terrestres y maritimos; teldfonos y telegrafia 
inalambrica; tranvias y ferrocarriles el^ctricos. 

" (0 Industrias nuevas: Saneamiento y provisi6n de agua potable; 
aguas artesianas y agiias corrientes. 

^^Art. 13. Los trabajos litcrarios sobre agricultura, comercio, 
industria, ciencias, artes, etc., merecerdn la misma atenci6n que los 
prodiictos, fnitos, objetos, etc., exhibidos, y tendrto premios y recom- 
pensas, segiin su mcrito, y atin scran adoptados por el Gobiemo para 
nuestra Icgislacion interna en cuanto fuesen utiles para ello. 

^SVrt. 14. Las naciones amigas que quisieran concurrir4 laExpo- 
sicion Nacional del 10 de agosto de 1909, seran gratamente aceptadas 
por el Gobiemo y pueblo ecuatorianos en ese cert amen, y ya sea que 
construyan 6 no cdificios propios en el canipo de la Exposici6n, las 
obras, objetos, frutos, artefactos, etc., (jue enviaren ser6n eonre- 
nientemcnte exhibidos. 

''Art. 15. Conv6case, desde ahora, a un Concurso Literario Inter- 
nacional Panamericano, on cualc|uiera do las lenguas nacionales del 
continente, y en prosa, para la Exposicion Nacional del 10 de agosto 
de 1909, cuyo tenia sera: *La ^Vin6rica independiente paralahuma- 
nidad libre. Estudio general historico, geografico, topogr&fico, natu- 
ral, politico, 6tiiico, coniercial, agricola, industrial, de navegaci6n 
y vias de coniunicacion internas, del continente amerieano, en 
relacion con el progreso y civilizacion modemos y con el movimiento 
inmigratorio a este continente de las razas humanas superiores.' 

'^El comite de caiificacion del concurso intemacional seri nom- 
brado y prosidido pov el Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores. 


"Art. 16. Los trabajos literarios destinados ^ este concurso serdn 
enviados al secretario del 'Comity del Concurso Internacional Pan- 
americano/ en la ciudad de Quito, Ecuador, Sud America, y en tiempo 
oportuno para que Ueguen 4 su destino antes del 31 de mayo de 1909, 
dia en el cual se cerrard el dicho concurso. 

**Art. 17. Los nombres de los autores de las composiciones serto 
enviados bajo sobre aparte, en cuyo sobre escrito se lea el pseud6niino, 
la leyenda 6 contrasena que vaya al pie de la coinposici6n respectiva, 
como es de regla y uso. 

**Art. 18. La proclamaci6n de los premios 6 recompensas del * Con- 
curso Literario Internacional,' tendr^ lugar, en acto solemne, el dia 
de la inauguraci6n de la exposici6n nacional del 10 de agosto de 1909. 

"Art. 19. El Gobiemo de Ecuador votard la suma de 10,000 sucres 
para la adjudicaci6n de premios 6 recompensas pecuniarias para las 
comi>osiciones de mayor m^rito del concurso en el orden siguiente: 
Cinco mil sucres para le mejor; 3,000 sucres para la que le siga en 
m^rito, y 2,000 sucres para la inmediatamente inferior. El Gobierno 
del Ecuador hard imprimir por su cuenta, en la Imprenta Nacional, 
una edici6n especial de cada una de las composiciones premiadas. 

*'Art. 20. El Gobiemo del Ecuador expedir^ con oportunidad los 
reglamentos necesarios para el mejor 6xito de la exposici6n, y espe- 
cialmente el de premios, recompensas, menciones honrosas, diplomas, 
etc., destinados & los objetos, frutos, obras materiales y literarias, etc., 
materia de la exposici6n nacional del 10 de agosto de 1909. 

"^Vrt. 21. Los Sefiores Ministros Secretarios de Estado quedan 
encargados de la ejecuci6n del presente decreto. 



'En la p&gina 101 aparece la dltima relacion en dctalle del comercio 
entre los Estados Unidos y la America Latina, tomada de la compila- 
ci6n hecha por laOficina de Estadistica del Departamento de Comercio 
y Trabajo de los Estados Unidos. Estos datos se rcfieren al valor 
del comercio arriba mencionado. La estadistica coresponde al nics 
de noviembre de 1907, comparada con la del mcs correspondientc del 
ano anterior, y tambifin comprende los datos referentos a los once 
meses que terminaron en noviembre de 1907, comparados con igual 
periodo de 1906. Debe explicarse que las estadisticas de las impor- 
taciones y exportaciones de las diversas aduanas referentos a un mos 
cualquiera no se reciben en el Departamento de Comercio y Trabajo 
hasta el 20 del mes siguiente, nec^^sitAndose algiin tiempo para su 
compilaci6n 6 impresi6n; desuerte que los datos estadlsticos corres- 
pondientes al mes de noviembre, por ejemplo, no se publican Uasta. 


Las cifras que muestran el valor de las exportaciones de articulos 
de goma de los Estados Unidos arrojan un total de $6,214,910 en el 
ailo econ6mico que termin6 el 30 de junio de 1907, en comparaci6n 
con $5,692,385 en los doce meses anteriores. 

La distribuci6n de dichas exportaciones fu6 como sigue: A Europa 
se enviaron articulos por valor de $2,956,184; & la Am6rica del Norte, 
$2,070,255; d la America del Sur, $251,832; Asia, $359,418; Oceania, 
$435,478, y Africa, $141,743. 

Excepci6n hecha del Canada, que le compr6 a los Estados Unidos 
articulos de goma cuyo valor ascendi6 & $1,046,659, M6xico fu6 el 
primer pais importador de esta clase de mercancias en America, per 
cuanto el valor total de sus compras ascendi6 & $556,801. Las 
cifras que se han anunciado acerca del Reino Unido son las tlnicas 
que exceden a las dos ya citadas, y ascienden & $1,644,516. 



El Sefior Victor Aguilar Pelaez, C6nsul de la Reptiblica de 
Guatemala en Liverpool y Manchester, ha publicado im interesante 
folleto que contiene informes relativos 4 los recursos naturales y al 
actual estado economico de dicha Repiiblica. 

Las importacionos, cuyo valor en 1906 ascendi6 d $7,220,759 en ore, 
representaban casi toda clase de articulos de fdbrica extranjera, tales 
como maquinaria, <i:^neros de lana, de algod6n, seda y lino, sombreros 
de todas clases, comestil)les, vinos y licores, substancias alimenticias 
en conserva, articulos de porcelana, loza de barro, de vidrio, articulos 
de ferreteria, merceria, pianos, carruajes, articulos de billares, instru- 
mentos miisicos, cuadros, barnices, medicinas, perfumeria, joyeria, 
piedras preciosas, articulos de fantasia, etc. 

Los siguientes palsos on el ordon de su importancia suministraron 
los prccitados articulos: Ustados Unidos, Alemania, Inglaterra, Fran- 
cia, Italia, p]spaila, Belgica, Suiza, Austria, Ilolanda, Japdn, China, 
Mexico, Peru, Chile y las Repiiblicas <le Centro America. I^as exporta- 
ciones, cuyo valor on 1906 se calcul6 en $7,136,271 en oro, consistie- 
ron mayormonto de caf6, azrtcar, bananos, maderas, cueros, goma, plan* 
tas medicinalos, frutas, etc. De (»afe, que es el articulo principal de 
exportacion, se ombarcaron como 50,000 toneladas, y dicho producto 
fu6 clasificado como "Superior'' en los mercados del mundo. Entre 
los palses d los cualos se exportaron los precitados articulos, pueden 
mencionarse a los Estados Unidos, Alemania, Inglaterra, Francia, 
Italia, Austria-IIungrla, Espaila, B^lgica, Chile y otros. 

El comercio extranjero se esta desarrollando, y se espera que 
cuando se inau^ure el Ferrocarril Interocednico, que correr4 desde 


San Jos6 en el Paclfico hasta Puerto Barrios en el AtUntico, es decir, 
una distancia de 269 millas, se ha de facilitar considerablemente el 
transporte de los productos nativos d la costa. 

En la actualidad los ferrocarriles que prestan servicios al ptSblico 
son los siguientes: el Central, el del Oeste, el de Ocos, el de Verapaz 
y el de Guatemala, y dicese que en este mes de diciembre de 1907 se 
efectuard la inauguraci6n del Ferrocarril del Norte. 

Los productos de Guatemala son variadisimos y abundantes en 
sumo grado. En el reino vegetal produce toda clase de plantas, 
Acres y frutas caracterlsticas de la zona t6rrida y de la templada. 
Hay en dicho pais ricas minas de oro, plata, cobre, hierro, plomo, 
cine, antimonio, carb6n de piedra, mdrmol, azufre, mica, etc. 

Sin embargo, la agricultura constituye la fuente principal de riqueza 
de dicha Repflblica, y 4 su explotaci6n se consagra la mayor parte del 
capital que all! se invierte. Gracias & la extraordinaria feracidad del 
suelo, no es necesario alll el abono ni el riego, porque abunda la hume- 
dad hasta en la estaci6n denominada de sequla. 

En algunas de las regiones de la costa pueden hacerse dos 6 tres 
cosechas anuales de los productos caracterlsticos de cUchas regiones. 
Existen grandes cafetales, ingenios de azticar, plantaciones de cacao, 
bananos, cereales, etc., al paso que en los Departamentos del norte hay 
varias compaMas nacionales y extranjeras que se ocupan en la explo- 
taci6n de los productos de los bosques, que comprenden una gran 
variedad de maderas preciosas, y mayormente de caoba y cedro. 
Tambi6n se est&n estableciendo plantaciones de goma que han dado 
resultados satisfactorios. 

En la Repflblica se fabrican varios articulos de excelente calidad. 
Algunos g^neros de lana y algod6n, los muebles y el calzado son tan 
excelentes como los importados. Entre otros productos del pais 
pueden mencionarse los sombreros, sillas de montar, cordeleria en 
general, tejidos de bejuco, articulos de barro, obras de escultura, ins- 
trumentos de mtisica, jab6n, velas, puros, cigarrillos, queso, mante- 
quiUa, cerveza, aguas minerales, hielo, aguardiente, etc. Los artesa- 
no§ naturales del pais muestran tener gran inteHgencia para aprender 
nuevas artes, y la materia prima es muy variada y excelente. 

La Reptiblica tiene un 4rea de 125,000 kil6metros cuadrados, 
cuenta con 2,000,000 de habitantes y la densidad de poblaci6n se 
calcula en 16 habitantes por kilometro cuadrado. 

Guatemala es un pais montafioso, pero con muy buena aguada, y 
el clima varia segtin la elevaci6n sobre el nivel del mar. En la costa 
se siente mucho el calor, en las planicies centrales el clima es tem- 
plado y agradable, en tanto que en los puntos elevados el clima es 
frio. Las estaciones denominadas lluviosa y de sequia se caracterizan 
per el hecho de que durante la primera llueve diariamente, al paso 
qae durante la segunda llueve de tiempo en tiempo. 


Las rogiones mis populosas son las del sur y del oeste, y la ciudad 
do Guatemala, capital de la Repflblica, tiene 100,000 habitantes. 
Dicha capital se comunica por ferrocarril con los puertos de San Josfi 
y Puerto Barrios del Pacifico y del Atlantico, respectivamente, que- 
dando el primoro i una distancia de 74.5 millas, que se yiajan en cinco 
horas, 3" el segundo d una distancia de 194.5 millas, que se andan en 
docc horas. 

El viaje de Guatemala d los Estados Unidos, embarcando en los 
puertos del Atlantico, se liace en cuatro dias, y k Europa en quince. 
La costa del Pacifico de la Ilepublica tiene una longitud de 250 kil6- 
metros, y la del Atlantico 161 kilometres. San Jos&, Champerico y 
Ocos son puertos del Pacifico, en tanto que Puerto Barrios, Santo 
Tomds y Livingston lo son del Atlintico. Panzds en el rio Polochic 
y Gualan en el rio Motagua, son puertos de rfo, al paso que Isabel 
en el lago del mismo nombre tambi^n es lugar de importaneia. 


La inauguracion del Ferrocarril del Xorte de Guatemala que corre 
de Puerto Barrios on la costa del Atlantico liasta San Jos£ en la del 
Pacifico, se llevo a cabo formalmente el 19 de enero de 1907, fecha 
en que el primer tren quo corri6 por dicha linea entr6 en la ciudad 
de Guatemala. 

La terminacion de esta importante obra, comenzada en 1892, hace 
6poca no solo on el desarrollo de Guatemala, sino tambi^n en los 
paises adyacentos do la America Central, en tanto que el puerto de 
Nuova Orleans on los Estados Unidos ostara en intima comunicaci6n 
con ol comercio de la 'costa occidental de Nicaragua y el Salvador, 
ahorrandosc asi oclio dias de navegaci6n por la via de Col6n, en 
comparacion con ol tiompo que antes se necesitaba para hac^r dieho 

Durante muchos anos la produccion de caf^ de Guatemala la trans- 
portaba ol Ferrocarril Central de Guatemala, cjue corria desde la 
ciudad do Guatemala liasta San Jose do Guatemala, que es el puerto 
do ontrada por ol lado del Pacifico, y desde alii se transportaba 6. los 
l)U(iuos do la linoa del Pacifico. FLstos ombarques iban & San Fran- 
cisco para sor distribuidos, 6 a Panama y a travos del Istmo, con 
destino prinrij)alinonto a Inglatorra y Alomania. 

La ••rnitod Fruit Companj'" tambion ha inaugurado un nuevo 
sorvicio quinconal <l(* vai)oros ontro Xueva York y Puerto Barrios, 
como consocuoncia (1(» la inauguracion do la linea de un oc4&no al 
otro, nocesitan<los<» s<')lo do ocho a nuovo dias para hacer el viaje, y 
adomas lia ostal)locido una conoxion do tolografo sin hilos en Puerto 
Linion, ({uo os ol piinto central do distribucion para las estaciones de 
la Ainorica Central. Do una costa a la otra, la linoa tiene una longi- 
intl lotal do 270 miliars, y su terminacion se ha demorado tanto 


tiempo debido & las grandes dificultades que fu6 necesario veneer en 
la construcci6n de las 60 61timas millas de las 195 que hay entre la 
ciudad de Guatemala y la costa del AtUntico. Gracias a la gran 
habilidad que ban desplegado los ingenieros, ban podido vencerse las 
dificultades topogr&ficas y constniirse tuneles y puentes que estable- 
cen conexiones entre tramos relativamente cortos de una via recta. 
Hanse constnildo un total de 70 puentes, de los cuales los dos mds 
importantes se ballan k una corta distancia de la ciudad de Guate- 
mala, y uno de ellos atraviesa la barranca de Las Vacas, que tiene 
244 pies de profundidad. 

El Presidente de la compania, bajo cuyos auspicios se termin6 
dicha Ifnea, es Sir William Van IIorne, auxiliado por el Senor 
Minor C. Kjeith, y, ademds, el entusi^stico apoyo que el Presidente 
Cabrera le ba prestado ba contrlbuido por todos conceptos a la feliz 
terminaci6n de dicba empresa. 

El Ferrocaml del Xorte de Guatemala viene k constituir el tercer 
fenrocarril que atraviesa los paises de la America Latina, 
y aunque no se espera que el trdfica se desvie de los ferrocarriles de 
Tebuan tepee 6 Panama, se cree que la influencia que est a nueva linea 
ba de ejercer en el comercio interior de la America Central ser^ 



Miguel R. Davela, Presidente Provisional de la Repiiblica de 
Honduras, con fecba 14 de septiembre de 1907, dicto un decreto 
aumentando el derecbo de exportacion sobre bananos, cuya parte 
dispositiva es como sigue : 

ArtIculo p. Se eleva k 3 centavos el impuesto de 2 centavos por 
cada racimo de bananos que so exporte, establocido por el articulo 
V del decreto No. 30 de 14 de septiembre de 1893. 

Art. 2°. Ijos fondos que actualmente tengan los tesoreros de las 
municipalidades, procedentes de dicho impuesto, los deposit anui en 
la caja de la aduana respectiva. 

Art. 3**. Los administradores de aduana percibiran en lo sucosivo 
la totalidad del impuesto, apri^ndole cuenta especial, cuyo saldo se 
destinara en la cantidad necesaria a los gastos locales de instniccion 
primaria, hacienclo los pagos conforme a los presupuestos y noniinas 
presentados por las municipalidades con la aprobacion de los gober- 
nadores; y el resto del producto del impuesto se acumulara })ara la 
construcci6n de los referidos muelles. 

Art. 4**. La presente ley empezara a regir el V de noviembre 
pr6ximo, y se faculta al Ministerio de Hacienda para que dicto las 
disposiciones necesarias k su cumplimiento; ((uedando derogado do 
fecha el citado decreto No. 30 de 14 de septiembxe de \^S>?>. 





La Secci6n de Estadistica del Departamento de Hacienda y Cr^ 
dito Publico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos acaba de publicarlos 
datos relatives al comercio exterior de la Reptiblica durante los tres 
mesesde Julio k septiembre de 1907, 6 sea el primer trimestredel ejer- 
cicio fiscal de 1907-8, comparados con los correspondientes & igual 
perlodo de 1906-7. Las import aciones tuvieron im valor total de 
60,907,390.43 pesos, suma que, comparada con la de 50,091,967.58 
pesos en que estuvieron avaluadas las del mismo perlodo del ejer- 
eicio anterior, demuestra un aumento de 10,815,422.85 pesos en fa- 
vor del corriente. Las exportaciones se avaluaron en la cantidad de 
64,805,036.40 pesos, que arrojo un aumento de 11,037,235.66 pesos, 
comparada con la suma de 53,767,800.74 pesos, & que ascendi6 el 
valor de las del mismo trimestre de 1906-7. 

Durante el mes de septiembre de 1907 se importaron mercancfas 
fxtranjeras por valor de 20,906,073.05 pesos, contra 18,355,371.25 
pesos en el mismo mes de 1906, 6 sea un aumento de 2,550,701.80 
pesos. Las exportaciones hechas durante septiembre de 1907 
estuvieron avaluadas en 20,128,669.42 pesos, en comparaci6n con 
16,343,614.52 pesos, 6 sea un incremento de 3,785,054.90 pesos. 

Es digno de not arse el aumento de las exportaciones cuando se 
tiene en cuenta (jue durante los aiios econ6mieos de 1905-6 y 1906-7 
disminuyeron de una manora considerable. 

En el siguiente cuadro se indican las clases de mercancfas recibidas 
durante el period o que se examina, haei^ndose la clasificaci6n de 
acuerdo con la tarifa de import aci6n vigente en la Reptiblica; d&nse 
tambi6n las cifras correspondientes al mismo perlodo de 1906-7, 
por via de comparaci6n: 

[Valor <1«' factum en inonoda moxicana.] 


Matorias anlmalos 

Matorias vogrtalos 

Matcrias minoraJes 

MoJidOR y 8118 manufarturas 

I'rodiK'tos qiilniicoH 


Papt'l y 8U8 aplicacionoH ■ l,H7,tS&i. S2 

Maqiiliuifl y aparatos ! 8, I3U5U. 91 

VchlculoR 2,&nj7l.39 

Annar. v oxplosivos ' 1,079, 5gS. M 

1)1 V«TMJ» ; 2.r'i»^ . WM CM 

Tros primeros meaes del afio 









fl,S47, 14^37 

Total iinportucidn | U),W7,3&0.48 \ a>,OBl,907.S 

I I 



Segfln la clasificaci6n de la nomenclatura de exportaci6n, las mer- 
cancias que se enviaron al extranjero fueron como se detalla 6, con- 
tinuaci6n, exprestodose tambi^n las cifras de los tres primeros meses 
de 1906-7, por via de comparacion : 

•[Valor de factura en moneda mexicana.] 


Tres primeros meses del aflo 
fiscal de— 


Productos mlnerales: I 

Ore , 5, 

Plata ! 30, 



Productos vegetales: 



Frutas frescas 



Productos animates 

Productos manulasturados. 






073, 335. 75 
729, 474. 47 











Total exportacidn: I i 

Metales preciosos ' 35.554.431.64 ' 

DeznAs articulos 29,250,604.76 ' 26,483,566.35 

Total general i 64 , 805 . 036. 40 53, 767, 800. 74 

EI total de las importaciones se distribuye de la manera siguiente, 
se^n la procedencia de las mercancias : 



America del Norte 
America Central. . 
America del Sur... 




Tres primeros meses de — 





















00,907,390.43 50,091, %7. ^8 

Alemania se halla k la cabeza de los paises europeos con una 
cantidad de 7,569,413.95 pesos; le sigue la Gran Bretana, que antes 
ocupaba el primer puesto, eon importaciones por valor de 6,528, 114. 99 
pesos; Francia ocupa el tercer puesto con 4,915,814.90 pesos, seguida 
per Espafia con 1,867,870.81 pesos. A la cabeza de todos los paises 
del mundo se hallan los Estados Unidos, que aparecen acreditados 
con mis de la mitad del valor total de las importaciones, 6 sea 
36,557,312.29 pesos. 


T^as cxportacioues fueroii destinadas de la manera expuesta en el 

sijijiiiciitc cuadro: 

I Tres primeroB mescs de 



I Pesos. 

Kiiropa I 19.290,042.27 

Asia rm.m 

America del Norte I 44.475,372. 79 

America Ceiitrril ! 228,16.5.95 

Ain<SricH dol Sur " 19.036. 39 

Anlillas : ' 791,919. 00 







ToUl 04.805,036.40 . 53,767,800.74 

De los paises europeos la Gran Bretaiia recibe la mayor canti- 
dad de las ex})()rtaci(>nes mexicanas, hallandose acreditada con 9,651,- 
701.59 pesos. La siguen: Alemania, con 5,523,526.99 pesos; Fran- 
cia, con 1,807,648.50; Belgica, con 1,175,541.19 pesos, y Espafia, con 
1,109,074 pesos; otros paises aparecen con cantidades de poca con- 
sideracion. En la list a de los ])aises compradores, los Estados 
Unidos eslan tanibien a la cal)oza, liabiendo tornado del valor total 
de las exportacioiics d(^l trimestre que se exainina mercanclas por 
valor de 41,402,475. 79 pesos. 


El 14 de dicienibn* de 1907 el Licenciado Ives Limantour, Secrc- 
tario de Hacienda de Mexico, coiiio tiene ])()r costumbre hacerlo anual- 
niente, eiivio al Coii«:reso Nacional una relacion acerca de los ingresos 
V e<^resos correspondientes al afio economico de 1906-7 y el proyecto 
del ])re.sui)iiesto (pie comprende iin calculo de los ingresos y egresos 
ct)rrespon(lientes al ano de 1908-9, expresandose el valor en oro 


El calculo normal de la rent a .se fija en $103,385,000, y el total de 
ogn^sos se lija en §103,203,824.03, lo cual deja un sobrante de $181,- 


.VI hacer coinentarios sobre la situaciou economica y fmanciera del 

iviis. el Secret ario LiMAXToru dice cpie a la tenninacion del aflo de 

^AH^ si* cn*Y6 <iue en el siguiente ano no ocurriria ningun cambio en las 

,-,*«Jioionos generalinente prosperas cpie prevalecen en todos los 

iijt>il*>5^ Jo Ift Kepfiblica, e.speranzas (jue se ban visto confirinadas por 

m Afn^nx^Ho inalerial y de vitalidad economica cpie anuncian un 

tvci:tt«t:»j.^ iworiMuenlo en todos los ramos. 

^1,8- iwx^*^ Jo iniportacion y consularos muestran im aument-o 

•;iattc«^«i^» <»# JtH^ir, un aumento de mas de un 16 por ciento en com- 

.-_i^^^^ ,.-^ »; j^j^> anterior, por mas (pie los tipos del arancel no se 

Ia vonla de eslampillas comunes tambien revela un 

A U aetividad de las tran.sacciones nacionales, & 

MEXICO. 161 

pesar de que en el transcurso del tiltinio afio fiijcal la tarifa del timbre 
tu6 modificaday haei^ndose una reducci6n bastante ^rando de las 
euotasque se imponen & la mayor parte de las operacioncs; y en cuanto 
& la coi^tribuci6n federal que se cobra sobre todo impuesto 6 in«2:reso 
que recaudanlasoficinasdelosEstados y de los munieipios, tambien 
so advierte un incremento considerable que demuestra que la recau- 
dacion de los impuestos continda aumentando. 

La demanda de estampillas especiales para efectuar el pago de las 
contribuciones sobre minas, tabaco, bebidas alcoholicas, generos 6 
tejidos de algodon y explosivos, tambifin indican un constante aumcnto 
en las industrias sujetas a dichas contribuciones. 

El producto del servicio postal y lineas telejijr&ficas muestra un 
incremento considerable, en tanto que en el Distrito Federal la activi- 
dad on las transacciones de bienes raices asl como en las empresas 
comerciales 6 industriales, consideradas en conjuntas, fu^ mayor que 
en los alios anteriores. 

En cuanto & la producoi6n agricola del afio, dicese que con los datos 
que han podido obtenerse es imposible prodecir la utilidad probable 
de las coscchas del pafs para las necesidades nacionales. La impor- 
tacion de maiz y trigo extranjero constituye uno de los factorcs mas 
importantes para determinar el estado del mercado monetario local, 
debido k las grandes remesas de dinero que se han liccho al extranjero 
con motivo de las exigencias del estado actual financieru. 

La producci6n y exportaci6n de metales preciosos quo, junto con el 
cobre y el plomo, representan mas de im 95 por ciento de la produccion 
mineral, se calcula como sigue: Produccion de oro, S36,563,S9^; 
exportaci6n de oro, $23,873,713; produccion de |)la(a, ?77,()SS,827; 
exportaci6n de plata, $99,861,790. Estas cifras demucstran que la 
producci6n de oro ha permanecido practicamente estacionaria, en 
t«nto que la de plata muestra un aumento de §1,483,223 en compara- 
ckin con 1905-6. La produc<*i6n de cobre y j)lomo ha disminuido 
segiln las cifras anunciadas, debido al hecho de haberse cerrado al^zu- 
nas de las minas de metales de baja ley, al paso que el cine, antiinonio 
y otras substaneias minerales se exportaron en nuiyor escala. 

El an&lisis de las cifras relativas al comercio extranjero de la Ue- 
pAblioa muestra que el valor de las importaciones en 190(*)-7 ascend io 
k S233,363,3S8,en comparaci6n con §220,004,755 en el ano ecoiioniico 
anterior, lo cual muestra un aumento de S13,35S,G33. El valor de las 
mercancias que entraron Ubres de derechos muestra una inernia de 
$11,000,000, al paso que el valor de las mercancias imponibl(^*^ obtnvo 
un aumento de mds de $24,000,000. 

Advi^rtese un aumento en el valor de las importaciones de subs- 
taneias animates, materias textiles y sus productos, ])roductos 
qufmicos y farmac^uticos, y, en general, en todas las ])artidas del 
arancel que afectan las mercancias importadas. Sin einbarti^o, el 


aumento mayor y mds significativo se muestra en la maquinaria y 
aparatos de todas olases, cuyo valor, que antes ascendi6 6 $20,410,722 
ha subido 6, $27,735,743, 6 sea un aumento de $7,325,020. Durante 
los dos alios de referenda el valor de las importaciones de^carros, 
automobiles y vehiculos de todas clases, ascendi6 4 $9,000,308 y 
$4,595,157, respectivamente. La disniinuci6n de $7,871,480 en el 
valor de las importaciones de substancias minerales se debe al hecho 
de que en 1905-6 se acuiiaron grandes cantidades de monedas mexi- 
canas en los Estados Unidos, y aunque en 1906-7 dichas transac- 
cioncs asceiidieron k $23,000,000 fueron menores que en el afto an- 

Las eifras relativas a las exportaciones muestran im valor total de 
$248,018,010, en eomparaci6n con $271,138,809 en 1905-6. El 
Secretario limantour dice que esta aparente disminuci6n en el valor 
de las exportaciones se explica de la manera siguiente: 

*^Enel presupuesto del aiio pasado se expres6 qua suponiendo 
que los $39,000,000 en oro que se importaron en 1905-6 di6 per 
resultado una exportaci6n artificial de pesos en plataenuna cantidad 
equivalente, el valor total de las exportaciones, teniendo este hecho 
en cuenta, no fu6 $271,000,000 sino $232,000,000. Aceptando la 
exactitud de este criterio y careci^ndose de datos m&s precisos, puede 
sostenerso que por cuanto el valor total de las exportaciones en 1906-7 
ascon(li6 a $248,000,000, incluyendo por lo menos 13,000,000 de 
pesos en plata que fueron enviados al extranjero en cambio de monedas 
de oro mexicanas y extranjeras que 6, su vez se incluyen en el valor 
de las importaciones, cs necesario descontar la cantidad de refe- 
rencia del valor de las exportaciones, fi, fin de que este tiltimo pueda 
calcularse on $235,000,000. Teniendo en cuenta estas explicaciones 
se comprende que el valor de las exportaciones de product<5s del pafs 
en 1906-7 exccdio un poco, es decir, en $3,000,000 al de las expor- 
taciones de 1905-6. El v^alor de estos tiltimos excedi6 con mucho al 
de las cualquier otro afio anterior. ^^ 

Con excepci6n del oro y la plata, el valor de las exportaciones de 
metales en el aflo de referencia fu6 como sigue: Cobre, $^8,800,000; 
plomo, $3,644,739, y otros metales como cine y antimonio, $4,072,982. 

El valor de los proiluctos vegetales exportados se expresa como 
sigue: Henequ^n, $31,440,246; ixtle, $3,813,176; cdfe, $7,237,529; 
tabaco en rama, $1,894,830; garbanzos, $4,084,521; goma de mas- 
car, $2,144,724; maderas de construcci6n, $2,169,778; maderas de 
tinte, $739,810; goma, incluso guayule, $6,678,926, y plantas de 
guayule, $61,225. 

El valor de las exportaciones de chicle y el guayule que comenz6 & 
exportarse hace cinco aftos, en la actualidad excede de $6,500,000 
anuales; el valor de las exportaciones de garbanzos se ha triplicado; 
el del ixtle de $3,000,000 ha subido & $3,800,000 y el valor del chicle 

MEXICO. 163 

muestra un aumento cle 50 por cicnto. El valor ilc las exportaciones 
del henequfin se calcula aproximadamente en $30,000,000, y las can- 
tidades que se han embarcado fliicWan dcsde 82,000 toneladas hasta 
110,000 que se embarcaron en 1906-7. El ai\o no fue inuy favorable 
para el caf6 cuya exportaeion se valuo en 82,000,000. 

El valor de los productos animales que se exportaron ascendi6 a 
$11,151,928, lo cual muestra una baja de $571,497 en comparacion 
con el afio anterior. El ganado que represent6 uno de los artlculos de 
exportaeion principales se exporto por valor de $1,201,693, y el valor 
de los cueros crudos exportados ascendio k $8,875,091. 

El valor del azucar de refmo que se exporto ascendio a $1,104,339; 
el del azucar sin purgar ascendi6 & $26,612; la Iiarina y panes de 
semilla de algod6n se valuaron en $846,280 ; los sombreros de guano, 
$631,219; cueros y cupieles curtidos, $34,883, y tabaco elaborado, 

Por la relacion que antecede el Secretario Limantour haee el si- 
guiente resimien del comercio extranjero: Valor total de las impor- 
taciones en 1906-7, $233,363,388; valor total de las exportaciones, 
$248,018,010, y el excedente del valor de las exportaciones rcspecto 
del de las importaciones ascendi6 & $14,654,622. 

Existe una gran diferencia entre este exceso en el valor y el que se 
muestra en los datos correspondientes al afio de 1905-6 que ascendi6 
& $51,134,054, y tambi6n existe diferencia, aunque un })oco menor, 
entre dicho exceso en el valor y en el de 1904-5 que ascendio 4 

Al hacer comentarios sobre lo que queda oxpuesto el Secretario 
LiMANToUR dice lo siguiente: '* Jin otros anos so han dado minuciosas 
explicaciones acerca de aquellos factores que por mds que afectaban 
el valor do las importaciones y las exportaciones, no se incluyen ni 
pueden incluirse en los datos estadisticos fiscalcs que se liniitan a 
notar los productos naturales y fabricados y las cantidades de 
monedas que entran y salen. Tand)ien se ha explicado que la nacion 
mexicana tiene que hacer anualnicnte pagos de gran consideracion 
en pago de los intereses devengados sobroiel capital invertido en cl pals 
y de las ganancias que obtienen en las empresas conierciales cuyos 
duefios residen en paises extranjeros, y a los precitados pagos debcn 
afladirse los que se hacen estrictamente en pago de las importaciones. 
No cabe la menor duda dc que cl excedente que hul)o cl ano pasado 
en el valor de las exportaciones, y que ascendi6 a miis de $14,000,000, 
hx6 del todo insuficiente para satisfacer esta deuda. Ni siquiera cl 
excedente que se obtuvo en 1905-6 y que acendio a $51,000,000 fu6 
suficiente para hacer frente a dicha deuda. A fin de entcndcr este 
aserto es necesarlo recordar que todos los bonos dc nuestra deuda 
ptiblica, con excepcion de una proj)orcion relativamente pequena, 
esULn en poder de extranjeros y que dicha deuda exige uii v^u^o o^^ 


no baja de $24,000,000 anualcs; que adem&s de la deuda del Gobienu^ 
Federal algunos do los Estados y municipalidacles han contrafdo 
deudas ciiyos bonos los poseen extranjeros y de los cualcs cl pago 
aniial asciendc por lo menos k $1,000,000; que las compaiilas de 
ferrocarriles tienen que enviar al extranjero mAs de $25,000,000 cada 
afio en pago dd intereses de sus bonos, y que los bancos distribuyen 
anualmente millones de pesos en dividendos fuera de la Reptiblica. 
Todos estos dotalles, am^n del interes y las ganancias distribufdas 
por sociedades particulares, en su totalidad ascienden & una suma 
que exceda con nuicho A la diferencia que resulta d favor del valor 
de las export aciones en nuestro comercio intemacional, y por con- 
secuencia sc ha ilegado a la conclusi6n de que la diferencia entre el 
debe y haber, considerados como tales, respectivamente, las remesas 
de fondos, las libranzas, bonos y mercanclas que tenemos que enviar 
anualmente al extranjero y que tenemos dereclio d nuestra vez, 4 
recibir del extranjero, se pagan ailo tras aiio mediante la inversion 
natural y espontfinea en Mexico de capital extranjero/' 

Se demuestra que el est ado de los varios feiTocarriles que f uncionan 
en toda la Republica es satisfactorio, notAndose aumentos en todos 
los ramos del trdfico. Las cifras correspondientes al ailo de refe- 
rencia muestran que se condujeron 10,187,121 pasajeros, 6 sea un 
aumento de un 16.7 por ciento; que las ganancias derivadas de la 
conduccion de pasajeros ascendieron A $15,942,776, 6 sea un aumento 
de un 30.7 por ciento; que se transportaron 9,538,354 toneladas de 
carga,. quo rcprescntan un aumento do un 6.4 por ciento, y que la 
ganancia rosiiUante del transports de carga ascendi6 & $53,529,981, 
6 stni im aumento de un 9.3 por ciento. 

El mayor aumento en la conduccion de pasajeros ocurri6 en el 
Ferrocarril Central Mexicano, y el aumento en la conducci6n de 
carga en las lineas Xacional y Ontral Mexicanas hubiera sido mayor 
si Inibioran contado con un abastocimionto adecuado de material 
rodante. J^a disminucion en el tr)neIajo del Ferrocarril Xacional de 
Tehuantepec, comparada con la carga transportada en 1905-6, se 
explica por haberse suspendido la conduccion de materiales para las 
obras de puertos en Salina Cruz y Coatzacoalcos. Sin embargo, esto 
se compensa con el aumento en los tipos de flete a traves del Istmo, 
de manera que se ha anunciado un aumento considerable en las ga- 

El 30 do junio de 1907 el activo y pa-sivo de los bancos del pafs 
ascendio a $723,763,584, contra $628,881,834 en la misma fecha del 
aiio anterior. El capital suscrito 6 social de los bancos que el 30 de 
junio de 1906 ascendia a $146,600,000, en 1907 ascendio a $162,600,000, 
mostrandose asi un aumento de $16,000,000. 

La existencia en caja bajo en $3,583,652, diminucion que sin duda 
fu^ ocasionada por la extraccion de pesos fuertes con destine al 

MEXICO. 165 

extranjero, que para los bancos import6 $13,000,000. La situacion 
monetaria del pais ha mejorado mucho del afio pasado ti esta parte. 
La escasez de moneda fraccionaria que cntoiices prcvalecla ha 
desaparecido por completo y la circulaci6ii del oro os mucho mfis 
abundante. Nulifica en parte el incremento de estas dos clases de 
moneda, la export aci6n de pesos fuertes provocada en 1906-7 i)or 
la misma causa que la determino en 1905-6: el alza del ])recio de la 
plata en barras respecto del valor en oro de dicha moneda. La ^ 
cantidad total de acuilaci6n de moneda desde la ^poca de la instala- 
ci6n de la reforma monetaria que se ofectuo el f) de mayo do 1905 
hasta el 30 de junio de 1907 ascendio a $95,561,570. Deducicndo 
de esta cantidad los $74,416,231 en pesos fuertes que se exportaron y 
los $14,456,923 que representan las piezas de oro acuftadas, se denmes- 
tra que el aumento en la circulacion de la moneda hasta el 30 de 
junio de 1907 ascendio 6. $5,688,416. A fines de noviembre dc 1907 
dicho aumento se habia elevado a mas de $11,000,000. 

La Comisi6n de Cambios y Moneda ha desempefiadc^ sus funciones 
con notable acierto. Aprovechfindose de todas las circimstancias 
favorables, ha logrado en dos aftos substituir casi todas las monodas 
antiguas por piezas acufiadas en conformidad con la Ley del Regimen 
Monetario decretada & principios de 1905; ha distribuido la nueva 
moneda en todo el territorio nacional, haciendo frcnte a las mimero- 
sas dificultades que la escasez 6 la abundancia del medio circulante 
ban proporcionado en cada localidad ; ha atraido el oro 6. la Kopiiblica 
en grandes cantidades y retenido ima buena parte del que se prothice 
aquf, T, por tiltimo, ha contribuido a inantener con firmeza los tipos 
de cambio con las naciones ext ran j eras. 

A principios de 1907 el valor de los bienes raices y las cotizaciones 
de las acciones industriales de minas y comerciales continuaron 
subiendo y al establecer una comparacion con las cotizaciones some- 
jantesde 1906 en general se muestran result ados satisfactorios. Sin 
embargo, & mediados de aiio la escasez en los morcados monetarios 
extranjeros comenz6 & afectar la situacion mexicana, y cada vez se 
hacfa mis dificil obtener la inversion de ca])ital en empresas mexi- 
canas. El afio econ6mico de 1908-9 ha de sufrir las consecuoncias de 
est* estado an6malo 6 intranquilo, pero la RepubHca Mexicana cou- 
tintia mostrando vigor y vitalidad en sus recursos puhlicos. los cuales 
la colocan en un puesto honoroso entre las naciones del miindo. 

En el c&lculo del presupuesto de rentas coriespondientes al auo 
econ6mico de 1908-9 el producto de las contribuciones so1)re cl 
comercio extranjero se calcula en $49,000,000; el de las contribuciones 
intemas se calcula en $32,055,000; el de las ctmtrihucioncs cxtraor- 
dinarias en el Distrito Federal y en los Territorios se calcuhi en 
$10,930,000; el de losserwios pilblicosen $0,405,000; cl dc las rentas 
derivadas de los ten'enos nacionales se calcula en .S*J()5,000 y v>l vW 
las ganancias y otras fuen tes ( le ren ta menoves se ca\cu\a ow %\ A oV^ ,VN^^ , 



Segtin estadlsticas recientemente publicaclas por la Direcci6n Ge- 
neral (le Correos de la Reptiblica Mexicana, los ingresos que tuvo el 
servicio de correos durante el aiio econ6mico de 1906-7 sumaron un 
total de $4,031,124.86 en moneda mexicana, cantidad que, comparada 
con la de $3,653,315.87, renta percibida durante el ejercicio de 1905-6, 
an*oja un aumento de $377,808.99, 6 sea de 10.34 por ciento. 


Las rentas postales recaudadas en la Reptiblica Mexicana en el 
primer trimestre de 1907-8 (julio & septiembre de 1907) ascendieron & 
$1,043,065.88 en moneda mexicana, en comparaci6n con la suma de 
$939,837.20 que se percibio en igual perlodo del ejercicio de 1906-7, 
6 sea un aumento de $103,228.68 6 de 10.98 por ciento. 


La Comisi6n de Defensa del Istmo encargada de hacer un estudio 
de los puertos mexicanos de Salina Cruz y Coatzacoalcos, que son 
los t^rminos por el Atlantico y por el Paclfico del Ferrocarril de 
Tehuantepec, ha terminado su estudio de las condiciones existentes 
en Salina Cruz, y antes de mucho tiempo seguirA haciendo sus inves- 
tigaciones en Coatzacoalcos. Se calcula que las obras de defensa 
recomendadas han de costar $20,000,000, moneda mexicana. 

Han de transcurrir dos ailos antes de (^ue los informes 6 investi- 
gaciones preliminarcs se terminen y antes do que comiencen real- 
men to los trabajos de construccion. 


DE 1907-S. 

Durante los tres primeros meses de 1907-8 se exportaron per el 
Puerto de Progreso, Yucatan, 25,937,342 kilogramos de henequ6n, 
valorados en $6,323,765 en moneda mexicana. En el mismo trimes- 
tre so import aron por dicho puerto mercancias nacionales por valor 
de $3,727,500, y extranjeras por valor de $2,320,773. 



La circular mensual publicada por el Departamento do Hacienda 
de Mexico anuncia que el precio legal por kilogramo de plata pura 
durante el mes de enero de 1908 ser4 de $37.21 moneda mexicana, 
con arreglo 4 los calculos prescritos en el decreto de 25 de marzo de 
1905. Este precio servira de base para el pago de los impuestos de 
timbre y los derechos de aduana cuando se use la moneda de plata 



El Presidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos promulg6 el 21 de 
diciembre de 1907 una ley del Congreso do la Repiiblica que reforma 
la fracci6n 125 del arancel ^^gent^, de manera que los dercchos de 
importaci6n sobre el azticar comfin. azticar candi y azucar refinado de 
todas clases, quedan aumeiitados de 2.50 pesos por cada 100 kilo- 
gramos, peso bnito, & 5 pesos por cada 100 kilogramos, peso bruto. 
Diclia ley comenzarA k regir (\ las docc de la noche del 15 de febrera 
de 1908. 


El Consul General Gottschalk, en la ciudad de Mexico, ha trans- 
mitido un importante infonne al Departamento de Estado de los 
Estados Unidos que contiene varios datos relativos k las condiciones 
que actualmente rigen en la industria de la goma de guayule, y el 
peligro que en lo porvenir corre dicha planta d menos que sc descubra 
un m^todo seguro de propagarla. El Seilor Gottschalk cree muy 
importante el hecho de que el valor de la industria del guayule, tal 
como en la actualidad se explota, no ha de durar mucho tiempo. 
A continuaci6n se publica un resumen de dicho informe: 
Uno de los productos que durante los dos tSltimos aiios ha llamado 
la atenci6n en todo el niundo es el guayule {Parthemum argentum) 
que anteriormente se consideraba nada mas como una liierba, cuya 
nicra prescencia disminufa el valor de los terrenos, pero que de la 
noche k la mafiana se descubri6 que tenia cierta importancia comercia! 
como una planta productora de goma. Los terrenos productores do 
guajnile de la part« norte de Mexico en seguida comenzaron k aer 
explotados y los precios de 6stos se aumentaron enormemente, al 
paso que se instalaron filbricas principalmente en Torreon, Saltillo y 
Coahuila, para convertir el arbusto en im producto comercial. Se 
hicieron contratos para la entrega do grandes cantidades de dicho 
arbiistO; y en algimos casos el precio subi6 a $50 oro por tonelada, 
habi^ndose anunciado un rendimiento de $1 oro por li])ra. Como 
resultado de este entusiasmo, sc investigaron las propiedades do dicha 
planta, habi^ndose obt<?nido por resultado que nadie parecia toner 
una idea definida en cuanto a la c(mtinua propagacion de dicha planta. 
El duefio de una gran extension de guaj^ilc, le manifest6 al Sefior 
Gottschalk que habia descubierto, demasiado tardt^, que si se tii- 
viese el cuidado de dejar fructificar antes de cortarlo, y se sacudiese 
cuidadosamente la planta despu^s de haborse cortadi^ a fin de que las 
semillas cayesen el suelo, este liltimo continuaria produciendo dicha 
planta. Sin embargo, como quiera que el mejor rendimiento de goma 
ha de obtenerse del cortc de una planta relativamente joven, y 
ademdSy como la semilla podrla permanecer lat^nte 6 improductiva. 

24181— Bun. 1—08 32 


durante dos 6 tres aftos, so comprendera desdc luego que el explotador 
dc goma ordinario no cstaria dispucsto a adoptar las precauciones 

El arbusti) del guayule (jiie so esta explotando en las fabricas del 
pais, cTcee en un area limitada do Mexico. Xo se despliega ningun 
cuidadi) para recogerla ni se liaeen sienibras ni la planta se propaga 
de otra nianera. Sin em])arg(), un eontrato reciente celebrado con el 
Gobierno relative) a esta industria, coniprende ciertas estipulaeioncs 
acerca de este asunto. 

Los subiilos j)recios ([ue ofrecen las fabrieas han hecho que dicho 
arbusto so reooja desoabelladamente antes de niadurarse, habi^ndose 
o])teni(lo por residtado (jue en niuchos cases se recil>en grandes 
cantidades de guayule cjue no rinden la goma que debioran rendir. 

El Profesor F. A. Lloyd, ex-catodratico del Laboratorio de Bot&nica 
en el Institute de Carnegie ostablecido en Tucson, Arizona, en los 
Estados Unidos, al tratar de descubrir un medio de propagar la 
planta de una manera adecuada, ha Iieclio experinientos cientificos 
en una do las plantaeiones de Chihuahua, poro hasta la fecha no se 
han anunciado los result ados de sus experinientos. 

El consumo actual del giuiyule en la region central donde dieha 
industria so lleva a cabo es como dc 1,000 tonoladas de la planta por 
mes, y, por tanto, el Sefior Gottschai.k anuncia que losfabricantes 
le han manifostado ({uo sus omprosas llogaran a su fin dentro'de tres 
a cuatro anos, a nienos (juo se enipleen m6todos eficaces para la repro- 
diKcioii do la planta. 

101 arlioulo del Doctor Endmcii, ilustrado con cuatro fotografias 
(k*l guayule en su estado natural, y publicado en la revista intitulada 
^*Tro[)eni)flanzor" del nies do julio de 1007, puede citarse como iino 
de los docunientos mas hiteresantes que se han publicado sobre este 
tema. Dieha planta crece especialmento lozana en los costados de 
las pondiontos, al pie de las colinas y montanas, y en las planicics & 
una allura que varia desde DOO hasta 2,000 metres. El tamaAo de 
la planta varia segun la edad, las condiciones del suelo y la localidad, 
y el termijio medio do su altura es como 60 centimetres. El ejemplar 
mas alto ([ue se encontro en la m<mtana de Kamirez, Estado de 
Coahuila, tenhi un l/M) metros. 

El guayide crece con muclia lent it ud. y se supone que las plantas 
que en la actualidad se recogen tengan hasta 30 afios de edad. Segdn 
la opinion del Sener Makx, el primer ano la i)lanta crece hasta una 
allura que sole llega a 15 centhnetros, y el tallo es muy debil. A 
pesar (le este hecho, llerece y produce semillas <lesde ilicho periodo, 
poro no |)uedc cxpletarse con prevecho hasta que tiene echo aflos. 
l.a |)lanta no produce cauche hasta el tercer ano, y produce muy poco 
hastii cl orlave ano. El Senor P. Olsson Seffek, el distinguido 
iliivi iiT de la Estacion Botanica y del Laboratorio dc Zacualpa, 

MEXICO. 169 

Mexico, dice que la altura de las plantas que tienen tres 6 cuatro 
aflos de edad, llega k 50 centlmetros, on tanto que la de las plantas 
que tienen seis aftos llega i, 75 centimetros, y el t^rmino medio del 
peso es 4 libras. Por consiguiente, no es exagerado calcular que la 
edad & la cual el guayule puede explotarse con mayor provecho es de 
los ucho & los diez aiLos. 

I^ florescencia se verifica naturalmente de septiembre a octubre, 
por niAs que la lluvia y la elevaoi6n del terreno pueden modificar 
considerablemente este pcrfodo. Es de advcrtir que, a pesar de su 
lento desarrollo, la planta del guayide florece y fructifica dentro de 
un ajio despu6a de sembrarse la scmilla. Esta ultima, que es muy 
abundante, no siempre se madura por completo, sobre to<lo en las 
regiones m&s frias. 

Log peritos en la materia calculan en 75,000 hect^reas el area 
donde se encuentra la planta del guayule en Mexico, es decir, en la 
parte norte de los Estados de Zacatecas y San Luis Potosi, la parte 
oriental de Durango, y especialmente en la parte sur de Coahuila. 
Encu^ntrase tambi^n dicha planta en mayor 6 menor abundancia, 
en los Estados de Nuevo Le6n y Chihuahua, en Mexico, y en Nuevo 
M&cico, Arizona y Texas en los Estados I^nidos. 

El Senor Otto Egehlek, presidente de la Compafiia de Goma 
Nacional, cree que la planta del guayule que se encuentra en los 
Estados fnidos no produce tanta goma como la de ^Ii^xico, i>ero 
opina que podria explotarse con utilidad donde haya abundancia de 
agua y donde los tipos de flete scan moderados. Kecientemente se 
organiz6 ima compafiia en Xueva York con el fm de explotar la 
planta del guayide en el oeste de Texas, y se ha de construir una 
f&brica en Del Rio, Estado de Texas, para la elaboracion del product o. 

El verdadero guayule que se conoce en el comercio es el Parflnnbim 
argentatum. No debe confundirse este guayid(^ con una chise dc la 
misma familia conocida por "Mariola" (Partlicnium inrnnuif.) que 
erece en las mismas regiones que el verdadero jzuayule, y que como 
una planta productora de goma es casi inutil. Los rasgos carac- 
teristicos de las dos plantas son los siguientes: 

PaHhenitim argentatum: Ilojas y retonos tomentosos. gris pla- 
teados; tallocorto; ramas cortas con corteza lisa; hoja.s lanceoladas, 
de 2 & 5 centfmetros de largo y de 5 a 15 milimetros de ancho, agudas 
6 enteras con un tercio lobulos agudos; peciolo delgado y largo. 

PartJienium incanum: Hojas y retonos tomentosos, blancjuizcos 6 
parduzcos; arbusto muy ramificado desde la base, de 30 A 60 centi- 
metros de alto; ramas largas, de corteza rugosa con hendeduras 
longitudinales, hojas oblongas li orales, peciuenas, de 25 milimetros 
de largo y 2 de ancho, profundamente penatilobulatlas y peciolo 
muy corto. 


El Seiior Endlich calcula que la presente existencia de guayule 
asciende k 375,000 toneladas, y funda su c&lculo en un promedio de 
producci6n que varia desde 500 hasta 800 kilogramos por hect&rea, 
incluyendo en su calculo las regiones menos productivas, en tanto 
que la revista denominada ^^The India Rubber World" cree que la 
produccion natural asciende como a 300,000 toneladas, de las cuales 
de 20,000 k 30,000 toneladas ya se han explotado. Se calcula que 
el t^rmino medio del producto de goma de las plantas en completo 
desarrollo varia desde un 8 hasta un 11 por ciento. Sin embargo 
algunos peritos creen que si se introducen mejoras en el procedi- 
iniento de extracci6n, el producto puede Ucgar hasta un 18 por ciento. 

Hasta 1905 los comerciantes alemanes compraron la cosecha del 
guayide en los puntos donde se producfa, y embarcaban para Ale- 
mania varios millarcs dc toneladas de dicho producto & precios que 
les proporcionaban utilidad. El P de no^^emb^e del afto de refe- 
reneia este trdfico se paraliz6 repentinamente por el hecho de que el 
Gobiemo mexicano le impuso un derecho de exportacion casi pro- 
liibitivo de 15 pesos por tonolada del producto en su estado natural. 
Esta medida vino k estimular el desarrollo de la industria local, y 
muchos particulares construyeron febricas y se obtuvieron conce- 
sioncs del Gobiemo para explotar los terrenos productores de guayule 
por periodos que variaban desde quince hasta veinte afios. 

Formdronse ricas compailias para Uevar d cabo la explotaci6n de 
esta industria, y en la actualidad en el norte de M6xico existen 10 
graudos companias que cuentan con 15 fdbricas en operaci6n y varias 
en vias do C()nstrucci6n, en las cuales estiin interesadas algunos capi- 
talistas americanos prominentes. Dicese ([ue una de estas compa- 
nias — esto OS, la ([ue se denomina '^Continental Rubber Company" — 
ha invortido 20,000,000 do francos en la compra de terrenos, patentes y 
en la construccion de fdbricas, etc. La fiibrica principal, situada en 
Torreon, tione una fuerza niotriz de 1,800 caballos, y cuenta con la 
ma(iuinaria suficiente para tratar 100 toneladas de materia prima 
diariamento. Ciorta cantidad do guayule tione que ser transportado 
a lomo do mulas por una distancia de mas de 100 millas, antes de 
llogar a la fabrica. 

El capital aleman tambi^n osta intoresad<^ en gran escala en la 
industria del guayide, y dicese ({ue el Banco de Dresde y la casa de 
Kuupp lian invortido gruesas siunas de dinoro en osta industria. 

El procodimiento de extracoi6n varia on euanto d los detalles, y 
representa como 142 patentes que han sido concedidas d inventores 
en estos liltimos anos. En euanto al procodimiento c[uimico, que por 
lo general es mds costoso que el mecanico, pero que da mejor resultadoy 
los alcalis han sido reemplazados con los sidfuros de carbono. 

El costo de una tonolada do caucho preparada con soda cdustica 
asciende como d 120 pesos. El Senor Marx cree que el procedi- 

MEXICO. 171 

miento de maceraci6n de la materia prima y la extracci6n del caucho 
por la acci6n del vapor en una solucion alcalina es el mejor. 

Parece que los procedimientos mecdnicos que en la actualidad se 
emplean no reunen todas las condiciones que se requieren. Dichos 
procedimientos son mds econ6micos, pero producen una clase infe- 
rior de caucho que en el mercado aleman se cotiza fi, 3.50 marcos, en 
comparacion con 5.50 marcos que se obtienen por el caucho que se 
produce mediantc el procedimiento cjuimico. 

Las compaftias interesadas en esta industria ostan haciondo esfuor- 
zos por eliminar el 27 por ciento de substancia fibrosa, y la mayor 
parte de la resina que contiene el guayule c^ue se trata por el procedi- 
miento quimico. Se han hecho experimentos en el uso del l)ajj:aso 
como combustible para producir f uerza motora, pero so ha demostrado 
que el empleo de este material dana muy pronto las calderas. Es 
probable que la resina se separe de la libra y se use como un scgundo 
producto, y que el residuo lonoso se utilice en la fabricacion de papcl. 
El bagaso que se obtiene del guayule que se trata con soda caustica 
contiene cierta proporcion de caucho (jue no ha sido posible eliminar. 

Los tallos de guayule secos (|ue antes s61o valian 815 ])lala por tone- 
lada entregados en la fdbrica, en la actualidad valen de 200 a 250 
francos. El precio del caucho de guayule que (»n 1 905 en los primoros 
embarques se fijo en 1.6 chelin, subi6 gradualmentc a 2 cholines, 2.6 
chelines y hast a 3 chelines en agosto de 1906. En aquella 6poca el 
precio de dicho producto en el mercado de Xuova York bajo a 25 
centavos por li])ra y 3 marcos por kilogramo on ITamburgo, a causa 
de las especulaciones de la **C<mlhiontal Rubber Company.'* De 
entonces a aca el valor del caucho de guayule ha aumentado rApida- 
mente, y la mejor calidad de este producto rociontomento se vendi6 li 
razon de 65 centavos la libra on ol mercado do Xuova York y a 5.75 
marcos por kilogramo on Ilamburgo. En ol mos do mayo pasado, on 
Amberes so vendieron 9 toneladas de guayule de caucho a 5 francos 
por kilogramo. En la actualidad el precio varia desdo 4 hasta 6.25 
francos, segtin clase. 

Considorado desde el punto de vista industrial, ol guayule os una 
planta que produce caucho do una clase especial, blando y nias 6 
menos pegajoso debido d la presoncia do ciorta cantidad (algunas 
veces muy considerable) de resina; os dificil consorvarlo, y sii vul- 
canizaci6n es lenta. Se haco nooosario conocor porfootamento la 
manipulaci6n del caucho de guayule j)ara purilicarlo y usarlo inino- 
diatamente despu6s (jue so tormina ol j)r()codimionto do dosooacion. 
Las calidadesde este producto quo so obtienen actualmento, oxontas 
de dos terceras partes de su oontenido rosinoso, ])roporcionan \\n 
producto muy semojante al caucho de Panama, con ol cual puode 


Ijas exportaciones fueron dcstiiiadas de la manera expuesta en el 
siguicnte cuadro: 


Tres primeros meacs d6— 












America del Norte - ...... . ... 


Ain^^rica Central 


America del titir 




Total 04.805.036.40 j 53,767,800.74 

De los paises europeos la Gran Bretana recibo la mayor canti- 
dad de las exportaciones mexicanas, liallandose acreditada con 9,651,- 
701.59 pesos. La siguen: Alemania, con 5,523,526.99 pesos; Fran- 
cia, con 1,807,648.50; B61gica, con 1,175,541.19 pesos, y Espafia, con 
1,109,074 pesos; otros paises aparecen con cantidades de poca con- 
sideracion. En la list a de los paises compradores, los Estados 
Unidos estan tambien a la cabeza, habiendo tornado del valor total 
de las exportaciones del triniestre que se exairdna mercancfas por 
valor de 44,402,475.79 ])esos. 


El 14 de dicieiubre de 1907 el Licenciado Ives Limaxtour, Secre- 
tario de Hacienda de Mexico, como tiene por costiimbre hacerlo anual- 
mente, eiivio al Con*];reso Nacional una relacion acerca de los ingresos 
y egresos correspondientes al afio economico de 1906-7 y el proyecto 
del presuj)uesto (jue coinprende un calculo de los ingresos y egresos 
correspondientes al ano d(» 190S-9, expresundose el valor en ore 

El calculo normal de la reiita se fija en $103,385,000, y el total de 
egresos se lija en Sl()3,20:i,S24.()3, lo cual deja un sobrante de $181,- 

Al hacer comentarios sobre la situacion econoniica y finaneiera del 
])ais, el Secretario LiMANToru dice (^ue a la terniinaci6n del afto de 
1900 se creyo (|ue en d sitruiente afio no ocurriria ning6n cambio en las 
condiciones <i:eneralnionte ])r6sperrts (jue i)revalecen en todos los 
anibitos dc la Keprtblica, esperanzas cjue se ban visto confirmadas por 
un desarroUo material y de vitalidad econoniica que anuncian un 
continuado incn^nuMito en todos los ramos. 

L(»s (l(»recli()S dc imj><)rtaci6n y consulanvs nuiestran un aumento 
considerable, es decir, un aumento de ma-; d(» un 10 por ciento en com- 
j)araci6n con el ano anterior, j)or mas <[Ue 1<js (ipos del arancel no se 
ban <*ainbiado. La venta de est ampillas eonumes tanibi6n revela un 
aiinwnio ijohible en la aclividad d(» las iran.sacciones nacionales, & 

MEXICO. 161 

pesar de que en el transcurso del tiltimo afio fiscal la tarifa del timbre 
fu6 modificada, haci^ndose una reducei6n bastante grande dc las 
cuotasque se imponen k la mayor parte de las operaciones ; y en cuanto 
& la co^tribuci6n federal que se cobra sobre todo impucsto 6 ingrcso 
que recaudan lasoficinas de los Estados y de los municipios, tambi^n 
so advierte un incremento considerable que demuestra que la recau- 
dacion de los impuestos continda aumentando. 

I^ demanda de estampillas especiales para efectuar el pago de las 
contribuciones sobre minas, tabaco, bebidas alcoholicas, generos 6 
tejidos de algod6n y explosivos, tambi^n indican un constante aumento 
en las industrias sujetas 4 dichas contribuciones. 

El producto del servicio postal y lineas telegrdficas muestra un 
incremento considerable, en tanto que en el Distrito Federal la activi- 
dad en las transaeciones de bienes raices asi como en las empresas 
comerciales 6 industriales, consideradas en conjuntas, fu6 mayor que 
en los afLos anteriores. 

En cuanto 4 la producci6n agricoia del ailo, dicese que con los datos 
que ban podido obtenerse es imposible predecir la utilidad probable 
de las cosechas del pais para las necesidades nacionales. La impor- 
tacion de mafz y trigo extranjero constituye uno de los factores mas 
importantes para determinar el estado del mercado monetario local, 
debido & las grandes remesas de dinero que se han Iiecho al extranjero 
con motivo de las exigencias del estado actual financiero. 

La producci6n y exportaci6n de metales preciosos quo, junto con el 
cobre y el plomo, representan mds de un 95 por ciento de la produccion 
mineral, se c^lcula como sigue: Produccion de oro, S36,563,89S; 
exportaci6n de oro, $23,873,713; produccion de plata, 877,088,827; 
exportaci6n de plata, $99,861,790. Estas cifras demuestran que la 
producci6n de oro ha permanecido practicamente estacionaria, en 
tanto que la de plata muestra un aumento de $1,483,223 en compara- 
ci6n con 1905-6. La produc^'ion de cobre y ])lomo ha disminuido 
segtln las cifras anunciadas, debido al hecho de liaberse cerrado algu- 
nas de las minas de metales de baja ley, al paso que el cine, antimonio 
y otras substaneias minerales se exportaron en mayor escala. 

El an4lisis dc las cifras relativas al comorcio extranjero de la Ile- 
publica muestra que el valor de las importaciones en 19()()-7 ascendio 
k $233,363,388, en comparaci6n con $220,004,755 en el ano ecoiioniico 
anterior, lo cual muestra un aumento de 813,358,633. El valor de las 
mercancias que entraron Hbres de den^chos muestra una niennti de 
$1 1 ,000,000, al paso que el valor de las mercancias inij>onihle.s obtuvo 
un aumento de mds de $24,000,000. 

Advi^rteae un aumento en el valor de las import acion(\s de subs- 
taneias animales, materias textiles y sus produetos, produetos 
qufmicos y farmac^uticos, y, en general, en todas las j)artidiis del 
arancel que afectan las mercancias iinportadas. Sin cu\b\it^T,o, ^V 


aumento mayor y mfi,s significativo se muestra en la maquinaria y 
aparatos de todas clases, cuyo valor, que antes ascendi6 & $20,410,722 
ha subido k $27,735,743, 6 sea un aumento de $7,325,020. Durante 
los dos aftos de referenda el valor de las importaciones de^carros, 
autom6biles y vehfculos de todas clases, ascendi6 & $9,000,308 y 
$4,595,157, respectivamente. La disminuci6n de $7,871,480 en el 
valor de las importaciones de substancias minerales se debe al hecho 
de que en 1905-6 se acuflaron grandes cantidades de monedas niexi- 
canas en los Estados Unidos, y aunque en 1906-7 dichas transac- 
ciones ascendieron k $23,000,000 fueron menores que en el afto an- 

Las cifras relativas d las exportaciones muestran un valor total de 
$248,018,010, en comparaci6n con $271,138,809 en 1905-6. El 
Secret ario Limantour dice que esta aparente disminuci6n en el valor 
de las exportaciones se explica de la manera siguiente : 

'^Enel presupuesto del aiio pasado se expres6 qua suponiendo 
que los $39,000,000 en oro que se importaron en 1905-6 di6 per 
resultado una export ac ion artificial de pesos en plata en ima cantidad 
equivalente, el valor total de las exportaciones, teniendo este hecho 
en cuenta, no fu6 $271,000,000 sino $232,000,000. Aceptando la 
exactitud de este criterio y careci^ndose de datos mds precisos, puede 
sostencrse que por cuanto el valor total de las exportaciones en 1906-7 
ascen(li6 k $248,000,000, incluyendo por lo menos 13,000,000 de 
.pesos en plata que fueron onviados al extranjero en cambio de monedas 
de oro mexicana.s y extranjeras que k su vez se incluyen en el valor 
de las importaciones, es neccsario descontar la cantidad de refe- 
renda del valor de las exportaciones, k fin de que este tiltimo pueda 
calcularse en $235,000,000. Teniendo en cuenta estas explicaciones 
se comprende que el valor de las exportaciones de product<Js del pais 
en 1906-7 excedio un poco, es decir, en $3,000,000 al de las expor- 
taciones de 1905-6. El valor de estos (iltimos excedi6 con mucho al 
de las cualquier otro afio anterior.'' 

Con excepcion del oro y la plata, el valor de las exportaciones de 
metalcs en el ano de referenda fu6 como sigue: Cobre, $!?8,800,000 ; 
plomo, $3,644,739, y otros metalcs como cine y antimonio, $4,072,982. 

El valor de los productos vegetales exportados se expresa como 
sigue: IIenequ(^n, $31,440,246; ixtle, $3,813,176; c6fe, $7,237,529; 
tabaco en rama, $1,894,830; garbanzos, $4,084,521; goma de mas- 
car, $2,144,724; maderas de construccion, $2,169,778; maderas de 
tinte, $739,810; goma, incluso guayule, $6,678,926, y plantas de 
guayule, $61,225. 

El valor de las exportaciones de chicle y el guayule que comenai6 k 
exportarse hace cinco aiios, en la actualidad excede de $6,500,000 
anuales; el valor de las exportaciones de garbanzos se ha triplicado; 
el del ixtle de $3,000,000 ha subido k $3,800,000 y el valor del chicle 

MEXICO. 163 

muestra iin amnento de 50 por ciento. El valor de las exportaciones 
del henequ6n se calcula aproximadament^ en $30,000,000, y las can- 
tidades que se han embarcado flucttian desde 82,000 toneladas liasta 
110,000 que se embarcaron en 1906-7. El ano no fu6 muy favorable 
para el caf6 cuya exportaci6n se valu6 en $2,000,000. 

El valor de los productos animales que se exportaron ascendi6 4 
$11,151,928, lo cual muestra una baja de $571,497 en comparaci6n 
con el afto anterior. El ganado que represento uno de los articulos de 
exportaci6n principales se export6 por valor de $1,201,693, y el valor 
de los cueros crudos exportados ascendi6 k $8,875,091. 

El valor del azdcar de refino que se export6 ascendio ti $1,164,339; 
el del azticar sin purgar ascendi6 k $26,612; la harina y panes de 
semilla de algod6n se valuaron en $846,280 ; los sombreros de guano, 
$631,219; cueros y cupieles curtidos, $34,883, y tabaco elaborado, 

Por la relaci6n que antecede el Secretario Limantour hace el si- 
guiente resumen del comercio extranjero: Valor total de las impor- 
taciones en 1906-7, $233,363,388; valor total de las exportaciones, 
$248,018,010, y el excedente del valor de las exportaciones respecto 
del de las importaciones ascendi6 k $14,654,622. 

Existe una gran diferencia entre este exceso en el valor y el que se 
muestra en los datos correspondientes al aiio de 1905-6 que ascendi6 
& $51,134,054, y tambi6n existe diferencia, aunque un poco menor, 
entre dicho exceso en el valor y en el de 1904-5 que ascendi6 4 

Al hacer comentarios sobre lo que queda expuesto el Secretario 
Limantour dice lo siguiente: ^^En otros anos se han dado minuciosas 
explicaciones acerca de aquellos factores que por mds que afectaban 
el valor de las importaciones y las exportaciones, no se incluyen ni 
pueden incluirse en los datos estadlsticos fiscales que se limitan 4 
notar los productos naturales y fabricados y las cantidades de 
monedas que entran y salen. Tambi^n se ha explicado que la nacion 
mexicana tiene que hacer anualmente pagos de gran consideraci6n 
^n pago de los intereses devengados sobreiel capital invertido en el pais 
y de las ganancias que obtienen en las empresas conierciales cuyos 
duefios residen en palses extranjeros, y a los precitados pagos deben 
aAadirse los que se hacen estrictamente en pago de las importaciones. 
No cabe la menor duda de que el excedente que hubo el ano pasado 
en el valor de las exportaciones, y que ascendi6 a m^s de $14,000,000, 
fu6 del todo insuficiente para satisfacer esta deuda. Ni siquiera el 
excedente que se obtuvo en 1905-6 y que acendi6 k $51,000,000 fu6 
suficiente para hacer frente a dicha deuda. A fin de entender este 
aserto es necesario recordar que todos los bonos de nuestra deuda 
p6blica, con excepci6n de una proporci6n relativamente pequena, 
est&n en poder de extranjeros y que dicha deuda exige un pago c\vi^ 


no baja de $24,000,000 anualcs; que adem^ de la deuda del Gobienu^ 
Federal algunos dc los Estados y municipalidades ban contniido 
deudas cuyos bonos los poseen extranjeros j de los cuales el pago 
anual asciendc por lo menos k $1,000,000; que las compafilas de 
fcrrocarriles tienen que enviar al extranjero mds de $25,000,000 cada 
aiio en pago dd intereses de sus bonos, y que los bancos distribuyen 
anualmente millones de pesos en dividendos fuera de la Rep6blica- 
Todos estos detalles, am^n del interns y las ganancias distribufdas 
por sociedades particulares, en su totalida<:l ascienden A una suma 
que exceda con mucho a la diferencia que resulta 4 favor del valor 
de las export aciones en nuestro comercio intemacional, y por con- 
secuencia se ha Uegado a la conclusion de que la diferencia entre el 
debe y haber, considerados como tales, respectivamente, las remesas 
de fondos, las libranzas, bonos y inercanclas que tenemos que enviar 
anualmente al extranjero y que tenemos derecho & nuestra vez, & 
recibir del extranjero, se pagan ailo tras alio mediante la inversion 
natural 3^ espontanea en Mexico de capital extranjero/' 

Se demuestra que el est ado de los varios ferrocarriles que fimcionan 
en toda la Ropilblica es satisfactorio, not&ndose aumentos en todos 
los ramos del tnifico. Las cifras correspondientes al afto de refe- 
rencia muestran que se condujeron 10,187,121 pasajeros, 6 sea un 
aumento de un 16.7 por ciento; que las ganancias derivadas de la 
conduccion de pasajeros ascendieron a $15,942,776, 6 sea un aumento 
de un 30.7 por ciento; (jue se transportaron 9,538,354 toneladas de 
carga,. que represcntan un aumento de un 6.4 por ciento, y que la 
ganancia resultanU* del trans])orte de carga ascendio k $53,520,981, 
6 sea un aumento de un 9.3 por ciento. 

El mayor aumento en la conduccion de pasajeros ocurri6 en el 
Ferrocarril Central Mexicano, y el aumento en la conducci6n de 
carga en las lineas Nacional y Central Mexicanas hubiera sido mayor 
si lud)ieran contado von un abastecimiento adecuado de material 
rodante. i^a disminucion en el tonelaje del Fern>carril Nacional de 
Telniantepec, com])ara(la con la carga transportada en 1905-6, se 
explica por liaberse suspendido la conduccion de materiales para las 
obras de ])uertos en Salina Cruz y Coatzacoalcos. Sin embargo, esto 
se compensa con el aumento en los tipos de fiete li trav^s del Istmo, 
de manera que se ha anunciado im aumento considerable en las gja- 

El 30 de junio de 1907 el activo y pasivo de los bancos del pais 
ascendio a $723,703,584, contra $r)28,S81,834 en la misma fecha del 
ano anterior. El capital suscrito 6 social de los bancos que el 30 de 
junio (le 1900 ascendia a $146,600,000, en 1907 ascendio a $162,600,000, 
mostrandost* asi un aum<»nto de $10,()0(),000. 

La existencia en caja hajo en $3,5X3,052, diminueion que sin duda 
file ocasionada por la extraccion <le pesos fuertes con destino al 

MEXICO, 165 

extranjero, que para los bancos import6 $13,000,000. La situaci6n 
monetaria del pais ha mejorado muclio del alio pasado d esta parte. 
La escasez de moileda fraccionaria que entonces prevalecla ha 
desaparecido por complete y la circulaci6n del oro es mucho mfis 
abundante. Nulifica en parte el incremento de estas dos clases de 
moneda, la exportaci6n de pesos fuertes provocada en 1906-7 por 
la misma causa que la determin6 en 1905-6: el alza del precio de la 
plat a en barras respecto del valor en oro de diclia moneda. La ^ 
cantidad total de acuflaci6n de moneda desde la 6poca de la instala- 
ci6n de la reforma monetaria que se efectuo el 5 de mayo de 1905 
hasta el 30 de junio de 1907 ascendi6 a $95,561,570. Deduciendo 
de esta cantidad los $74,416,231 en pesos fuertes que se exportaron y 
los $14,456,923 que representan las piezas de oro acunadas, se demues- 
tra que el aumento en la circulaci6n de la moneda hasta el 30 de 
junio de 1907 ascendi6 & $5,688,416. A lines de noviembre de 1907 
dicho aumento se habia elevado & mds de $11,000,000. 

La Comisi6n de Cambios y Moneda ha desempefiado sus funciones 
con notable acierto. Aprovechdndose de todas las circunstancias 
favorables, ha logrado en dos ailos substituir casi todas las monedas 
antiguas por piezas acufiadas en conformidad con la Ley del Regimen 
Monetario decretada & principios de 1905; ha distribuido la nueva 
moneda en todo el territorio nacional, haciendo frente a las numero- 
sas dificultades que la escasez 6 la abundancia del medio circulante 
ban proporcionado en cada localidad ; ha atraldo el oro d la Repilblica 
en grandes cantidades y retenido una buena parte del que se produce 
aquf, y, por tiltimo, ha contribuldo & mantener con firmeza los tipos 
de cambio con las naciones extranjeras. 

A principios de 1907 el valor de los bienes raices y las cotizaciones 
de las acciones industriales de minas y comcrciales continuaron 
subiendo y al establecer una comparacion con las cotizaciones seme- 
jantes de 1906 en general se muestran resultados satisfactorios. Sin 
embargo, & mediados de afio la escasez en los mercados monetarios 
extranjeros comenzd & afectar la situacion mexicana, y cada vez se 
hacia m&s dificil obtener la inversi6n de capital en empresas niexi- 
canas. El afio econ6mico de 1908-9 ha de sufrir las consecuoncias de 
esto estado an6malo 6 intranquilo, pero la Republica Mexicana con- 
tinua mostrando vigor y vitalidad en sus reciirsos publicos, los cuales 
la colocan en un puesto honoroso entre las naciones del niundo. 

En el c&lculo del presupuesto de rentas correspondientes al afio 
econ6mico de 1908-9 el producto de las contribucioncs so])re el 
comercio extranjero se calcula en $49,600,000; el de las contribucioncs 
intemas se calcula en $32,055,000; el de las contribucioncs extraor- 
dinarias en el Distrito Federal y en los Temtorios sc calcula en 
$10,930,000; el de losservicios ptibHcosen $6,405,000; cl <lc las rentas 
derivadas de los terrenos nacionalcs se calcula en $265,000 y cl de 
las ganancias y otras fuentes de renta menores se calcula en $4,1 30,000. 



Segtin estadisticas recientemente publicadas por la Direcci6n Ge- 
neral de Correos de la Reptiblica Mexicana, los ingresos que tuvo el 
servicio de correos durante el aiio econ6mico de 1906-7 sumaron un 
total de $4,031,124.86 en moneda mexicana, cantidad que, comparada 
con la de $3,653,315.87, renta percibida durante el ejercicio de 1905-6, 
arroja un auniento de $377,808.99, 6 sea de 10.34 por ciento. 


Las rentas postales recaudadas en la Reptiblica Mexicana en el 
primer trimestre de 1907-8 (julio & septiembre de 1907) ascendieron & 
$1,043,065.88 en moneda mexicana, en comparaci6n con la suma de 
$939,837.20 que se percibi6 en igual periodo del ejercicio de 1906-7, 
6 sea un aumento de $103,228.68 6 de 10.98 por ciento. 


ha Comisi6n de Defcnsa del Istmo encargada de hacer im estudio 
de los puertos mexicanos de Salina Cruz y Coatzacoalcos, que son 
los t^rminos por el Atlantico y por el Pacifico del Ferrocarril de 
Tehuantopec, ha terminado su estudio de las condiciones existentes 
en Salina Cniz, y antes de mucho tiempo seguirA haciendo sus inves- 
tigaciones en Coatzacoalcos. Se calcula que las obras de defensa 
recomendatlas han de costar $20,000,000, moneda mexicana. 

Ilan do transcurrir dos afios antes de que los informes 6 investi- 
gaciones proliminares se terniinen y antes de que comiencen real- 
monte los trabaj\)s do construcci6n. 


DE 1007-8. 

Durante los tros primoros meses^ ile 1907-8 se exportaron por el 
PuiTto do Progroso, Yucatan, 25,937,342 kilogramos de henequ^n, 
vnlorados on $6,323,765 on moneda mexicana. En el mismo trimes- 
tri* so iniportaron por dicho puorto morcancias nacionales por valor 
do $3,727,500. y oxtranjoras por valor do $2,320,773. 



La circular monsual publicada por ol Departamento de Hacienda 
do Mi^xioo rtiiuncia (juo ol procio legal por kilogramo de plata pura 
durnnto ol nios do onoro do 1908 st^ni ilo $37.21 moneda mexicana, 
con arn^glo A los caloulos pn\»^critos en el decreto de 25 de marzo de 
1905. Ksto pnH»io si^rvin\ do basi^ para ol pa$]^o de los impuestos de 
timbri' v los dorochos do aduana cuando se use la moneda de plata 



El Presddente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos promulg6 el 21 de 
diciembre de 1907 una ley del Congreso de la Republica que reforma. 
la fracci6n 125 del arancel vigente, de manera que los derechos de 
importaci6n sobre el azucar comiin, azticar candi y azucar refinado de- 
todas clases, quedan aumentados de 2.50 pesos por cada 100 kilo- 
gramos, peso bnito, 4 5 pesos por cada 100 kilogramos, peso bruto. 
Dicha ley comenzard 4 regir d las doce de la noche del 15 de febrera 
de 1908. 


El C6nsul General Gottschalk, en la ciudad de Mexico, ha trans- 
mitido un importante informe al Departamento de Estado de los 
Elstados Unidos que contiene varios datos relativos d las condiciones 
que actualmente rigen en la industria de la goma de guayule, y el 
peligro que en lo porvenir cone dicha planta fi, menos que se descubra 
un m^todo seguro de propagarla. El Senor Gottschalk cree muy 
importante el hecho de que el valor de la industria del guayule, tal 
como en la actualidad se explota, no ha de durar mucho tiempo. 
A continuaci6n se publica un resumen de dicho informe: 
Uno de los productos que durante los dos tiltimos anos ha llamado 
la atenci6n en todo el mundo es el guayule (Parthenium argentum} 
que anteriormente se consideraba nada m^s como una hierba, cuya 
mera prescencia disminula el valor de lbs terrenos, pero que de la 
noche & la mafiana se descubri6 que tenia cierta importancia comerciaf 
como una planta productora de goma. Los terrenos productores do 
guayule de la parte norte de Mexico en seguida comenzaron d ser 
explotados y los precios de 6stos se aumentaron enormementc, al 
paso que se instalaron f Abricas principalmente en Torreon, Saltillo y 
Coahuila, para convertir el arbusto en un producto comercial. Se 
hicieron contratos para la entrega de grandes cantidades de dicho 
arbusto, y en algunos casos el prccio subi6 fi, $50 oro por tonelada, 
habi^ndose anunciado un rendimiento de $1 oro por libra. Como 
resultado de este entusiasmo, se investigaron las propiedades de dicha 
planta, habi^ndose obtenido por resultado que nadie parecla tenor 
una idea definida en cuanto d la continua propagacion de dicha planta. 
El dueno de una gran extensi6n de guayule, le manifest6 al Senor 
Gottschalk que habla descubierto, demasiado tarde, que si se tu- 
viese el cuidado de dejar fructificar antes de cortarlo, y se sacudiese 
cuidadosamente la planta despu6s de haberse cortado d fin de que las 
semillas cayesen el suelo, este tiltimo continuaria produciendo dicha 
planta. Sin embargo, como quiera que el mejor rendimiento de goma 
ha de obtenerse del corte de una planta rclativamente joven, y 
adem&s, como la semilla podria permanecer latente 6 improductiva. 

24181— Bun. 1—08 ^12 


durante dos 6 tres aftos, sc comprender^ desde luego que el explotador 
de goma ordinario no estaria dispuesto ^ adoptar las precauciones 

El arbusto del guayule que se esta explotando en las fabricas del 
pais, crece en un drea limitada de Mexico. No se despliega ningun 
cuidado para recogeria ni se hacen siembras ni la planta se propaga 
de otra mancra. Sin embargo, un eontrato reciente celebrado con el 
Gobierno relativo a esta industria, comprende ciertas estipulaciones 
acerca de este asunto. 

Los subidos precios c[uo ofrecen las fabricas han liecho que dicho 
arbusto se recoja descabelladamente antes de madurarse, habi^ndoso 
obtenido por resultado que en muchos casos se reciben grandes 
cantidades de guayule c^ue no rinden la goma que debieran rendir. 

El Profesor F. A. Lloyd, ex-catedr4tico del Laboratorio de Bot&nica 
en el Instituto de Carnegie establecido en Tucson, Arizona, en los 
Est ados Unidos, al tratar de descubrir un medio de propagar la 
planta de una manera adecuada, ha hecho experimentos cientilicos 
en una de las plant acionos de Chihuahua, pero hast a la fecha no se 
han anunciado los resultados de sus experimentos. 

El consumo actual del guayule en la region central donde dicha 
industria se Ueva a cabo es como de 1,000 toueladas de la planta per 
mes, y, por tanto, el Siulor Gottscilvlk anuncia que los'fabricantes 
Ic han manifest ado que sus empresas Uegaran a su fin dentro'de tres 
d cuatro afios, a menos que se emploen m6todos eficaces para la repro- 
duccion de la planta. 

El articulo del Doctor Undlich. ihistrado con cuatro fotografias 
del guayule en su estado natural, y publicado en la revista intitulada 
*'Tropenpflanzer" del mes do julio de 1907, puede citarse como uno 
de los docmnentos mas interesantes que se han publicado sobre este 
tenia. Dicha planta crece cspecialmente lozana en los costados tie 
las pcndientes, al pic de las coliuas y montafias, y en las planicies & 
una altura que varia desde 000 hasta 2,000 metros. El tamaAo de 
la planta varia segun la edad, las ccmdiciones del suelo y la localidad, 
y el tcrmino medio de su altura cs como GO centimetros. El ejemplar 
mas alto (^uc se encontro en la mimtafia de Ramirez, Estado de 
Coahuila, tenia un l.'M metros. 

El guayule crccc con mucha lent it ud. y se supone que las plantas 
que en la actualidad se recogen tcngan hasta 30 anos de edad. Segun 
la o[)ini6n del Senor Makx, el primer ano la planta crece hasta una 
altura que solo llega a lo centimetros, y el tallo es niuy d£bil. A 
pesar de este hecho, florece y produce semillas desde dicho perfoilo, 
pero no puede explotarse con provecho hasta que tiene echo afios. 
La planta no produce caucho hasta el terccr ano, y produce muy poco 
hasta el octavo ano. El Senor P. Olsson Seffer, el distinguido 
director de la Estacion Botanica y del l^aboratorio de Zacualpa, 

MEXICO. 169 

Mexico, dice que la altura de las plantas que tienen tres 6 cuatro 
aflos de edad, llega k 50 centlmetros, en tanto que la de las plantas 
que tienen seis aiios llega i 75 centimetros, y el t^rmino medio del 
peso es 4 libras. Por ccmsiguiente, no es exagerado calcular que la 
eda<l 4 la cual el guayule puede explotarse con mayor provecho es de 
\ifs echo & los diez aiios. 

1^ florescencia se verifica naturalmente de septiembre k octubre, 
por m&s que la lluvia y la elevacion del terreno pueden modificar 
considerablemente este perlodo. Es de advertir que, 4 pesar de su 
lento desarroUo, la planta del guayule florece y fructifica dentro de 
un alio despu69 de sembrarse la semilla. Esta ultima, que es muy 
abundante, no siempre se madura por completo, sobre to<lo en las 
regiones m^ frlas. 

I»s peritos en la materia calculan en 75,000 hectareas el area 
dontte se encuentra la planta del guayule en Mexico, es decir, en la 
parte norte de los Estados de Zaeatecas y San Luis Potosi, la parte 
oriental de Durango, y especialmente en la parte sur de Coahuila. 
Encu^ntrase tambi^n dicha planta en mayor 6 menor abundancia, 
en los Estados de Nuevo Le6n y Chihuahua, en Mexico, y en Nucvo 
Mexico, Arizona y Texas en los Elstados Unidos. 

El Senor Otto Kgehler, presidente de la Compania de Goma 
Nacional, cree que la planta del guayule que se encuentra on los 
Estados Unidos no produce tanta goma como la de Mexico, pero 
opina que podrfa explotarse con utilidad dondc haya abundancia de 
agua y donde los tipos de flete sean moderados. Ilecientcmente se 
organiz6 ima compafiia en Nueva York con el fm de explotar la 
planta del guayule en el oeste de Texas, y so ha de construir nna 
fjkbrica en Del Rfo, Estado de Texas, para la elaboracion del producto. 

El verdadero guayule que se conoce en el comercio es el Parthniujn 
arnenintum. No debe confundirse este guayule con una cluvse de la 
misma familia conocida por **Mariola" (Partlienium incanurn) que 
crecc en las mismas regiones que el verdadero guayule, y que conio 
una planta productora de goma es casi inutil. Ijos rasgos carac- 
teristioos de las dos plantas son los siguientes: 

Paiihenium argentatum: Hojas y rctofios tomontosos, gris pla- 
teadas; talloeorto; ramascortas con corteza lisa; hojas lanceoladas, 
de 2 a 5 centfmetros de largo y <le 5 a 15 milimotros do anclio, agudas 
6 enteras con im tercio lobulos agudos; peciolo dolgado y largo. 

Partlitnium incanum: Hojas y retofios toinentosos, blanciuizcos 6 
panluzcos; arbusto muy ramificado dosde la base, de 30 a 60 conti- 
metros de alto; ramas largas, de corteza rugosa con hendeduras 
longitudinales, hojas oblongas ti ovales, pequenas, de 25 milimetros 
de lai^o y 2 de ancho, profundamente penalilobuladas y peciolo 
muv corto. 


El Sefior Endlich calcula que la presente existencia de guayule 
asciende 4 375,000 toneladas, y funda su cdlculo en un promedio de 
producci6n que varia desde 500 hasta 800 kilogramos por hect&rea, 
incluyendo en su cdlculo las regiones menos productivas, en tanto 
que la revista denominada *^The India Rubber World" cree que la 
producci6n natural asciende como a 300,000 toneladas, de las cuales 
de 20,000 k 30,000 toneladas ya se han explotado. Se calcula que 
el t^rmino medio del producto de goma de las plantas en completo 
desarrollo varia desde un 8 hasta un 11 por ciento. Sin embargo 
algunos peritos creen que si se introducen mojoras en el procedi- 
miento de extracci6n, el producto puede llegar hasta un 18 por ciento. 

Hasta 1905 los comerciantes alemanes compraron la cosecha del 
guayule en los puntos donde se producia, y embarcaban para Ale- 
mania varios millares de toneladas de dicho producto & precios que 
les proporcionaban utilidad. El 1^ de noviembre del afio de refe- 
rencia este trdfico se paraUzo repentinamente por el hecho de que el 
Gobiemo mexicano le impuso un derecho de cxportaci6n casi pro- 
hibitivo de 15 pesos por tonelada del producto en su estado natural. 
Esta medida vino a estimular el desarrollo de la industria local, y 
muchos particulares construyeron fabricas y se obtuvieron conce- 
siones del Gobiemo para explotar los terrenos productores de guayule 
por periodos que vaiiaban desde quince hasta veinte afLos. 

Form^ronse ricas companias para Uevar d cabo la explotaci6n de 
esta industria, y en la actualidad en el norte de M6xico existen 10 
grandos companias que cuentan con 15 fdbricas en operaci6n y varias 
en vias de construccion, en las cuales estan interesadas algunos capi- 
tahstas aniericanos prominentes. Dicese cjue una de estas compa- 
nias — esto es, la que se denomina ''Continental Rubber Company" — 
ha invcrtido 20,000,000 de francos en la compra de terrenos, patentes y 
en la construccion de Mbricas, etc. La fabrica principal, situaila en 
Torrc6n, tiono una fuerza motriz de 1,800 caballos, y cuenta con la 
ma(iuinaria suficiento para tratar 100 toneladas de materia prima 
diariamento. Ciorta cantidad do guayule tiene que ser transportado 
d loiuo do nudas por una distancia de mas de 100 millas, antes de 
llegar a hi fabrica. 

El capital alomaii tambi6n esta iuteresado en gran escala en la 
nidustria del guayule, y diceso (lue el Banco de Dresde y la casa de 
Kuupp han invcrtido grucsas sumas de dinero en esta industria. 

El procedimiento de cxtraccion varia en cuanto d los detalles, j- 
rc[)resenta como 142 patentes que han si(hi concedidas & inventoros 
en ostos liltimos anos. En cuanto al procedimiento quimico, que por 
lo general cs mas costoso que el mecanico, pero que da mejor resultado, 
los alcalis han sido recmplazados con los sulfuros de carbono. 

El costo de una tonelada de caucho preparada con soda c&ustira 
asciende como a 120 pesos. El St^^or Marx cree que el proce«li- 

MEXICO. 171 

riiiento de maceraci6n de la materia prima y la extracci6n del caucho 
por la acci6n del vapor en una soluci6n alcalina es el mejor. 

Parece que los procedimientos mecdnicos que en la actualidad se 
emplean no reunen todas las condiciones que se requieren. Dichos 
procedimientos son mds econ6micos, pero producen una clase infe- 
rior de caucho que en el mercado alemto se cotiza 4 3.50 marcos, en 
comparaci6n con 5.50 marcos que se obtienen por el caucho que se 
produce mediante el procedimiento quimico. 

Las compaiiias interesadas en esta industria estto haciendo esfuer- 
zos por eliminar el 27 por ciento de substancia fibrosa, y la mayor 
parte de la resina que contiene el guayule que se trata por el procedi- 
miento quimico. Se han hecho experimentos en el uso del bagaso 
como combustible para producir fuerza motora, pero se ha demostrado 
que el empleo de este material dafta muy pronto las calderas. Es 
probable que la resina se separe de la fibra y se use como un segundo 
producto, y que el residuo lenoso se utilice en la f abricaci6n de papel. 
El bagaso que se obtiene del guayule que se trata con soda c^ustica 
contiene cierta proporcion de caucho que no ha sido posible eliminar. 

Los tallos de guayule secos que antes s61o valian $15 plata por tone- 
lada entregados en la fdbrica, en la actualidad valen de 200 k 250 
francos. El precio del caucho de guayule que en 1905 en los primeros 
embarques se fijo en 1.6 chelfn, subi6 gradualmente k 2 chclincs, 2.6 
ohelines y hasta 3 chelines en agosto de 1906. En aquella 6poca el 
precio de dicho producto en el mercado de Xueva York bajo (i 25 
centavos por libra y 3 marcos por kilogramo en Hamburgo, k causa 
de las especulaciones de la '* Continental Rubber Company.^^ De 
entonces k aca el valor del caucho de guayule ha aumentado r^pida- 
mente, y la mejor calidad de este producto recientemente se vendi6 a 
raz6n de 65 centavos la libra en el mercado de Xueva York y a 5.75 
marcos por kilogramo en Hamburgo. En el mes de mayo pasado, en 
Amberes se vendieron 9 toneladas de guayule de caucho k 5 francos 
por kilogramo. En la actualidad el precio varia desde 4 hasta 6.25 
francos, segtin clase. 

Considerado desde el punto de vista industrial, cl guayule es una 
planta que produce caucho de una clase especial, blando y mds 6 
menos pegajoso debido d la prescncia de cierta cantidad (algunas 
veces muy considerable) de resina; es dificil conservarlo, y su vul- 
canizacion es lenta. Se hace necesario conocer perfectamente la 
manipulaci6n del caucho de guayule para purificarlo y usarlo inme- 
diatamente despufe que se termina el procedimiento de desecacion. 
Las calidadesdeeste producto que se obtienen actualmente, exentas 
de dos terceras partes de su contenido resinoso, proporcionan \m 
producto muy semejante al caucho de Panamd, con el cual puede 


El guayule es un producto 6til que tiene demanda permanente en 
el mercado, y cuyo valor ha de aumentar con arreglo & las mejoras que 
se introduzcan en los procedimientos de extracci6n. Sin embargo, la 
planta del guayule no abunda tanto como al principio se suponfa, y 
si bien es verdad que las fabricas podrto tener un abastecimiento 
suiiciente de dicho producto para satisfacer sus demandas durante 
algunos anos, no es menos cierto que s61o puede suministr&rseles 
permanentemente por medio del cultivo, y este problema a}>enas se 
ha estudiado hasta ahora. 

Tanto el Seiior Olsson Seffer, como la revista intitulada ''La 
Vida Tropical," creen que el cultivo del guayule no puede llevarse k 
cabo con 6xito en terrenos secos 6 sin irrigaci6n. El experimento 
que hizo el Senor Hoffmann trasplantando la planta del guayule en 
surcos irrigados, muestra que un 80 }>or ciento de las plantas tras- 
plantadas prendieron y se desarrollaron, al paso que en los terrenos 
secos 6 sin irrigaci6n, solo prendieron y se desarrollaron \m 25 per 

En cuanto al problema del cultivo de dicha planta, los dos factores 
principalea que han de tenerse en cuenta son el suelo y el clima. 
El Seiior Endlicu cree que el terreno propicio para el cultivo de la 
expresada planta debe contener de un 20 d un 30 por ciento de materia 
calcarea, y una cantidad suiiciente de humus para disminuir la evapo- 
racion y estimular el rapido crecimiento y desarroUo de este dtil 
arbusto productor de goma. 



El (Ha 1° (le dociembre de 1907 el Pre.>idente de Nicaragua dirigid 
un importante monsaje a la Asamblea Legislativa Xacional, en el cual 
se haco una resefia de los tral)ajos del Ejecutivo durante los dos 
aflos anteriores. 

En dicho mensaje se liace especial mencion de los trastomos 
intestinos de los Estados indopendientes de la America Central que 
dieron por resultado la Conferencia de Washington en pro del mante- 
nimionto do la paz. 

En cuanto a las rehuiones con los Estados Unidos, el Presidente 
Zelaya dice que "Su Excelencia el Presidente Theodore Roose- 
velt, en todas las recientcs dificultades Cent roameric anas ha ofrecido 
graciosamente sus aniistosos servicios hacia la reconciliaci6n. Puedo 
aseguraros que muestras relaciones con los Estados I'nidos de America 
son sinceras y cordiales, pues las jKHjueuas diferencias que han sur- 
gido acerca de algunos contratos que mi Gobierno celebr6 con los 
ciudadanos amerioanos, Herbert Emery y Samuel Weil, estoy 
seguro de que se han de arreglar satisfactoriamente." 


El Presidente tambi^n anuncia el resultado satisfactorio de la 
misi6n del Sefior Don J. D. Gomez, Ministro de Relaciones Exte- 
riores, que visit6 fi, los Estados Unidos y Mexico como un agente per- 
sonal y confidencial, con el fin de discutir los asuntos relativos 4 la 
America Central. 

EI Tratado de Amistad, Comercio y Navegacion, asi como la Con- 
venci6n Consular con el Imperio'Alemdn, lian sido prorrogados por 
diez ailos. Se han celebrados tratados con la Gran Bretana que 
comprenden el reconycimiento de la soberania de Nicaragua sobre la 
Resorva Mosquitia y la anulaci6n de los privilegios del puerto de 
San Juan del Norte. 

Tambi^n se han celebrado tratados de amistad, comercio y nave- 
gaci6n con Italia y con B^lgica, el de extradici6n y la convencion 

Se est^n tomando medidas importantes para recoger datos estadis- 
ticos y efectuar la codificacion de las leyes comerciales, en tanto que 
el Ejecutivo recomienda urgentemente roformas legislativas. 


El d!a 18 de octubrie de 1907 el Presidente de la Rcpublica de Nica- 
ragua aprobo la escritura de sociedad de la ^^ Atlantic Industrial Com- 
panifj'' formada con el objeto de explotar los hulares nacionales 
existentes en el Departamento de Zelaya, distritos de Prinsapolka y 
Rio Grande, y en la montana de Bocay, que abraza los bosques de 
Jinotega y Comarca de Cabo de Gracias a Dios, y una pequefia 
cuchilla del Departamento de Segovia; la compafiia se dedicar^ 
tambi^n d otros negocios que tienen relacion con la extraccion y expor- 
taci6n del hulc. El capital de la sociedad es de $300,000, y es c^siona- 
ria de la concesi6n que hizo el Gobiemo k los Sefiores Don Francisco 
Guerrero y General Don Juan de Dios Moreika para la explolacion 
de los hulares naciojiales mencionados, por el termino de diez afios a 
contar desde el 10 de septiembre de 1905. 


La "Gaceta OficiaP^ de 20 de noviembrc de 1907 pul)lica cl texto 
de la nueva Ley de Marcas do F^brica, que sc da a continuacion : 

ARxfcuLO 1. El Estado ampara dentro de su territorio la propiedad 
exclusiva de las marcas de fdbrica y de comercio autorizadas en 
conformidad con esta ley. 

Art. 2. Marca de fdbrica 6 de comercio os el signo especial aplicado 
a un producto agrlcola 6 industrial, 6 6 un articulo morcantil, para 
advertir al publico su procedencia y diferenciarlo de los demds pro- 
ductos de su misma especie. 


Art. 3. La designaci6n del signo que ha de constitulr una marca 
corresponde al productor del artlculo para el cual se destina, pero no 
podrd usarse en la Reptiblica como marcas: 

I. Las denominaciones gen^ricas, los simples nombres geogr&ficos 
y los de individuos 6 asociaciones, 4 menos que la marca contenga, 
adem&s, otros distintivos que sirvan para singularizar el objeto al 
cual se destina. 

II. Todo signo que est 6 en pugna con la moral 6 que tienda k ridi- 
culizar ideas, personas, objetos 6 instituciones que d juicio del 
Ministerio de Fomento sean dignos de general consideraci6n. 

HI. Las armas, escudos y emblemas nacionales. 

IV. Las armas, escudos 6 emblemas de naciones, estados 6 corpo- 
raciones politicas extranjeras, sin su respectivo consentimiento. 

V. Los nombres, firmas y retratos de personas existentes sin su 

VI. Las marcas id^nticas 6 substancialmente parecidas & las que 
ya estuvieren registradas cuando se pretenda amparar en las prime- 
ras, productos de la misma clase de los protegidos por las tiltimas. 

Art. 4. El Gobierno establecera una oficina especial de registro de 
marcas. Mientras tanto tendra estas atribuciones la Direcci6n 
General de Obras Ptiblicas, y el jefe de 6sta se encargari de dicho 

Art. 5. Las solicitudes de registro deberdn ser presentadas en 
papel del sello sexto al ifinisterio de Fomento, suscritas por el intere- 
sado 6 por su representante, provisto por lo menos de una carta-poder 
aut^ntica y con tendra lo siguiente: 

(a) El nombre del propietario de la marca, su domicilio y nacio- 

(h) El nombre y ubicacion de la fabrica 6 establecimiento donde 
se produce el articulo a que se destina la marca. 

((•) La dosignaci6n y descripcion de los objetos 6 productos ([ue 
con la marca so pretende singularizar. 

((]) Descripcion de la marca ilustrada con un facsimil de la misnia, 
reproducido en tres ejemplares. 

(( ) En el caso de ([ue la marca se ponga en hueco 6 relieve 6 de que 
represente alguna otra particularidad (jue no pueda hacerse conocer 
de modo grufico, se presentaran dos ejemplares iguales con indicaci6n 
de pormenores y detalles. 

Art. G. El registro de toda marca ocasiona un derecho de 25 pesos 
y debera renovarse cada diez anos. El retardo en la renovaci6n no 
produce la perdida de los derechos al uso exclusivo de la marca, pero 
mientras aqu611a no se Ileve & cabo, el interesado no tendrA accion 
para perseguir a los falsificadores de la marca y del artlculo que &ta 


Art. 7. Presentada una solicitud sobre registro de marca, el Minis- 
tro de Fomento pedira informe al jefe de la oficina de registro. Este 
funcionario hari iin examen de los documentos presentados para 
ccrciorarse de si estdn llenados los reqiiisitos de ley, y evacuar^ el 
informe consiguiente dentro de tercero dla. Si fuere favorable, el 
Ministro de Fomento dard la orden para que se registre, previo pago 
de los derechos respectivos. 

Art. 8. El registro de una marca se harfi, siempre sin perjuicio de 
tercero y bajo la exclusiva responsabilidad del solicitante. 

Art. 9. Hecho el registro, el jefe de la oficina expedird al interesado 
la certificaci6n del caso en papel del sello primero, documento que 
constituye el titulo al uso exclusivb de la marca. 

Art. 10. Las cuestiones que puedan surgir sobre el derecho al uso 
exclusivo de una marca, sobre la prioridad de su registro y sobre su 
entidad con otras ya registradas, serdn resueltas por los tribunales 

Art. 11. Cuando haya habido cuesti6n judicial se registrar^ la 
sentencia (jue cause ejecutoria y se insertard en el certificado de 

Art. 12. Cada vez que se presente una solicitud para el registro de 
una marca de que trata el artlculo 5, el ilinisterio la hard publicar 
en el peri6dico oiicial por tres meses consecutivos. 

Vencidos los noventa (Has, si no se hubiere presentado oposicion, 
el Ministerio acordard otorgar al solicitante el titulo de propiedad de 
la marca, el cual se extender^ en un pliego de papel del sello primero. 

Art. 13. Si hubiere habido oposici6n, el Ministerio ordenard & las 
partes que ventilen sus derechos ante el juez comun correspondiente, 
y en tal caso no extender^ el titulo sino & aquefa quien por sentencia 
ejecutoriada se hubiere declarado de mejor derecho. 

Art. 14. Las marcas de fdbrica no se transmiten sino con el 
establccimiento productor de los objetos a que sirven de distincioii. 
En consecuencia, la transmision de una marca lleva consigo el derecho 
de explotacion imhistrial 6 comercial de los productos amparados 
por ella. La transmisi6n no estd sujeta a ninguna formalidad especial 
y .se verificara conforme al derecho comun, pejp deberd ser registrada 
en la ofic'ina de marcas, sin cuyo requisito no producira efecto contra 

Art. 15. EI registro de una marca sera nulo cuando se haya hecho 
contraviniendo & las disposiciones de csta ley, asi como cuando la 
marca registrada lo haya sido con anterioridad por otro, en cuyo 
caso sera dcclarada judicialmente la nulidad a petici6n de parte. 

De la sentencia de nulidad se dard conocimiento al Ministerio de 
Fomento por el juez 6 tribunal que hubiere conocido de ella en liltima 

Art. 16. La acci6n para pedir la nulidad del registro de una vw^lyq.^ 
coiresponde & cualquiera que se crea perjudicado pot fe\, V^YcJwvfeci 


podr& (leclucirla el J^Iinisterio Pilblico en las cases en que hava algdn 
in teres general. 

Art. 17. Las cuestiones sobre nulidad de que trata el articulo 
anterior seran decididas por los tribunales ordinaries, y la sentencias 
ejccutorias que contengan tales decisiones se registrarfin en la oficina 

Art. 18. Se consideraran reos del delito comprendido en el articulo 
319 del C6digo Penal, y seran castigados con las penas en ^1 esta- 
blecidas los siguientes: 

(a) Ijos que pongan a los articulos 6 ai-tefactos que expendan 6 
fabriquen una niarca ya registrada legalmente a favor de otra per- 

(6) Los que pongan a los articulos 6 artefactos que expendan 6 
produzcan una marca que sea imitacion <le la legalmente registrada, 
de tal modo que a primera vista se confundan con la legal. 

(r) Los que pongan a los articulos niencionados una niarca que 
aunqne legalmente registrada se haga aparecer como si fuere otra 
por cualquiera adicion, sustraccion 6 alteracion. 

((/) Los que pongan en vonta 6 circulacion efectos marcados en 
las circunstancias que expresan los incisos anteriores. 

Art. 19. Los articulos 6 artefactos^ objeto de los delitos expresados 
en el articulo anterior, caerin en comiso: pero cuando el dueilo de 
ima marca, legalmente registrada, se hubiere constituido acusador, 
tendnt derecho it que se le adjudiquen todos los productos que se 
encuentren revestidos con la marca, ya est6n en po<ler del 
delincuente, ya en poder de un comLsionista 6 consignatario. 

Art. 20. Las marcas do fabrica se conservardn & perpetuidad 
en la oficina de registro, asi como los libros en que se consignarun 
sus dctallcs correspondicntes; unos y otros podran ser examinados 
por el (|Uo los solicite durante las boras (jue para tal objeto se designeu 
y podran ol)tcner a su costo, copia certiiicada del registro, mediante 
el pago del derecho de un peso ])()r cada cerlificacion que se expida, 
ademas de lo escrito. 

Art. 21. Xo se consideran como marca hi forma, color, locuciones 
6 designaciones (jue no constituyc^n por si solas el signo determinante 
de la especiahchid para el conu»rcio de un producto industrial. 

Art. 22. I^a duracioii de la propiedad de las marcas de f&brica 
es indefini(hi: pero se entendera abandonada por la clausura 6 falta 
de produccion i)or mas dc un afio del establecimiento, f^hrica 6 
negociacion en (\\iv se haya empleado. 

Art. 2.S. Quedan c()mi)rendidos en las disposiciones de esta lev 
los (Hbujos y ukkIoIos industriales. 

AuT. 21. Las prescripciones de la f)resrnte ley se aplicarfin on 
todo a(|U(*llo (\nr no se oponga a los pa<'tos internacionales sobre 
hi jnntrriii, especialmente sobre marcas dr coniercio y de f&brica 


celebrados durante la Segunda Conferencia Internacional Americana 
el 27 de enero de 1902. 

Art. 25. Esta ley comenzar^, k tener sus efectos desde la fecha de 
8U pubUcaei6n en la '^Gaceta Qficial." 



For virtud de la inauguraci6n del nuevo servicio de vapores que la 
Corapaflia Nacional de Vapores y Diques del Callao ha de establecer 
entre Xueva York r el Callao, via Panama, sc obtendrd un gran 
adelanto econ6mico en las relaciones comerciales de ambos puertos. 
Esta empress^ que, segtin se espera, ba de estar operando por completo 
A principios de 1908, cuenta con un capital de $15,000,000 y percibird 
una subvencion de $1 ^500,000 del Gobierno Peruano. En la actualidad 
se est^n const my endo para ella en Inglaterra vapores rdpidos, y la 
empresa se propone hacer el viaje de Panama al Callao en cinco dias 
en vez de once 6 doce dias, que es el tiempo que en la actualidad se 
toman los vapores. 

El puerto del Callao es el mas importante que hay en el Pacifico 
entre San Francisco y Valparaiso^ y no cabe duda de que la rapidez 
en el despacho de sus transacciones comerciales con los puertos de 
Europa y de los Estados Unidos, que esta nueva linea de vapores 
ha de proporcionar, dard un gran impulso al desarrollo del preci- 
tado puerto. 


DE 1907. 

I^s ingresos que percibi6 la aduana fluvial de Ljuitos, Peru, 
durante los diez primeros meses del ano 1907, hicioron la suma do 
£217,303. 3. 33, en comparacion £139,754. 8. 32, suma recaudada 
en igual periodo de 1906. 

Con fecha 12 de septiembre de 1907, la Camara do Diputados 
del Congreso Peruano aprob6 un proyecto de ley rolativo a la cons- 
tnirci6n de un ferrocarril que, partiendo de la ciudad do Cuzco, y 
atravpsando las Provincias de Calca y Unibamba, 6 la do Anta y 
I'rubamba, llegue hasta Santa Ana, Capital de la Provincia de la 



Durante el primer trimestre de 1907 las aduanas do la Kopublica 
de El Salvador rindieron al fisco una renta total ile 1 ,087,249.45 pesos 
que^ eomparada con la percibida en igual periodo de 1 906, arro\«t \m^^ 
disminuci6n de 291,808.85 pesos. 




La renta do aduana del Uruguay correspondiente al mes de octubre 
de 1907 ascendio a $1,014,719.84, en comparaci6n con $1,127,889 
en el mismo mes de 1906, niostrandose asi una baja de $113,169,000. 

En los diez meses quo terniinaron en octubre de 1907 dicha renta 
muostra un aumento de $265,232, en comparaci6n con el perio<lo 
correspondiente del ano anterior, puesto que las sumas totales de 
los dos afios ascendieron a $11,271,871 y $11,006,639, respectivar 
niente, de enero a octubre, inclusive. 



Entro las prescripciones de la ley sobre impuestos del Uruguay 
correspondiente d 1908, tal como la ha presentado la legislatura al 
Gobierno y sancionada prdcticaniente, constituye una cUusula por 
virtud de la cual la contribucion que so impone sobre los premios 
que cobran las conipafiias de se^uros extranjeras en la Repdblica, 
de un 3 por cionto so lia elevado a un 7 por ciento. Tanto & las 
companias nacionalos conio a las extranjeras se les exige que presten 
una fumza considerable como garantia para el Gobierno. 


En 1005-0 la renta municipal de Montevideo ascendi6 & 
$1,440,108.74, en comparacion con $1,265,250.60 en el ano economico 
anterior. Estas cifras son las mas altas que se ban recaudado en 

sic to an OS. 


La Oficina dc Kstadistica del Dcpartamento de Comercio y Trabajo 
do los Est ados Unidas acaba de publicar una monogi'afia intitulacia 
^'Cotninirrlal Afntrira in lOOG.^' Diclio trabajo dice que el valor 
total (Id comercio oxtranjero do todos b)s paises americanos on el 
rtltimo ano, acerca del cual so ban podido obtonerdatos estadCsticos, 
asciondo a $5,50(),()0(),(M)0 on numorosrod<mdos,delos $27,000,000,000, 
li (pie asciondo ol valor total del comercio intornacicmal del mundo. 

Do osto total do $5,500,000,000 do valor del comercio de toda 
la America, los Estados Unidos roprosontan $3,000,000,000, y los 
doinas paisos do America, incluyondo Las Antillas, representan 

ConsidcTando soparadamonto ol valor de las importaciones y expor- 
tacionos, ol valor total do las importaciones de toda la America se iija 
en $2/25(),()00,()()0, on tanto ([\w ol do las export aciones so Iija en 


$3,250,000,000. Del valor de las importaciones que asciende k 
$2,250,000,000, como la mitad lo reprcsentan los Estados Unidos y el 
de las export aciones que asciende k $3,250,000,000, los Estados 
Unidos representan mds de $1,750,000,000, y los otros paises repre- 
sentan un poco menos de $1,500,000,000. 

Toinando en consideraci6n tinicamente la America con excepci6n 
de los Estados Unidos, el valor de las importaciones en el tiltimo afto 
acerca del cual se han obtenido datos estadisticos, ascendi6 d $1,118,- 
000,000. El valor total de las exportaciones de todos los paises 
americanos, excepci6n liecha ' de los Estados Unidos, ascendi6 d 
$1,402,000,000, de los cuales $407,000,000,6 sea un 36.5 por ciento,pro- 
cedieron de los Estados Unidos. El valor total de las exportaciones 
de todos los paises americanos, excepci6n hecha de los Estados Unidos, 
as(rendi6 d $1,402,000,000, de los cuales $450,000,000, 6 sea im 32.5 
por ciento, fueron enviados k los Estados Unidos. Estas cifras que 
muestran la proporci6n del valor de las importaciones de los paises 
americanos hechas de los Estados Unidos y de sus exportaciones d los 
Est ados Unidos, result an muy interesantes si se comparan con relaciones 
semejantes en anos anteriores. Un andlisis del comercio de los paises 
americanos, hecho por la Oficina de Estadistica en 1897, muestra ([ue 
el valor total de las importaciones de todos ellos, exccpcion heclia de 
los Estados Unidos, y acerca de las cuales pudieron ol)tenerse datos 
estadisticos, ascendi6 d $652,000,000, contra $1,118,000,000, segtin lo 
demuestra la actual recopilaci6n, y que un 26.57 por ciento del total 
de las importaciones de 1897 procedieron de los Estados Unidos, en 
tanto que un 36.5 por ciento del total grandemente aumcntado de la 
presente 6poca procede de los Estados Unidos. El valor de las expor- 
taciones de los paises americanos, except o los Estados Unidos, en 1897 
se fijo en $786,000,000, contra $1,402,000,000 que se consignan en la 
presente recopilaci6n, habi^ndose enviado u los Estados Unidos un 
32.15 por ciento de las exportaciones (^ue se hicieron en 1897, contra 
un 32.5 por ciento en la actualidad. 

Ilablando en terminos generales puede decirse que los paises ameri- 
canos, con excepci6n de los Estados Unidos, considerados en conjunto, 
obtienen un poco m6s do una tercera parte (36.5 por ciento) do sus 
importaciones de los Estados Unidos, y envian al mismo un poco 
menos de una tercera parte de sus exportaciones. 

Al establecerse una comparaci6n de las condicicmes del comercio de 
los varios paises y regiones, sobre todo en relaci6n con el comercio 
de los Estados Unidos, se nota que se hace una parte mucho 
mayor del comercio de los paises de la Am6rica del Norte con los 
Estados Unidos que la que se hace con los paises m6s distantes de 
Sur America, y que esta manifestacion general podria incluir a los 
paises de la America del Sur situados en el Mar Caribe, y relativa- 
mente cerca de los Estados Unidos. El valor total de las iKV)joYl^ • 


clones de todos los paises norteamericanos, excepci6n hecha de los 
Estados Unidos, segiin los datos estadisticos del iiltiino aiio que fu6 
posible conseguir, asccndi6 d $594,000,000, de los cuales $334,000,000, 
6 sea un 56.3 por eiento, represent aban importaciones de los Estados 
Unidos, en tanto que el valor total de las importaciones de los paises 
de Sur America, ascendieron k $524,000,000, de los cuales 861o $73,000,- 
000, 6 sea un 13.8 por eiento, procedieron de los Estados Unidos. El 
valor total de las exportaciones (lue todos los paises norteamericanos, 
con excepci6n de los Estados Unidos, on el Ultimo aiio del cual han 
podido conseguirse datos estadisticos, ascendio d $594,000,000, de los 
cuales $313,000,000, 6 sea un 52.6 por eiento, se enviaron & los Estados 
Unidos, al paso que el valor total de las exportaciones de toda la 
America del Sur ascendi6 d $808,000,000, de los cuales $133,000,000, 
6 sea un 17.7 por eiento, se enviaron d los Estados Unidos. 

En los paises americanos en los cuales los centros comerciales est an 
situados relativamente cerca de los Estados Unidos y que tienen 
buena comunicacion con este tiltimo pais, la proporci6n de su comer- 
cio que corresponde a los Estados Unidos es grande. Trat^ndose del 
Canada, un 60.6 por eiento de las importaciones proceden de los 
Estados Unidos, y un 3«S.l por eiento de las exportaciones se envfan 
^ esta ultima Republica. En 1906, Mexico compro un 65.9 por eiento 
de sus importaciones a los Estados Unidos y le vendio un 68.6 por 
eiento de sus ex])()rtaciones. 

Las Bahamas, situadas a una corta distancia de la costa de los 
Estados Unidos, en 1905, que es el illtimo ano acerca del cual ha sido 
posible obtener (hitos estadisticos, compraron un 61.2 por eiento de 
sus importaciones li los ILstados I^nidos, y enviaron a 6stos un 71.3 
por eiento tie sus exportaciones. En 1906 Cuba le compro a los 
Estados Unidos un 4S.6 por eiento de sus importaciones y envio a 
dicho })ttis un S4.S })or eiento de sus exportaciones. Todos los 
Estados de Cent ro -America compran una gran parte de sus impor- 
taciones a los Estados l'iu(h)s y envian una ^ran proporcion de sus 
exportaeion(\s a esti^ pais. Por ejeinplo, Honduras le compra & los 
Estados Unidos un 03 })or eiento de sus importaciones y envia a 
dicho pais un S7 por eiento i\v sus exportaciimes; Nicaragua compra 
un 55 ])or eiento di* sus importaciones a los Estados Unidos y en via 
un 50 por ci(»nto de sus exportaeitmes a este pals; Costa Ilica 
compra un 55 por eiento de sus inijiortaeiones a los Estados Unidos 
y envia a dicho pais un 47 por eiento de sus exportaciones, y Gua- 
teniahx (jue le compra un 45 por eiento de sus im|x>rtaciones a li>3 
Estados Unidos envia a este pais un 35 por eiento de sus exporta- 
ciones. En 1905 Haiti, (jue es el vdtimo ano acerca del cual so han 
conseguido ihitos esta<listieos, compro a los Estados Unidos un 71 
])or cienlt) de sus im])ortaciones y envio a este pais un 32 por eiento 
de sus exportaciones, al paso que en 1000 hi Kepublica Dominicana 


le compr6 & los Estados Unidos un 58.5 por ciento do sus importa- 
ciones y envi6 & este pais un 57 por ciento de sus cxportacionjcs. 

La proporci6n del comercio de los paises sudainericanos bafiados 
por el Mar Caribe es bastante grande. En el tiltimo ano, respecto 
del cual se ban podido obtener datos estadisticos, Colombia le com- 
pr6 & los Estados Unidos un 44.5 por ciento de sus importaciones y 
envio & dicbo pais un 37 por ciento de sus exportaciones; en 1906 
Venezuela le compr6 4 los Estados Unidos un 30 por ciento de sus 
importaciones y envio 4 dicho pais un 31 por ciento de sus exporta- 
ciones; la Guiana Brit&nica le compr6 k los Estados Unidos un 30 
por ciento de sus importaciones y envi6 k este pais un 17 por ciento 
de sus exportaciones; la Guiana Ilolandesa le compro a los Estados 
Unidos un 21 por ciento de sus importaciones y envio a este pais 
un 39 por ciento de sus exportaciones, en tanto que la proporcion 
del comercio de la Guiana Francesa con los Estados Unidos es bas- 
tante ]>equena, es decir, le compro a los Jistados Unidos un 9 por 
ciento de sus importaciones y envio a este pais un 1 por ciento de 
sus exportaciones, siendo asi que la mayor parte del comercio de la 
Guiana Francesa, asi como el de pr^cticamente todas las colonias 
francesas lo hacen la madre patria. Con referencia aliora a los 
pais4's sudamericanos que quedan k ima distancia mayor y a los 
cuales las mercancias pueden enviarse unicamente por rutas dcsvia- 
ilas. la proporci6n de las importaciones hechas de los Estados Uni- 
dos, y en la mayor parte de los casos la proporcion de las exportaciones 
k dicho pais es mucho menor que la proporcion de su comercio con 
los paises sudamericanos bafiados por el Mar Caribe. Un 11.5 por 
ciento de las importaciones que hace el Brasil procedeni de los Esta- 
dos Unidos; un 9.7 por ciento de las que hace el Uruguay proceden 
de li»s Estados Unidos; un 14 por ciento de las que hace la Argen- 
tina proceden de los Estados Unidos; un 10 por ciento de las que 
hace Chile proceden de los Estados Unidos, y un 16 por ciento de las 
quo hace el Perti proceden tambien de los Estados I'nidos, al paso 
quo el Brasil envia un 35 por ciento del total de sus ex})ortaciones 
k los Estados Unidos; el Uruguay le envia un 5.5 por ciento; la 
Argentina le envia un 5 por ciento; Chile le envia un 10 por ciento, 
y ol Perd le envia un 9 por ciento. 



[Extractofl tornados do un trabajo cscritw por Ivor Etherixcton.] 

En la industria del cacao el procedimiento mas hnportante lo consti- 
tuye la fermentaci6n y curacion del fruto, puesto que de ello depende, 
en gran manera, la calidad y precio de este prochicto. En los varios 
paises donde se cultiva el cacao se emplean diversos metodos para su 


Durante la reco^da del cacao maduro el fruto se hacina en grandes 
montones en un sitio a^lecuado de la plantacion. 6 bien se Ueva & un 
tinj^Iado 6 dep6sito eerca de la fabrica para desgranarlo. Entonces el 
pericarpio, 6 c^p.sula que contiene el fruto. se corta con un cuchillo 
y las {iepitas. junto con la pulpa que las rodea. se echan en espuertas. 
Cuando en una s^jla finca se cultiva m6s de una clase de cacao, el fruto 
de las diversas especies debe conservarse separado para los fines de la 
ferment aci6n y curacion. 

EI objeto de la fennentacion es sacar la pulpa sacarina que roilea las 
pepitas, mejorar el color del cacao, dar& la pepita mks condici6n para 
los fines de la trituraci6n. endurecer la cdscara del grano. mejorar el 
gusto 6 sabor del fruto. y, por ultimo, evitar el moho. Debe agre- 
garse que la fennentacion de las pepitas no es indispensable. El 
cacao de color morado obscuro y que tiene un sabor amargo. sin 
fermentar es el que tiene mayor demanda en algunos mercados. 
Sin embargo, algunos de los cacaos mojores que se conocen est&n 
mas 6 menos fermentados. En Ceilfin efectuan por completo la 

En sintesis la fermentacion es el procedimiento de condimentar el 
cacao con su propio jugo. En Nicaragua la ferment aci6n se hace 
en dos 6 tres dias. en tanto que en Guatemala y El Salvador se 
inviertc la mi tad de este tiempo. En Surinam se emplean seis 6 
siete dias para dicho trataniiento. y debido & este hecho se obtiene 
im producto sui>eri()r cjue ha llegado a hacerse famoso. En Vene- 
zuela la fennentacion se hace en sacos cjue se ponen al sol durante 
el dia y so dojan trasudar durante la noche, al paso que en Mexico se 
cavan hoyos on ol suelo y en ellos se fermenta el cacao cubirendo h>s 
hoyos c(m hojas do platano. En la Isla de Trinidad hay muehos 
cultivadoros (juo no formentan el cacao, i>ero ya empiezan a adoptar 
esto tratamionto. 

La formoiitaoioii puede efectuarse al aire libre, en ima casa 6 
sotochado o on cajas 6 tanques especialos. Sin embargo, puede 
prosoiiHlirso do ostos motochw y llovarsoa cabo la ferment acion amon- 
tonando ol fnito. A fm do quo todo ol monton de fnito se fennente 
do una manora uniformo. Ins pepitas doboran rovolrerse diariamente 
}' oubrirso otra voz para (•«)ntinuar la oporacion. El calor de la 
niasa aiiinonta gradualnionto. y no dobo pormitirse cjue sea excesivo 
porqiH* piiodo danar la calidad do! producto. I'na temperatura de 
3')" a 40" C. pu(Mlo tomarsc* como promedio, para los fines de la fer- 

I)(»spuos del prooodiniionto do la formentaciim el cacao debe 
lavarso para soparnr las i)opitas do la pulpa. El lavado se hace con 
mayor oficacia on los lugaros dondo puodo utihzarse la corriente de 
un arroyo, y tambi^»n puodon utilizarso los tanques de tigua y en 

ros casos jmedo omploarso la nuiquinaria para separar las pepitas 


y obtener iin fruto completamente limpio. Los mercados americanos^ 
no exigen que el cacao se haya lavado, pero en Alemania 6 Inglaterra- 
prefieren el grano limpio. En Nicaragua no se lava el cacao, pero* 
en El Salvador y Guatemala dicho procedimiento se adopta en 
algunos casos. DIcese que el delicado aroma del cacao de la Ame- 
rica Central se lo da el procedimiento del lavado que alii se emplea.- 

Efectdese 6 no el lavado, las pepitas deben secarse despufe de la 
fermentaci6n. L4 desecaci6n es en realidad una curaci6n y debe 
hacerse con el mayor esmero, mediante el calor natural del sol 6^ 
el calor artificial, en casas constniidas especialmente con este objeto^ 
que tengan departamentos 6 cdmaras calientes. La curaci6n hace- 
que la pepita adquiera un colar moreno 6 achocolatado, el cual 
varia segdn la clase de cacao y las condiciones de la localidad. En 
todos los casos la desecaci6n debe ser lenta y durar por lo menos 
de tres 6 cuatro dias, segim la magnitud de la fermentaci6n d que 
se hay an sometido las pepitas. La curacion cs muy import ante 
en la preparaci6n del cacao, j siempre debe Uevarse k cabo con. 
mucho cuidado 6 inteligencia. Las pepitas curadas se clasifican 
segtin el tamafio, calidad, apariencia y buen color del fruto. La- 
pepita de color claro tiene mejor sabor, pero la de color obscuro- 
tiene mucha demanda en algimos mercados. 

En algunos palses emplean m6todos especiales con el fin de darle 
el debido lustre y coloraci6n k este producto. Por ejemplo, en 
Venezuela emplean tierra roja; en la India Occidental emplean 
varias substancias, tales como almidon, achiote, almagrc y tierra. 
6 barro rojo. Cuando el grano tiene el lustre suficiente se coloca. 
en sacos y se envia al mercado. 
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UnlSo Intcruaeionul das Kcpublicns Americaiius. 

Vol. XXVI. JANEIRO de 11)08. No. 1. 

(Muitofl doB asHumptofl commeiitados nii norvao oditorml ])ort iiguczu d<> Boletim, 
bSo publicadcH eumcntv em ingicz ou hospaiihol. ) 

Tal foi a sinceridade c a cordialichulo das manifest a^oos com que o 
Govemo e o povo do Brazil receberam a es(iiiadra dos' E.stados 
Unidos quando entrou no porto do Rio de Janeiro em 12 de Janeiro, 
e tantas attcn^ocs Ihe foram dispensadas durante os dez dias que alii 
estiveram, (iiie a officialidade e os marinheiros jamais poderao 
esquecel-as. Na historia das via<]jens da (\s(iuadra norte-amerieana 
a paizes estrangeiros, jamai^i paiz alj^um excedeu o Brazil nos esfor^'os 
que fez para mostrar sua aprecia^ao pela presen^a da es(iuadra em 
suas aguas. A julgar pelas noticias que lemos re((»l)i(lo, parece que 
a receppfto que serA fcita a oificialidade pelo f Joverno e povo do Peru 
em Call&o e Lima, terd o mcsmo cunho de sincerida<le e ma<rnifi- 
cencia que a que Ihes foi feita no Rio. Comc|uanto Punt a Arenas, 
que 6 o unico ponto do territorio ehileno em (|U(» a frota toeara, 
esteja muito distante de Santiafj:o, sua capital e principal porto, o 
Govemo ehileno estd dando os passos precisos para acolher a frota 
de uma maneira tal que nunca sera es<iueci(la a sua passa<rem pelas 
aguas chileuas. 

A presen^a nas aguas da America <lo Sul dos navios d<» <>;uerra dos 
Estados Unidos, em sua viagem ao Pacifict), muito contrihuirfi para 
despertar mais o interesse do povo norte-americano i)elas Ucpuldicas 
Latino-Americanas. Chegam a esla Secrelaria grande numero de 
eartas, vindas nao so de periodicos e revistas, mas tambem de par- 
ticulares, pcdindo infomia^oes a respeito dos paizes e porto^ em (jue 
tocart a esquadra na sua notavel viagem. Por exemplo, a SecreiyLilot 


ministroii a umas centenas de jomaes dados sobre as cidades do Rio 
de Janeiro, Punta Arenas e Calldo, de modo que estar&o habilitados a 
publicar artigos descriptivos destes pontos para seus leitores. A 
este respeito, deve-se dizer que antes da frota partir, a Secretaria 
enviou aos officiaes de cada navio um jogo completo das publica^dos 
da Secretaria sobre a America Latina, afim de que, na sua viagem pelo 
contincnte meridional, podessem obter maior numero de conheci- 
mentos a respeito desse continente. A atten^ao da Secretaria foi 
muito apreciada conforme attestam as numerosas cartas que temos 
recebido dos officiaes. 


Na reuniao do Conselho Director da Secretaria que teve logar em 
8 de Janeiro, foi apresentada uma mo^ao determinando que aproxima 
Conferencia Internacional Pan-Americana se realizasse em Buenos 
Aires em 1910. Resolveu-se deixar a considera^ao da mo^ao para a 
proxima reuniao do Conselho, que terd logar em 5 de Janeiro, afim de 
permittir que os differentes membros do Conselho se conmiunicassem 
com sous respectivos Governos sobre a materia. No encerramento da 
Conferencia do Rio, ficou geralmente entendido que a proxima Confe- 
rencia se realizasse na cidade de Buenos Aires, por6m, o Conselho 
Director da Secretaria foi incumbido de designar definitivament^ o 
logar e a data da Conferencia. O anno de 1910 foi fixado para a 
reahza^ao da Conferencia, em vez de 1911 ou 1912, porquc naquelle 
anno a Republica Argentina celebrara uma grande exposi^&o com- 
memorativa do centonario da sua Independencia. Em >asta do grande 
progresso, tanto politico como commercial, que a America-Latina 
esta actualmente fazendo, e das rela^Ses mais estreitas existentes 
entre os Estados Unidos e suas irmas, a Quarta Conferencia Pan- 
Americana tcra de discutir muitos assumptos de interesse a todas as 
Republicas Americanas, e influird poderosamente em suas futuras 


O BoLETiM jii chamou a atten^ao dos leitores para a exposi^&o 
que o Governo do Brazil tenciona realizar no Rio de Janeiro no 
proximo verao, e para a c[ue o Governo ^Vrgentino c«lebrar& em 
Buenos Aires em 1910. Agora o Governo do Equador annuncia que 
realizara uma exposi9ao em Quito em 1909, e j& convidou o Governo 
dos Estados Unidos a participar nella. ^Vfim de poder acceitar este 
convite, o Presidente Roosevelt apresentou ao Congresso Nacional 
uma mensagem recommendando que seja votadaumasomma especial 
para este fun. As nagdes estrangeiras nao serdo convidadas a 


tomarem parte nas exposi^des do Brazil e da Republica Argentina, 
ainda que sens fabricantes e negociantes possam obter permissao a 
exp6r sens productos sob condi^oes especiaes. Como o Governo dos 
Estados Unidos foi especialmente convidado a tomar parte na expo- 
si^ao do Equador, 6 de esperar-se que o Congresso vote os fundos 
necessarios para a construc^ao de um odificio adequado e a organi- 
za^^ao de uma exhibi^ao representativa. Dentro de pouco tempo 
estar& concluida a estrada de ferro de Guayaquil a Quito, de modo 
que OS passageiros poderao fazer a viagem do porto de Guayaquil a 
Quito, o logar da exposi^aO, em vinte e quatro horas, por uma 
linha ferrea que, por suas difficeis obras de engenharia e o pittoresco 
da regiao que atravessa, 6 uma das maravilhas do mundo. A cidade 
de Quito 6 uma das mais interessantes da America do Sul, e goza 
de um bom clima. Por estar a cerca de 10,000 p6s acima do nivel do 
mar, nfio 6 excessivamente quente como nas regiSes tropicaes mais 
baixas, e sua proximidade ao equador a protege contra o rigoroso frio. 
Por occasiSo da exposi^ao, a viagem de New York a Quito poderd ser 
feita em raenos de dez dias, e 6 de esperar-se que grande numero de 
pessoas dos Estados Unidos comparecorao a este certamen. 



Publicamos neste numero do Boletim o relatorio do Secretario 
Francisco J. Yanes, nosso dolegado k Convenpao Sanitaria Inter- 
nacional que se reuniu na cidade de Mexico em dezembro de 1907,'o 
qua] demonstra a parte activa que a Secretaria tomou neste congresso. 
Elle faz men^ao especial do progresso que se tem feito no Mexico em 
condi^des hygienicas modemas e do crescente interessc despertado 
nos trabalhos da Secretaria Pan- Americana em Washington. 


A Companliia de Vapores Lamport c ITolt merece ser congratulada 
per causa dos melhoramentos que esta fazendo no sen servi^o entre 
New York e Rio de Janeiro e Buenos Aires. O servn^o resentia-se 
pela falta de boas accommodapSes para passageiros de P classe nos 
vapores que faziam a carreira entre portos dos Estados Unidos e os 
da costa. oriental da America do Sul. A Companliia acaba de 
adquiiir para esta linha tres novos vapores, de 9,000 toneladas cada 
um, com boas accommoda^oes para 150 passageiros de P classe, 
e 50 passageiros de 2* e 3* classes. Todos esses navios sao novos, e 
o piimeiro a fazer a viagem foi o Verdi. Para comnvei\\or«.t ^\\^ 
ch^ada a New York, foi offerecido um jantar a X^ot^lo cc\ W ^^ 


Janeiro, sendo os convivas pessoas de New York e de outras partes 
do paiz que se interessam pelo desenvolvimento das rela^Oes com- 
merciaes com a America do Sul. Todos os que visitaram o vapor 
manifestaram a boa impressao que'lhes causou, e o desejo que tinliam 
de emprehender immcdiatamente uma viagem 4 America do Sul. 
£ de espcrar-se que todos os viaj antes dos Estados Unidos que at6 
agora tem hesitado em visitar a America do Sul, por causa das mis 
accommoda9oes, estejam agora decididos a emprehender esta viagem. 
Por outro lado, espera-se que um maior numero de representantes 
sul-americanos animem-se a visitar os Estados Unidos. Nao ha 
melhor meio de promover relagoes dc amizade entre os differentes 
paizes que as visitas mutuas. 


Todos quantos so interessam em promover rela^Oes mais estreitas 
entre os Estados Unidos e a America Latina ficaram muito satisfeitos 
por motivo das lisonjeiras referencias a Secretaria Intemacional que 
o Prosidcnte Roosevelt fez em sua mensagem e que foram repro- 
duzidas na ultima edifao do Boletim. Agora temos que noticiar 
a carta que, ha pouco, o Presidente Roosevelt dirigiu ao Professor 
L. S. RowE, da Universidade de^ Pennsylvania, em que aponta os 
beneficios que hiio de resultar de rela^oes intellectuaes mais intimas 
entre a America do Norte c a do Sul, c exprime seu vivo interesse 
por pianos que se estao elaborando neste sentido. Keproduzimos 
a carta do Presidente em outra sec^ao do Boletim. 


O Sr. II. C. Phillips, wSecretario da Conferoncia do Lago de Mohonk 
sobre o arl)itranirnt() intemacional, infonna a Secretaria que a Con- 
feroncia do lOOS sera realizada nos dias 20, 21 o 22 de maio, e que se 
occu])ara espocialiuente de assumptos pan-americanos. Deseja que 
a Secretaria e Consellio Director desta institui^ao tomem especial 
interesse por esta Conferencia, e (jue tomem parte activa em suas 
delil)eravoes. Em sua conununicavao diz: "Creio que nio erro 
diz(*n(lo que o interesse despertado j^ela sessao pan-americana do 
anno passado torn sido de grande valor em promover o principio 
geral (le arbitramento, e que uma sessao semelhante nesta Conferencia 
tera resnltados ainda mais efTicazes. 


O Presidente Reyes da Colombia e o Ministro das Rela^Ses Exte- 
riores, o Sr. A. Vasquez Cobo, tSm dado mais um passo afini de tor- 
nar mais conhecida a Republica da Colombia no exterior, estaber 
lecondo em Bogoti um Bureau Central de Informapao, com agendas 
em Londres, Paris, Bruxellas, Ilamburgo, Barcelona e New York. 
A essas agencias deverao ser fornecidos jornaes e publica^oes 
officiaes de interesse publico, contendo informapoes sobre a Colombia 
e as opportimidades que ha neste paiz para o emprego de capitaes 
estrangeiros. Este Bureau estard em communicapao directa com 
a Secretaria Intemacional das Republicas Americanas em Wasliing- 
ton, e o Ministro pede a coopera^ao dessa institui^ao, quanto possivel, 
neste importante trabalho de propaganda. 


O relatorio sobre as condi^des commerciaes da Colombia, pre- 
parado pelo Sr. Charles M. Pepper, agente especial do Departa- 
mento do Commercio e Trabalho, que foi recentcmente pubUcado 
pela sec^ao de manufacturas, 6 muito opportuno. O relatorio faz 
um estudo cuidadoso das condi^Ses do commercio, dos recursos 
naturaes e as opportunidades para o emprego de capitaes na Colombia. 
Antes de preparar este relatorio, o Sr. Pepper fez uma visita & Co- 
lombia e estudou demoradamente suas condi^des. Esta actualmente 
fazendo investiga^6es no Equador, Peru o outros paizes da America 
do Sul, com o mesmo fim. 


A Associa^ao Nacional de Manufactureiros que torn sua sedo em 
New York, rua Broadway n. 170, e cujo presidente 6 o Sr. James W. 
Tax Cleave, de St. Ijouis, Estado de Missouri, estd desenvolvendo 
um importante ramo subordinado a esta Associai^ao. A *' American 
Industries,'* em sua edi^ao de dezembro, descreve um piano desta 
Associa^do para fomecer a sens membros informa^Ses do todo gonoro 
sobre as condi^des commerciaes de paizc^s estrangeiros. Ao mesmo 
tempo, lembra o facto de que a Associa^ao fornece gratuit anient e a 
negociantes estrangeiros as informa^oes ([uo pcdem sobre assuinptos 
commerciaes e industriaes. Si um exportador ou negociante da 
America do Sul desejar emprehender negocios nos Estados l^nidos, 
poder& dirigir-se & Associa^ao Nacional de Manufactureiros podindo 
informa^5e8 quanto 6s ftrmas com que devera tor rela^oos commer- 
ciaes. Isto ser4 de grande beneficio para augmentar o commercio 
entre os Estados Unidos e suas irmas do Sul. A Secvx^tavi^i AvJ^^v^\v^. 


cxprimir aqui o seu reconliecimento d iVssocia^ao por sua coopera^ao 
em promover o commercio pan-americano, e, em troca, ter& prazer 
em ministrar informa^oes aos sens membros que estejam contem- 
plando entrar em directo contacto com a America Latina. 


Polos dados estatisticos do commercio exterior da Republica 
Argentina nos nove mezes de Janeiro a setembro de 1907, v6-se que a 
importa^ao foi no valor de $202,835,218, e a exporta^fio, no de $240,- 
878,611, do que resulta um balanpo commercial a favor da Republica 
de $38,043,393. Comparando-se o commercio exterior com o do 
periodo con*espondento do anno anterior, verifica-se um augmento 
na importa^ao de $5,519,704, e de $16,247,350, na exporta^ao. 

Que a agricultura vae-sc desonvolvendo na Republica, provaH) a 
rela^ao official da area em cultivo em 1907, que demonstra ter havido 
um augmento na area semeada de trigo, linho e aveia. As medidas 
adoptadas para o prompto despacho dos productos nacionaes esiHo 
em linha com o espirito geral de progresso que prevalece no paiz, ao 
passo que a nova lei, concedendo isen^ ao de direitos de importa^fio^ 
pelo prazo de dez annos, as machinas e utensilios de todas as classes 
destinados aos estabelecimentos mineiros e metallurgicos, faz prever 
uma maior actividade neste ramo da vida industrial. 


Ai)ozar da diiiiinui^ao verificada nos valoros dos dous principaes 
artii^os oxportados — cafe o borracha — nos mezes de agosto e setembro 
de 1907, () resultado do movimento commercial nos primeiros nove 
mozes de 1 907 i nostra um balan^'o a favor da Republica de $63,000,000, 
coniparado com $53,000,000, em ogual periodo do anno anterior. O 
movimento da importa^ao foi no valor de $147,000,000, e o da expor- 
ta^ao, no do $210,000,000, verificando-se assim um augmento tanto 
na importavao coiiio na cxporta^ao, comparadas com as do mesmo 
j)eriodo do anno anterior. As machinas e materiaes para obras 
publicas continuaram a sor importados em avultada quantidade at^ 
o fini do anno. 

T'^nia inedida de grande alcance para o fomento das industrias 
nacionaes foi o decreto autorizando o Govemo a crear um banco 
agricola, com o capital de $10,000,000. Este banco facilitar& o 
descnvolvimento da agricultura, fornecendo o capital e credito 6s 
emprezas que derem garantias. 


Mais um impulso ser& dado & industria agricola com o estabeleci- 
mento de colonos japonezes nos Estados do Rio de Janeiro e Sao 
Paulo. Os contractos para a introduc^ao de iinmigrantes jk forani 
celebrados entre aa autoridades desses Estados e a companhia 


Ao dar as boas vindas ao Sr. Anibal Cruz, novo Ministro do 
Chile acreditado aos Estados Unidos, a vSecretaria Pan-Americana 
deseja salientar os valiosos servi^os prestados pelo seu predecessor, 
o Sr. Walker-MartInez, que agora representa o Departamento 
de Santiago no Congresso Nacional do Chile. O Sr. Cruz, ao apre- 
sentar suas credenciaes ao Presidente dos Estados Unidos no dia 
16 de novembro de 1907, disse que foi empenho do seu Governo 
manter as boas rela^Ses que felizmente existem entre os dous paizes, 
retribuindo plenamente a esses sentimentos o Presidente Roosevelt 
cm sua resposta. 

Si o projecto de lei que o Presidente apresentou ao Congresso em 
25 de outubro de 1907, f6r votado, a cultura do Jinho serd protegida 
com um premio governamental. No referido projecto, esta con- 
signada a somma de $450,000,000 para ser distribuida em premios 
sobre o linho que for produzido, manufacturado e exportado na 
Republica durante o periodo de doze annos. 

O estado satisfactorio do commercio do paiz 6 evidenciado do 
facto de que as rendas arrecadadas pelas diversas alfandegas do 
paiz nos primeiros nove mezes de 1907, importaram em $26,000,000, 
o que mostra um augmento de mais de $3,000,000, comparadas com 
as de egual periodo do anno anterior. 


Reproduzimos neste numero do Boletim as valiosas informa^des 
sobre a cultura da borracha e a manufactura de algodao na Colombia, 
extrahidas do relatorio que o Sr. I. A. iLvxNiXG, Consul dos Estados 
Unidos em Cartagena, du'igiu ao seu Governo. O desenvolvimento 
da cultura da borracha no paiz 6 evidenciado do facto de que a quan- 
tidade de borracha exportada pelo porto de Cartagena durante o 
anno de 1906, foi de 159,580 kilos, ao passo que nos primeiros nove 
mezes de 1907, foram exportados 136,680 kilos. Nao so se esta 
cultivando a borracha em vastas planta^oes, mas medidas estao 
sendo adoptadas para impedir a destrui9ao das arvores silvestres. 

Publicamos tambem varias modifica^oes da tarifa da Colombia^ 
feitas durante o anno de 1907. 


Al^m (le cxercer as func^Oes de delegado de Costa Rica &. Con- 
foroncia de Paz da America Central, o Sr. Luis Anderson t^ve a 
honra de ser nomeado como Enviado Extraordinario e Ministro 
Plenipotenciario em Missao Especial aos Estados Unidos. Foi 
recebidopelo Presidente Roosevelt nesta capacidade em 12 denovem- 
bro de 1907, e apresentou-lhe as cordiaes sauda^Oes do Presidente 
Gonzalez Viquez, assim como do Govemo e do povo de Costa Rica. 

Vin decreto promulgado pelo Presidente em 2 de dezembro de 
1907, autoriza a creagao de juntas especiaes de agricultura nos 
diversos departamentos de Costa Rica, com o fim de promover o 
desenvolvimento da agrrcultura no paiz, fazendo que os outros pro- 
ductos nacionaes sejam tao uteis para o paiz como a industria 
de bananas. 

Com respeito a esta industria, o Ministro dos Estados Unidos no 
Chile, informa que, por nao terem appro vado os cultivadores e ex- 
portadores o direito de exporta^ ao de 1 por cento sobre cada cacho de 
bananas, cobrado em virtudc de uma lei recente, cuja execu^fio foi 
dependente desta approva^ao, a industria fica no mesmo estado em 
que era antes da decretagao da lei. 


O recenseamento da popular ao da Republica de Cuba feito em 1907, 
da 2,28,283 habitantes, contra 1,572,845 habitantes em 1899, sendo 
as provincias de Havana e Santa Clara as mais povoadas. O movi- 
niento inimigratorio no exercieio de 1906-7, accusa uma diminui^do 
de 23,080 immigrantes, comparado com o do anno anterior. 

As rendas arrecadadas pela alfandega de Havana no anno de 1907, 
soniniaram 820,()()o,048.12, sendo $1,500,000 mais que no anno 
anterior. Forani adopt adas medidas para o saneamento de diversas 
niunici{)ali(lades, e uma verba de $350,000 foi votada para ser empre- 
gada em medidas contra a febre amarella. 

exi»()si(;ao nacioxal ik) EQr.u>oR. 

T'mn exposicao nacional sera realizada em Quito, em agosto de 
1909, para comnuMnorar o primeiro centenario da lucta pela inde- 
pendencia na America do Sul. () <lecreto estabelecendo as bases 
para a or^anizacao desta exposicao foi promulsjado pelo Presidente 
Alkaho em oulubro dc 1907. A exposicao abrangerd exliibifOes 
mostrando os recursos (lorestaes, pastoris, ajrrieolas e mineiros Jo 
paiz, assim como a via<;ao ferrea e a industria da pesca. IIaver& 
nclla seccoes liistoricas e de avti^s de interei>se inteniacional. As 
j]aco('s esiran<rciras serao convidadas a participarem na exposi(*&o. 


Com rela^JSo d ostrada de ferro intcroceanica do San Josci no Pa- 
cifico at^ Puerto Barrios no Atlantico, que foi al)erta ao trafego 
em 19** de Janeiro de 1908, 6 de grande interessc o pamplileto ulti- 
mamente publicado pelo Sr. Victor Agi^ilar Pelaez, Consul da 
Republica em Liveq)ool e Manchester. Dcvido ao grande intoresse 
despertado por esta parte da America Central, reprtxluzimos neste 
numero do Bol'ETIM a parte do pamphleto que trata do commercio e 
das oondi(*5es economicas em 1906. 

A ehegada a capital do primeiro trem vindo de Puerto Barrios foi 
a oc<?asiao de uma grande demonstra^.ao, o para commcMnorar a 
occasiuo foi realizada uma exposi9ao de industrias nacionaes. 
As na^Oes estrangeiras mandaram represent antes especiaes para 
tomarem parte nas cerimonias. Essa estrada de ferro, com imia 
extensao de 269 milhas, facilitani enormemenle o transporto dos 
productos nacionaes para o mar, e e uma prova evidente do desen- 
voh'imento desta progressiva Repul)lica. 


Emvirtude do decreto de 30 de novembro de 1007, foi estabelocida 
uma Junta Commercial em Port-au-Prince, com o fim do promover 
OS interesses commerciaes, agricolas, industriaes e maritimos da 
Republica. Foi votada a somma de $1,800 para occorror as des- 
pozas dc organiza^ao, e o Presidento da Republica foi designado 
como presidente honorario da mesma. A associa^ao nao so dif- 
fundird informa^des relativas aos productos nacionaes e industrias, 
mas servira tambem como intermediario para a distribui^ao no paiz 
de informes de valor sobre os paizcs estrangeiros. 



O Govemo aiigmentou o direito de exporta^ao so])re ))ananas de 
dous a tres centavos por cacho, cujo producto soni api)lica(lo a obras 
de melhoramento dos portos septentrionaos (bi Republica, assim 
dotando-os de melhores facilidades para arexportacao de bananas. 


O relatorio annual do Sr. Licenciado Jose Yves Limaxtour, o 
illustre Ministro da Fazenda da Republica do Mexico, em que da 
uma revista do estado economico do paiz, constitue uma epocha nos 
annaes mexicanos. O relatorio que apresentou ao Con^^resso "^^iiVow^ 


em 14 de dezembro de 1907 deve ser lido por todos aquelles que 
desejam obter mais exacto conhecimento dos negocios mexicanos. 
Piiblicamos neste numero do Boletim um resumo do relatorio que 
mostra as condi^oes muito lisonjeiras desta importante parte da 
Uniao Pan-Americana. 

As estatisticas do commercio no primeiro trimestre do exercicio de 
1907-8, mostram um augmento de mais de $5,000,000, tanto na im- 
porta^ao como na exporta^ao da Republica. Este resultado 6 muito 
satisfactorio, pois no periodo correspondente dos dous exercicios an- 
terioros, houve diminui^ao na exporta^ao. 

As pessoas que tdm empenho em promover o trafico pelo Isthmo, 
tomam grande intercsse pelas obrcs de melhoramento eln construc9fto 
e em projecto nos pontos terminaes da Estrada de Ferro de Tehuan- 
tepec. 15 a inten^ao do Govcmo dotar os portos de Salina Cruz e 
Coatzocoalcos de melhoramentos, de modo que figurem entre os 
princi])aes portos commcrciaes do mundo. 


A monsagem qixe o Prcsidente Zelaya apresentou ao Congresso 
Nacional cm 1° dc dezembro de 1907, 6 um documento importante 
em que da a historia e rcsultados da Conferencia de Paz reunida 
rocentomente em Washington. 

A ccmcessao feita polo Govemo aos Srs. Guerrero e MoREiRApara 
a explora^uo das florestas de borracha da Republica, pelo prazo 
do doz annos, foi transforida a ^'The Atlantic Industrial Company." 

A nova 1(4 do inarcas do fabrica o do commercio que foi promulgada 
om 20 de novombro de 1907, visa a protoc^ao das industrias nacionaes 



Sogundo () rolatorio (lue o Sr. James G. Kellogg, Consul dos 
Estados Tnidos om Colon, dirigiu ao sou Govorno sobre o movimonto 
connnorcial do porto do Bocas del Toro, as importa^des effectuadas 
l>or este porto no oxorcicio de 1907 augmontaram, ao passo que as 
oxporta^oos no mosmo poriodo diminuiram. Espera-se que, com 
a oxporta^-ao do bananas para a Europa, para o que os vapores 
estao sondo ofiuipados com camaras frigorificas, o movimento coni- 
morcial no corrente oxorcicio dara outro resultado. Os Estados 
Unidos occupam o primoiro logar no commercio deste porto. 


Foi apresentado ao Congresso do Paraguay um projecto de lei 
autorizando a crea^ao de um banco, com o capital de $20,000,000, 
euro, e a denomina^ao de Banco da Republica. As condi^Ses sob 
as quaes fimccionari, sEo publicadas neste numero do Boletim. 


Com a inaugura^ao do novo servi^o de vapores entre New York e 
Calico, por via de Panamd, serd dado um grande passo no desen- 
volvimento do commercio entre as duas secgoes. Esta linha est^ 
sob a administra;;ao da Companhia Nacional de Vapores e Doca 
Fluctuante de CalUo, e espera-se que esteja em opera^ao cm principios 
de 1908. Al^m de ter um capital de $15,000,000, a linha receber^* 
do Govemo do Peru uma subven^ao de $1 ,500,000. 


Segundo os dados estatisticos mais recentes, as rendas arrecada- 
das pelas alfandegas da Republica no primeiro trimestre de 1907, 
foram na importancia de $543,624.72, o que mostra uma diminui^ao 
de $145,904.42, comparadas com as de egual periodo do anno anterior. 


Ainda que as rendas aduaneiras do Uruguay arrecadadas no mez 
de outubro de 1907, mostram uma pequena diminui^ao, em confronto 
com as do mez correspondente de 1906, as rendas totaes arrecadadas 
nos dez mezes fmdos em outubro, accusam um augmento, sendo de 
$11,271,871, contra $11,006,639, em egual periodo do anno anterior. 

A lei de impostos para 1908, como foi submettida pelo poder logis- 
lativo, contem varias modifica^oes de importancia. p]ni virtude de 
uma das suas disposi^oes, o impost o a que estao sujeitos os premios 
de companhias estrangeiras de seguro funccionando no paiz, 6 
augmentado de 3 a 7 por cento. 


O Govemo de Venezuela promulgou um decreto em 14 de novembro 
de 1907, estabelecendo iim imposto addicional sobre di versos pro- 
ductos alimenticios e de uso domestico. 



O Primeiro Congresso Scientifico Latino-Americano realizou-se em 
Buenos Aires, capital da Republica Argentina, em 1908. A segunda 
sessao do Congresso teve lugar em Montevideo, capital da Republica 
Oriental do Uruguay, em 1901, e o Terceiro Congresso reuniu-se no 
Kio de Janeiro, capital do Brazil, em 1905. 

Agora ficou determinado que o Quarto Congresso se realizasse em 
Santiago durante os prinieiros dez dias de dezembro de 1908, e o 
goTcmo do Chile jd expediu convites nesse sentido. 

Foi resolvido tambem anipliar o escopo do Congresso, de forma que 
abranja todas as Republicas Americanas e para isso o govemo do 
Cliile foz uni convite official ao govemo dos Estados Unidos. Alte- 
rou-sc a denomina^ao do Congresso. Em vez de Quarto Congresso 
wScientifico Latino- Americano, sera denominado o Primeiro Congresso 
wSdontifico Pan-Americano, denomina^ao essa que estd mais de 
accordo com sua ampliada represent a^'ao. 

O Prosidonto Roosevelt, na mensagem com que apresentou ao 
Congresso o rolatorio do Secret ario Root sobre o assumpto, recom- 
nicnda ([ue o Congresso vote uma verba sufficiente para a devida 
represcntavAo dos Estados Unidos. 


Em vista do interesse geral que tern despertado a presen^a da 
csc|ua(lra aniericana em aguas brazileiras e da importancia dos dis- 
cursos pronunciados por essa occasiao e dos telegrammas troca^Ios 
entre os Governos do Brazil e dos Estailos Unidos, transcrevemos 
alguns delles para as nossas columnas. 

() Embaixador do Brazil em Washington recebeu do Barao Rio 
Bkanco, Mlnistro das Rela^Oos Exterit)res do Brazil, o seguinte tele- 
graunua, annunciando a chegada da esquadra ao Rio de Janeiro em 
l^i (Ic Janeiro: 

**()s pieparalivos dos f(*stejos principiaram no momento em que se 
vin fluctuan<lo do Palacio de Monroo» onde se realizou a Confereucia 
Pan-Anicricana, a l)an(leira l)razileira rodeada por quatro bandeiras 

Mais tardc forani trocudos entre os (lovernos do Brazil e dos 
Estados Unitlos telegrannnjLs (|/^ cortezia. 

\o dia 1 > de Janeiro, o Presidente Affoxso Pexxa do Brazil 
envion o s(»guin((» telet^ranuna ao Presidente <los Estados Unidos: 


^'Tive esta tarde o grande content amento de reccber e ficar conhe- 
cendo pessoalmente os Almirantes e Commandantcs da frota ameri- 
CAna em viagem para o Oceano Pacifico. Congratulo-me comvt>sco 
pela foliz chef:ada dessa tfio poderosa c bom oxercitada frota ao Rio de 
JaiieirOy e tenho vivo prazer em informar-vos de que a popula^ao de 
nossa capital se associou espontanea e calorosamente, desde o primeiro 
momento, &s autoridades navaes brazileiras nas demonstra^ocs do 
fraternal amizade aos marinheiros amoricanos c d ^ando Ropiil)lica 
do Xorte, por cuja constante prosperidade e gloria o Brazil intoiro faz 
OS niais cordoaos votos. 

*'Affoxso Pexna/' 

O Presidente Roosevelt enviou ao President o Affonso Penxa 
o segiiinte telegramma em resposta: 

'' 15 do JANEIRO DE 1008. 

" Agrade^'O-vos a bondosa communica^ao quo mo fizostos por occa- 
siao da chegada da esquadra amoricana ao Rio de Janeiro. Causou-me 
e ha de caiisar ao povo americano a mais viva satisfacvao. Xos todos 
nos confessamos profundamente reconhecidos polas distinctas atton- 
^oes e hospitalidade com que o Govemo o o povo do Brazil recoboram 
Dossos ofHciaes e marinheiros. Os navios de giiorra amoricanos nao 
exLstem para outro fim senao o de proteger a paz contra a possivol 
oppressao, e a justi^a contra a possivol oppressao. Entre os Est ados 
Unidos e o Brazil esses navios njlo sao navios de guerra, mas sim 
mensageiros de amizade e boa vontado, incumbidos de colobrar jimto 
de v6s as rola^5es de amizade o auxilio mutuo, existentes desde lia 
longi-H annos e que nunca hao de ser quebradas, entre as duas grandes 


For oceasiao do lunch que o Govemo do Brazil ofTc^nn'Ou a ofliciali- 
dade da esquadra americana; em 15 de Janeiro, o Prt^sidente Affonso 
Pexxa fez o seguinte brinde: 

**0 acolhimento caloroso e fraternal que o ])ovo da capital da 
Kepublica tern feito A poderosa esquadra americuna ora entre nos deve 
ter tlemoiistrado a todos quanto sao profimdas o sinceras a sympatha 
e a amizade que animam a na9ao brazilcira para com a sua grande e 
pro>pera irman da America do Norte. Xao se trata de seniimentos 
ephemeros e passagoiros, pois datam do l)erro da nossa naciionalidado 
e vem crescendo sempre, estreitando-se cada voz mais os laeos do 
an)izade e as rc^la^oes economicas entre as duas nar oes. 

"Quando as povos sul-americanos procbunaram a sua iudepen- 
dencia, nessc momento cheio de duvidas e vacilla^oes (|uanto ao sou 
futuro, nfto Ihes faltou a anima^ao da joven Repul)lica Americana, 
declarando s(demnemente a indestructivel solidariedade entre os 
povos do Novo Mundo pela voz do s(»u grande PresideuVo '^\i:>^Yvav., 


cujo nome figura na historia de modo brilhante como de estadista de 
largo descortino e de rara presciencia politica. 

^'O longo e difficil cruzeiro da poderosa esquadra que o Brazil 
hoje hospeda, contomando o continente americano em toda a sua 
extensao, constitue nova e magnifica demonstra^ao do inexcedivel 
vigor e da extraordinaria onergia do grande povo amigo. 

^^Brindo pela gloriosa marinha americana, pela prosperidado da 
Republica dos Estados Unidos da America, pela felicidade pessoal do 
seu eminente chefe, o grande estadista, Senhor Theodore Roose- 

Os seguintes telegrammas foram tambem trocados entre o De- 
part amento de Estado dos Estados Unidos e o Embaixador Ameri- 
cano junto ao Governo do Brazil: 


15 de JANEIRO DE 1908. 

Recep^ao da esquadra pela imprensa e povo motivo de grande 
satisfac^ao. Manifesta^oes cordiaes para com os Estados Unidos per 
toda a parte. Presidente do Brazil recebe com ardor os officiaes e 
offereco-lhes jantar. As bandeiras brazileira e americana fluctuam 
juntas sobre o Palacio Monroe, aonde no dia 20 o Bar&o' Rio Bbanco 
ofTerece banquete d ofFicialidade da esquadra, 600 talheres, sendo RuY 
Barbosa orador official. 


15 DE JANEIRO DE 1908. 

Pe^o-vos (jue apresenteis ao Barao Rio Branco os meus sinceros 
agradecimentos e os do Govcmo americano pela cordial hospitalidade 
com que o Presidente e o Governo do Brazil estilo recebendo a esqua- 
tlra americana. ^ muito agradavel saber que a mesma amizade que 
me foi tuo generosamente dispensada em 1906, nao foi abalada eon- 
forme mostra a recep^fio aos meus patricios. O povo americano 
ficara nuiito agradecido pelas cordeaes attendees que estfto sendo tlis- 
pensadas aos sous marinheiros. Minlias cordeaes recommenda^des 
pessoaes ao Barao de Rio Branco. O Presidente Roosevelt jA tele- 
graphou directamente ao Presidente Penna. 


Professor L. S. Rowe, da Universidade de Pennsylvania, que foi 

um dos delegados dos Estados I'nidos a Terceira Conferencia Inter- 

nacicmal Americana reunida no Rio de Janeiro em julho de 1906, fex, 

npos i) encerramento da Conferencia, uma extensa viaf|;em pelos 

paizos da America do Sul que durou \uw titvuo e meio. 


Desdc que regressou da America do Sul, o Professor Rowe con- 
ferenciou com o Presidente Roosevelt relativamente aos fins e resid- 
taclos de sua viagem e os pianos que tem elaborado para a promo^ao 
de rela^des intellectuaes mais estreitas entre os Estados Unidos c as 
suas irmas do Sul. Neste numero do Boletim reproduzimos a carta 
que o Presidente Roosevelt dirigiu ao Professor Rowe, manifes- 
tando sua aprecia^So pelos sens trabalhos. 

"Meu Caro Senhor Rowe: Tenho tornado muito interesse pela 
<lescrip^fio da viagem que fizestes pela America do Sul e os varios 
pianos por vos elaborados para fortalecer as rela^oes intellectuaes 
existentes entre a parte septentrional e meridional do continente. 
Julgo de grande conveniencia que, al4m das rela^oes de amizade 
existentes entre os Govemos das Republicas Americanas, se estabe- 
le^am rela^des pessoaes entre os leaders da opiniao publica nessas 
Republicas. Taes rela^des pessoaes tendem poderosamente para 
clestniir os preconceitos e concep^fies erroneas resultantes da falta 
de conhecimento mutuo. Neste hemispherio occidental, cada uma 
das Republicas pode tanto aprender como ensinar as outras, quando 
posta em contacto com suas irmas. 

'*Creio que nao ha melhores meios de conseguir este residtado 
que as universidades americanas. Ha muitos problemas economicos, 
sociaes e industriaes — para nfio fallar de outros mais estrictamente 
scientificos — que sILo distinctamente americanos em seu caractor e 
continentaes em seu escopo. Com a coopera^ao dos estud antes e 
homens investigadores de nossas differentes Republicas, a experiencia 
accumulada deste hemispherio poderd ser applicada k solu^ao desses 
problemas, com maiores probabilidades de exito. A communidade 
de opiniSo e de ac^&o, assim produzidas, servir^i tambem para forta- 
lecer cada vez mais os la^os de amizade entre todos os povos deste 
hemispherio occidental. 

"Fa^o votos para que este movimento tenlia exito. 

"Sou com toda a consideracao, 

Theodoke Roosevelt." 



A Reparti^ao de Estatistica da RepubHca Argentina acaba de 
publicar seu boletim *'E1 Comercio Exterior Argentino," contendo os 
dados estatisticos do commercio exterior da Republica durante os 
primeiros nove mezes de 1907. Desses algarismos se vc que a inipor- 
ta^&o nesse periodo foi no valor de $202,835,218 ouro, ou mais 
$5,519,704 que em egual periodo de 1900, e a exporta^ao foi no valor 

24181— BuU. 1—08 14 


de $240,878,611, ou mais $10,247,350 que em cgual periodo do anno 
anterior. Das importa^des, $128,184,517 representam o valor das 
que pagaram direitos de importa^ao, e $74,650,701, as que entraram 
livres de direitos. As importa^des de ouro e de prata foram no valor 
de $23,440,946. Das exportaySes, $868 representam o valor das mer- 
cadorias (jue pagaram direitos de exporta^fio e $240,877,743, as que 
foram isentas de direitos. As exporta^oes de ouro e de prata no 
periodo em reforencia foram no valor de $281,750. 

Desses algarismos resulta um balan^o commereial a favor da Re- 
publica do $38,043,393, ao passo que as importa^des de ouro c de 
prata excederam as exporta^oes desses metaes em $23,159,193. 

Xa importa^ao o Reino Unido figura em primeiro lugar com $71,- 
964,236, seguindo-se-lhe a Allemanha com $32,131,549; os Estados 
Unidos com $26,476,423; a Franca com $18,447,927; Italia com 
$17,577,375; Belgica com $11,471,881; Brazil com $5,371,957; Hes- 
panha com $5,191,250; Uruguay, $1,874,291; Austria-Hungria, 
$1,731,721 ; OS Paizes Baixos, $1,162,333; Paraguay, $983,143; Chile, 
$313,955; Bolivia, $105,457, e Africa, $15,997. 

Comprchendidos na classificac^ao ^'outros paizes de origem'' estAo: 
Australia, $44,418; Canada, $687,141; Colombia, $2,493; Cuba, 
$386,964; China, $404,409; Dinamarca, $36,744; Equador, 823,528; 
Egypto, $1,103; Grecia, $31,555; Oautemala, $689; Japfio, $147,764; 
Mexico, $3,622; Xoruega, $336,171; Persia, $547; Peru, $531,843; 
Portugal, $208,287; Colonias francezas, $6,875; colonias hollandezas, 
$30,030; cohmias inglozas, $2,641,515; colonias norteamericanas, 
$9,855; Koumania, $1,675; Russia, $261,815; Salvador, $708; Re^ 
publica Dominicana, $287; Suecia, $280,076; Suissa, $1,567,371; 
Turciuia, $30,044; c Venezuela, $9,633. 

Coinparando-seas importa^'oes com as de egual periodo de 1906, 
verifica-so ({iiv liouvc aiigniontos nas import a^iVs provenientes dos 
segiiintcs paizes: Allemanha, S3,617,96S; (Ira Bretanha, $2,803,301; 
Belgica, $2,262,006; Austria-IIungria, $545,587; Uruguay, $520,521; 
Brazil, $508,085; Paraguay, SS 1,318, e Bohvia, $10,862. 

ll()iiv<» diininuivao nas importavoes provenientes dos sc^guintes 
l)aizcs: Fraiiva, $2,210,608: Italia, $1,000,307: os Estados Unidos, 
$710,820: Hcspanha, $358,155; Cl;ile, $132,410: os Paizes Baixos, 
827,344, c Africa, $r),205. 

Os ])aizcs (juc iin])ortaram gcnen)s da Kcpublica Argentina durante 
OS ])rimciros novc mczos de 1007 foram a (Ira Bretaniia, que occupa o 
primeiro liignr com $40,561,378: a Allemanha, com $28,784,527; 
Franva, com 82s,:j.-> 1,504: Belgica, $24,6:>7,8N2: Brazil, $10,338,686; 
OS Kstados Tnidos. $8,627,041: (»s Paizes Baixos, $3,526,970; Italia, 
$:J,JO;5J05: rrugUHy,$2,s;^0,s:i3: Chile, SI. 5S6.677: Africa ,$1,326,650 
Ilespanha, .SI,2S7,154: Bc^livia. $54:),S5:{: Ausiria-llungria, $521,492, 
o Vnrn^uny, ?117.i:;o. 



Xa elaseifica^fto "outrospaizes de destino" esttlo coinprehendidos: 
Cuba, $217,811; Dinamarca, $89,238; Noruega, $1,061,144; Peru, 
$90,613; Portugal, $25,401 ; colonias francezas, $684; colonias inglezas 
$45,197, e Suecia, $665,149. 

Ilouve augmonto nas exporta?6es para os seguintes paizes: Gra 
Bretanha, $9,300,538; Belgica, $5,027,366; Franca, $3,711,702; 
Brazil, $1,598,683; os Paizes Baixos, $1,189,856; Austria-Himgria, 
$486,951 ; Cliile, $430,984, e Bolivia, $246,076. 

Xota-se uma diniinui^ao nas exporta^oes para os seguintes paizes: 
Africa, $1,957,171; OS Estados Unidos, $1,701,312; Italia, $1,526,770; 
Uruguay, $977,049; Hespanha, $574,033; Allemanha, $399,408, e 
Paraguay, $17,709. 

O Talor da import a^fio durante os primeiros nove mezes de 1907 foi 
o maior registrado durante o decennio de 1898-1907, ao passo que o 
valor da export a^fio apenas foi excedido no anno de 1905, quando 
ascendeu a $247,110,133. 

O valor do commercio de importa^ao para todo o anno 6 calculado 
em $268,655,917, comparado com $269,970,521 em 1906, ao passo que 
o valor da exportapfto para o anno 6 calculado em $318,622,501 , contra 
$202,253,829 no anno anterior. 

O seguinte quadro mostra os generos import ados durante os pri- 
meiros nove mezes de 1907, com sens respectivos valores, comparados 
com OS do periodo correspondente de 1006: 


Asil2yv»4 TtrtMt ..-,— , 

PioducuM aliniKinicto*.. -..,.*. 

Wmx» ■ mms manufaftumt. 

llnfanft e bebHa* e^spirituoflsa , .. 

T«rf<*oa ,..„..,... 

Ole^A, etc* _,,„_.,..,. — . . . . 

Fredtvrtoft chlmicdA <* phttmuMUtUms. 
TinUi * mftterlB* c^irnnl**. ......_.., 

Mmdfin* e nam manuIiAtums. 

rmptleniasniAiiufuGtUf^s.-, ^... 

CouTOB t Miai manufACttiniA. .....-.,, 

Ferm c u^o e MUis mwiuf^wtmaaw . . . . « 

Oulfos ixwta« ,,,,„. 

rcmaUio* a^ricolatf. 

Vaifirnkxe partem delle». ..,,., 

ObjwKn de <«rainlca. . „,«..... , 

M^triifte* lie eonslniccio* 

Aiip«nnko« *»Njtffco», - . - 





para rriAi» oil 

di' ipo:. 

piini moiiofi. 


^ 84,177 


+ 1,427,3.50 


— 313,171 

S, 638,272 

- m,oos 

3t>, 774^332 

- T,2o:ij:« 


+ 152, 4?3 

«, 758, ISO 

+ 53,n30 


- 77,4«2 


+ W.fia^l 


+ M^.mi 


- 23.K.%VI 


- :iMih\m 


^ *jj2,&i>n 


- \,^^,m 


+ Hi,2TO,7ri» 


- 4i2,o:>.'i 


4- r.fll.040 


+ aWT.lS4 


+■ 47,21D 

Os generos exportados nos dous ])eriod().s em comparavao foram 
OS seguintes: 


novo mezos 
de 1J)07, 


Pndoctos anfanaet $88 , 246 , r/iT. 

PvodfKtos agrleolM 14t),40(NOHl i 

FrodBcto* toiMiMs 3,9r.«i,7.)5 j 

Pndaetos mliuirM 4W.61U ! 

PioABtMteeioft G(W,r*S5 

PiDdoefos dlTvraos. l,V^,OAo 


para maisoii 

I para me nos. 

+ K>,ri24,7,'U 

- m^ASo 

+ 302,712 


A aiTccada^ao dos impostos intemos durante os primeiros nove 
mezes do 1907 attingiu & somma de $31,493,006.17, papel, e $21,641, 
ouro, contra $28,744,276. 68, papel,e $19,634.16, ouro,emegual periodo 
do anno anterior. 


A lei federal de 30 de setembro de 1907 concede isen^So de direitos 
de importaf ao, pelo prazo de dez annos, aos machinismos, instmmen- 
t OS materiaes destinados ^ explora^ao de minas e ds usinas metallur- 
gic'as jA estabelecidas ou que vierem a estabelecer-se na Republica. 
Estilo tamboni coniprehendidos nas disposi^oes destalei, as machinas, 
instruinontos e materiaes que forem importados para a abertura de 

As pessoas ([ue desejarem obter este favor, deverao requerer ao 
iiiprctor da aifandega por onde se pretende importar os ditos mate- 
riaes. As dospozas foitas com & verificagao dos materiaes correrfio por 
conta do roquerente. 



nMuliineiilo ])roduzido pelas alfandegas da Republica durante os 
iui\ <^ prinuMros inezes de 1907 attingiu a 218,644: 174$000, comparado 
roin 175,170 : SloSOOO em igual periodo de 1906, o que mostra um 
iiu^inrnt o afavor dos nove primeiros mezesde 1907,de43,467: 359$000- 



Segundo o relatorio sobre o rccensoamento de 1907 que o Director 
Geral do Censo submottou em dezembro ao Govemador Provisorio 
do Cuba, a popula^ao da Republica 6 do 2,028,282 habitantes. O 
soguinto ((uadro domonstra a popula^ao, por provincias, comparada 
com o nu'(»iiscainonl() do 1S90. 

I'rovimius. j 1^99. 1W7. 

I'Iruir fW\ Kio ; 173.082 

Ha hjina 424,811 = 

Mittun/itH 302,4112 

SmitH (liiru 3S6,!a7 

C^arii.iK'i' y R8,237 

Orif'Ulo 327,716 

240. TSl 






Tot:i} 1,572.845 ! 2,028,281 


decisOes sobbe extbavios de mebcadobias. 

A *'Gaceta Oficiar* de 19 de outubro de 1907 contem uma circular 
determinando que ficarap sujeitas a impostos de importa^ao s6mente 
as mercadorias que f6rem effectivamente introduzidas e despachadas 
em Cuba, e nao sobre as mercadorias que f6rem extraviadas durante 
a viagem ou descarga do navio, ainda que estejam declaradas no 
manifesto ou conhecimento de carga. Todas as circulares em con- 
trario sfto revogadas. 



O Presidente Alfaro expediu um decreto em 31 de outubro de 
1907, estabelecendo as bases para a organiza^ao de uma grande 
exposi^ao nacional em Quito commemorativa do primeiro centena- 
rio do grito de independencia, que se abrir^ no dia 10 de agosto 
de 1909. 

O decreto estabelece que em terrenos publicos proximos d capital 
gerao construidos imi grande edificio publico ou pavilhao nacional e 
varios outros pavilhSes menores destinados d exposi^So. O conselho 
municipal da cidade de Quito providencian\ para que seja construido 
um magnifico boulevard entre a cidade c o recinto da exposi^ao. A 
exposi^ao ser& organizada e dirigida por uma commissao geral no- 
meada pelo Governo e composta de trinta membros; no seio desta 
commissao ser4 formado um directorio executivo. Cada uma das 
provincias da Republica nomear^ uma commissao seccion'al, as quaes 
ficarao subordinadas & commissao geral. 

A exposi^ao tem por fim, al6m de sua fei^ao commemorativa e 
historica, exhibir os productos commerciaes c industriaes, as artes 
liberaes e finan^as do Equador. Haveni uma sec^ao especial em 
que ser& exhibido o systema de instruc^ao da Republica. 

Talvez a sec^ao mais importanto da exposi^'ao serd a destinada d 
exhibi^ao dos productos florestaes. Nesta serao oxpostas as madeiras 
nacionaes, especialmente as diversas especies da arvore da borracha, 
OS processos de extrac^ao e seu beneficiainento para o niercado, com 
photographias mostrando todas as j)liases da cultura da borraclia, a 
que se consagra atten^O,o especial no Equador. Tambeiu sorao 
exhibidos os p4us e cascas de tinturaria e madeiras de construccao. 

Uma sec9&o ser& destinada 4 representa^ao dos ramos ordinarios 
de agricultura, taes como a cultura de cereaes, de plant as textis, a 
exhibi^lio de fructas, a fabrica9ao de assiicar e aguardente vinhos. 

Ser& feita uma exhibi^ao da sericicultura com o fim do desenvolver 
no paiz a industria da crea^ao do bicho de seda. Para isso, trata-se 
de obter exhibi^5es da China, Japao, India, Madagascar, ¥r^\!ksv^^ 
Italia, Hespanha, Hungria e os Estados Unidos. 


A industria pastoril que constitue uma das principaes industrias 
do Equador, assim como de muitas outras republicas da America do 
Sul, sera bem representada na exposi^ao. Atten^fio especial sei4 
dada ao progresso que se tern feito na crea9ao de animaes de ra^a. 

Haver4 uma sec^ao de pesca, outra de minas, e ainda outra de estra- 
das de ferro. 

O Governo do Equador offerece a.somma de 10,000,000 sucres para 
sor distribuida em premios para o mellior trabalho literario sobre 
assumptos patrioticos c liistoricos. 

Ainda que a exposi^'ao 6 organizada para a exliibi^ao de productos 
nacionaes, sao convidados a participarem nella os Govemos das 
na^oes estrangeiras. 




Oquadro apresentado na pagina 101 ^ extrahido dos dados compi- 
lados pelo Chefe da Reparti^ao de Estatistica do Departamento do 
Commercio e Trabalho, mostrando o niovimento commercial entre 
OS Estados Unidos c os paizos latino-americanos. A rela^fio corres- 
pond o ao mez de norembro de 1907, com uma identica com para tiva 
para o mez corresponden to do anno anterior, assim como para os doze 
mozes findos om novembro de 1907, comparados com o periodo corres- 
pondentc do anno precedento. Dev€»-se explicar que os algarismos 
das diversas alfandegas, mostrando as importa^des e exporta^'Oes de 
lun so mez, sao rocebidos no Departamento do Thesouro at^ quasi 
o (lia 20 do mez soguinto, e perde-se algum tempo necessariainente 
em sua compilavao e impressfio. Por conseguinte, asestatisticas para 
o mez de noveml)ro, por exemplo, nao sao publicadas at^ os primeiros 
dias de Janeiro. 



I^m pamphleto intcressante prei)arado pelo Sr. Victor AounjLR 
Pelaez, Consul da Kepublica de Guatemala em- lirerpool e Man- 
cliester, contem as seguintes informaroes sobre os recursos e actuaos 
condi^oes economicas daquelle paiz. 

As importa^'oes, cujo valor attingiu a $7,220,759 em 1906, coiisL»- 
tem de machinas de todas as classes, tecidos de li, algod&o, seda e 
linbo, rbapeos, j)roiluctos alimenticios, vinhos e licores, alimentos 
em conserva, porcellana, lou^a, obras de vidro, lou^a cle ferro, «rtigo8 


do armarinho, pianos, carruagens, bilhares, instnimentos musioos, 
quadros, vemizes, remedios, perfumarias, joias, pedras preciosas, 
artigos de pliantasia, etc. Esses artigos sao fomecidos pelos seguintes 
paizes: Estados Unidos, AUemanha, Inglaterra, Franca, Italia, Hes- 
panha, Belgica, Suissa, Austria, HoUanda, Japao, China, Mexico, 
Peru, Chile e as outras Republicas da America Central. 

As exporta^jdes, cujo valor foi de $7,136,271 em 1906, consistem 
principalmente de caf6, assucar, bananas, madeiras, couros, borra- 
cha, plantas medicinaes, fructas, etc. Exportam-se annualmente 
cerca de 50,000 toneladas de caf6, que 6 o principal artigo de exporta- 
9ao. Os paizes que importam generos de procedencia de Guatemala 
sao OS Estados Unidos, Allemanha, Inglaterra, Franca, Italia, Austria- 
Ilungria, Hespanha, Belgica e Chile. 

O commercio exterior augmenta constantemente e com a abertura 
ao trafego da Estrada de Ferro Intercontinental entre San Jos6 no 
Pacifico e Puerto Barrios no Atlantico, na extensao total de 269 
milhas, h^o de se augmentar muito as facilidades para o transporte 
dos productos nacionaes para os portos de mar. 

As estradas de ferro que estao actualmente em trafego sao a Central, 
a Oeste, a Ocos, a Verapaz e a de Guatemala, devendo ser inaugurada 
a Estrada de Ferro do Norte no mez de dezembro de 1907. 

As produc^des de Guatemala sao abundantes c variadas. No 
reino vegetal encontram-se todas as variodades de plantas, flores e 
fructas proprias das zonas torrida c temperada. Existem no paiz 
ricas minas de ouro, prata, cobre, ferro, chumbo, zinco, antimonio, 
car\'ao de pedra, mannore, enxofre, mica, etc. 

A agricultura, por^m, constituc a principal fonte de riqueza e na 
sua explora^ao estao empregados a maior parte dos capitaes estran- 
geiros. Devido d extraordinaria fertilidade do solo, nao se necessi- 
tam adubos e a grande humidade do clinia, mesmo na esta^ao secca, 
toma desnecessaria a irriga^ao. 

Em certas regiSes da costa podem-se obter duas ou tres colheitas 
de productos por anno. Existem extensas planta^oes de cafe, canna 
de assucar, cacAo, bananas, cereaes, etc., ao passo que nos departa- 
mentos septentrionaes do paiz numerosas companhias nacionaes c 
estrangeiras occupam-se na explora^ao das florestas, as (juaes contem 
madeiras duras em abundancia, principalmente o mogno e o cedro. 
A borracha 6 tambem cultivada com excellentes resultados. 

Quanto aos productos manufacturados, sao dignos do men^ao 
diversos artigos por sua boa qualidade. Os tecidos de la e de algodao, 
OS moveis e cal^jado de fabrica nacional, podem comparar-se favora- 
velmente com os similares estrangeiros. Outros artigos de produc- 
^fto nacional s&o: Chap^os, sellins, artigos de fibras, tecidos de junco, 
lou^a de barro, pe^as de esculptura, instnunentos musicos, sabao, 
▼elas, charutos, cigarros, (jueijo, manteiga, cerveja, aguas uui\e\!^^^, 


gelo, aguardeiite, etc. Os nacionaes tfem muito geito para aprender 
novos officios e abundam no paiz as materias primas. 

A Republica tern uma superficie de 125,000 kilometres quadrados 
e sua populapao 6 calculada em 2,000,000 habitantes ou seja 16 
habitantes por kilometro quadrado. 

O aspecto physico de Guatemala 6 montanhoso e 6 cortado per 
numerosos rios. O clima varia com a altitude. As regiSes do littoral 
sao quentes, os planaltos do interior gozam de um clima temperado e 
ameno, ao passo que as regi5es elevadas sao frias. A esta^So secca e 
a das chuvas caracterisam-se pelo facto que durante esta chove 
todos OS dias, ao passo que durante a estapao secca quasi nfio chove. 

As regides do sul e do oeste sao as mais povoadas, tendo a 
cidade de Guatemala uma popula^ao de 100,000 habitantes. A 
capital 6 ligada por via ferrea aos portos de San Jos6 no Pacifico e de 
Puerto Banios no Atlantico. Faz-se a viagem da capital a San Jos6 
(74.5 milhas) em cinco horas, e da capital a Puerto Barrios (194.5 
milhas) em doze horas. 

A viagem entre os portos do Atlantico de Guatemala e os Estados 
Unidos 6 feita em quatro dias, e entre Guatemala e Europa em quinze 

A costa do Pacifico tem uma extensao de 250 kilometres, e a do 
Atlantico, de 161 kilometres. San Jos6, Champerice e Ocos sfto os 
portos da costa do Atlantico, e Puerto Barries, San Tem&s e Living- 
ston OS da do Atlantico. Panz6s no Rio Polechic e Gual&n no Rio 
Motagua sao portos fluviaes. Tambem Isabel, situado no lago do 
mesmo nome, 6 um porto de import ancia. 



Xo dia 14 de dezembro de 1907, o Sr. Licenciade Jose Yves Liman- 
TOUR, ^linistro da Fazenda de Mexico, apresenteu ae Cengresso 
Nacional o relatorio costumado relative ao exercicio de 1906-7, e o 
projecto de or^amento da receita e despeza para e exercicio de 

A receita ordinaria 6 or^ada em $103,385,000, euro, e a despeza 
6 fixada em $103,203,824.63, euro, do que resulta um saldo de 

Ao fazer commentaries sobre a situavae economica e financeira do 
paiz, dizoilinistro Limantour que nao se acreditavaemfins do anno 
passado (jue no scguinte anno variassem de maneira notavel as con- 
di^Ocsgeraes de prosperidade (jue tem prevalecido, e cssa expect ativa 
foi conilrmada pelos factos, pois as principaos manifesta^des da vida 
material do paiz de sua for^a ecumomica nde attestam outra cousa 
sendo um grando desenvelvimente e um selide bem estar. 

MEXICO. 207 

Os direitos de importa^ao e os emoluinentos consulares acusam um 
augmento de mais de 16 por cento sobre os do anno anterior, ainda 
que nfio se tern feito modifica^So alguma na tarifa das alfandegas. A 
venda de estampilhas ordinarias revela tambem um augmento notavel 
nas transac^oes interiores, nao obstante que, no deciirso do ultimo 
anno, a tarifa do sello foi modificada no sentido de uma reduc9ao 
consideravel das taxas a que estao sujeitas a maior parte das opera- 

Quanto & contribui^ao federal que se cobra sobro todos os impostos 
ou rendas arrecadadas pelos Estados e municipalidades, nota-se tam- 
bem sensivel augmento, que demonstra que a arrecada^ao dos impos- 
tos continua augmentando. A procura de estampilhas especiaes para 
o pagamento <ios impostos sobre propriedades mineiras, fumo, bebidas 
alcoolicas, tecidos de algodao e as substancias explosivas, denota tam- 
bem o desenvolvimento constante dessas industrias. A renda dos 
Servi^os Postal e Telegraphico mostra consideravel augmento, ao 
passo que no Districto Federal, as transac^Ses de bens immoveis e 
actividade commercial e industrial foram maiores que nos annos ante- 

Quanto & produc^ao agricola nacional, diz-se que nao ha base 
scgura para calcular-se si a ultima colheita satisfard as necessidades 
do consumo at6 a proxima colheita, sem ter que acudir k importa^^-o 
de cereaes estrangeiros. A importa^ao de milho e trigo estrangeiro 
constitue um dos factores mais import antes para determinar o estado 
do mercado monetario local devido as grandes remessas de dinheiro 
que se tem feito ao estrangeiro com motivo das exigencias do estado 
actual financeiro. 

A producp&o e exporta^ao de metaes preciosos, os quaes, com o 
cobre e o chumbo, representam mais de 95 por cento do valor total da 
produc^ao, sao os seguintes: produc^ao de ouro, $36,563,898.24; 
exporta^ao de oiu-o, $23,873,713.94; produc^ao de prata, $77,038,827; 
exporta^ao de prata, $99,861,790.86. Por esses algarismos se v6 
que a produc^ao do ouro tem permanecido quasi estacionaria, ao 
passo que a da prata mostra um augmento de $1,483,221.73, sobre a 
de 1905-6. A produc^ao do cobre e a do chumbo diminuiram sensi- 
velmente no ultimo anno, devido a paral3'sa9ao de algumas minas 
cujos minerios sao de pobre lei, ao passo que o zinco, o antimonio e 
outras substancias mineiras tfem sido extrahidas em maior escala que 

A analyse dos algarismos do commercio exterior mostra que a 
importa^^ao foi no valor de $233,363,388.85, em 1906-7, comparada 
com $220,004,755, no exercicio anterior, o que accusa um augmento 
de $13,358,633.85. Houve uma diminui^ao de $11,000,000 no 
valor das mercadorias que entraram livres de direitos, ao passo 


que as mercadorias que pagaram direitos do importa^&o mostram 
um augmento de mais de $24,000,000. 

Nota-se um augmento no valor das importa^des de productos 
animacs, tecidos, productos chimioos e pharmaceuticos, e, em 
geral, em todas as classes da tarifa. O maior augmento, porfm, 
foi realizado em machinas e apparelhos de todas as classes, tendo o 
valor dessas importa^ 5es subido de $20,410,722.73, a $27,735,743.65, 
o que mostra um augmento de $7,325,020.92. Entre os artigos que 
mais avultaram na importa^ao figuram os vehiculos, tendo sido 
as importafdes no A^alor de $9,000,308.49 em 1906, contra 
$4,595,157.85, o anno anterior. A diminui^go de $7,871,480.15, 
verificada nas importa^oes de productos mineraes e devida em 
grande parte ao facto de que em 1905-6 foram cunhadas nos Estados 
Unidos grandes quantidades de moedas mexieanas, e ainda que 
essa cunliagem em 1906-7 foi na importancia de $23,000,000, foi 
muito menor que no anno anterior. 

A exporta9ao em 1906-7 foi no valor de $248,018,010, contra 
$271,138,809.32 em 1905-6. O Ministro Limantour explica essa 
apparente diminui^ao deste modo: . 

*'No or^amento do anno passado se declarou que suppondo que 
OS $39,000,000 em ouro que se import aram em 1905-6, deu em 
resultado uma exportagilo artificial de pesos em prata em uma 
quantia equivalente, o valor total das exporta^des, tendo este facto 
em conta, nao foi $271,000,000, mas $232,000,000. Na falta de 
dados mais precisos, pode-se dizer que, porquanto no valor total das 
exi)()rta<,H")es em 1906-7 estao incluidos os 13,000,000 pesos de prata 
quo foram enviados ao estrangeiro em cand)io de moedas de ouro 
mexieanas c estrangeiras, as quaes estao incluidas no valor das 
importa^oos, e necessario descontar a quantia em referencia do valor 
das export a^cVs, afim de que este ultimo possa calcular-se em $235,- 
000,000. Tendo em conta estas explica^des, se comprehende que 
o A^alor das export aij'oes de jiroductos do paiz em 1906-7, excedcu 
um pouco o das de 1905-6. () valor destes ultimos excedeu em 
muito ao dos de ([ual([uor outro anno anterior. 

"() valor das export a^oes de metaes, exclusive do ouro e a prata, 
no anno em referencia foi como segue: cobre, $28,800,000; chumbo, 
$3,644,739, o outros metaes, incluindo zinco e antimonio, $4,072,982. 

** Entre os productos vegetaes exportados figuram: hennequen, 
$31,440,240; ixllc, ?:5,S13,176; cafe, $7,237,529; fumo em folha, 
S1,S94,S30; ervilhas gallegas, $4,084,521 ; gomma de mascar, $2,144,- 
724: madeiras de marcenaria, $2,169,778; madeiras de tinturaria, 
$739,S10; borracha, inclusive o guayule, $6,678,926; plantas do 
guayule, $61,22."). 

'*() valor das exporta^oes de l)orracha, incluindo o giiajiile que 
comc^-ou a exportar-se lia cinco annos, na actualidadc excede de 

MEXICO. 209 

S6,oOO,000 por anno: o valor das export a9oes de erv'ilhas tem-se 
tripUcado; o do ixtle tern siibido de $3,000,000 a $3,800,000; e o 
Talor da gomma de masear mostra iiin auginento de 50 por cento. 
O valor das exporta^Oes do hennequen 6 calculado em cerca de 
$30,000,000, e as quantidades exportadas oscillani de 82,000 tone- 
ladas at^ 110,000 toneladas que se export aram em 1900-7. Houve 
uma dimmui^do de $2,000,000 nas exporta^des de cafe. 

''O valor dos productos animaes que se exportaram ascendeu a 
$11,151,928, o que mostra uma diminui^ao de $571,497, em compara- 
9ao com o anno anterior. O gailo que representa um dos principaes 
artigos export ados foi export ado no A^alor de $1,201,693, e o valor 
dos couros cms export ados ascendeu a $8,875,091. 

"Outroa artigos exportados foram os seguintes: assucar refmado, 
91,164,339; assucar mascavado, $26,612; farinha e paes de caro^o de 
algodao, $846,280; chap^os de palma, $631,219; couros e pelles cur- 
tidos $34,883, e fumo preparado, $493,228.'' 

O Secretario Limantoue faz o seguinte resumo do commorcio 
estrangeiro: ''Valor total das importances em 1906-7, $233,363,388; 
valor total das exporta^oes, $248,018,010, o que mostra um saldo 
a favor das exporta^iOes de $14,654,622. 

'' Existe uma grande differen^a entre este excesso no valor e o que se 
Terifica dos dados correspondent es ao anno de 1905-6, que ascendeu 
a $51,134,054, e tambem existe difforenva, ainda que um pouco menor, 
entre o dito excesso no valor e no de 1904-5, ([ue foi de $30,315,489." 

Ao fazer commentarios sobre o que fica exposto o Secretario 
Ljmaxtouk disse o seguinte: 

"Em outros annos se tfim dado minuciosas cxplica^Oes acerca 
daquelles factores que por mais que affectavam o valor da impor- 
ta^io e da exporta^ao, nfto se incluem nem podem incluir-se nos dados 
estatisticos fiscaes que se referem somente aos productos naturaes c 
manufacturados e as quantidades de moedas que entram o sahem. 
Tambem se tem explicado que a na^ao mexicana tern que remetter 
para o estrangeiro annualmente grandes quantias para o pagamento 
dos juros sobre emprcstimos e os lucros de emprezas commerciaes 
cujos donos residem em paizesestrangeiros, o a esses pagament os devem 
accrescentar-se os que se fazem estrictamente em pagamento das 
impcMlapdes. Nao cabe a menor duvida de ([uc o excedente que 
houve o anno passado no valor das exportanoes, e que ascendeu a 
mais de $14,000^000, foi de todo insufliciente para satisfazer esses 
pagamentos. O excedente cjue se obteve em 1905-0, e ({ue foi na 
importaneia de $81,000,000, nao foi sufficient e para fazer f rente a est a 
divida. Afim de entender este assert o, convem record ar que todos os 
titulos de nossa divida publica, com excep^ao de uma propor^ao rela- 
tivamente pequena, est&o em poder de estrangeiros, e que o servi^o 
desta divida exige a somma de $24,000,000 por anno; c^uc «iUvw <}l^ 


divida do Govemo Federal, alguns dos Estados e municipalidades 
tfem contrahido emprestimos cujos titulos sfio tidos por estrangeiros e 
dos quaes o pagamento annual ascende a $1,000,000; que as compan- 
hias de estradas de ferro t^m que enviar ao estrangeiro mais de 
$25,000,000 cada anno em pagamento do juro dos sens titulos, e que 
OS bancos da Republica distribuem annualmente milhoes de pesos em 
dividendos fora da Republica. Por consequencia se t^m chegado & 
conelusao de que as remessas de fundos, titulos e mercadorias que 
temos que fazer annualmente ao estrangeiro, se pagam mediante a 
colloca^ao natural e espontanea no Mexico de capital estrangeiro. 

'^A condi^ao monetaria da Republica tern melhorado notavelmente 
desde o anno passado. A escassez de moedas subsidiarias que cxistia 
entao tern cessado por completo, e a circula^ao de ouro 6 muito mais 
abundante. O augmento dessas duas classes de moeda 6 em parte 
contrabalan^ado pela exportagao de pesos fortes, provocada em 
1906-7, pela mesma razao que em 1905-6, a alta do pre^o da prata 
em barras com respeito ao valor em ouro da dita moeda. 

'^A cunhagem total de novas moedas desde 5 de maio de 1905, a 
data em que foi posta em execu9ao a reforma monetaria, at6 30 de 
junhp de 1907, foi na importancia de $95,561,570.70. Deduzindo-se 
desta somma os $75,416,231, prata, exportados durante o mesmo 
periodo, e os $14,456,923.17 que representam a cunhagem de moedas 
velhas, verifica-se um augmento na circula^&o de moeda em 30 de 
junho de 1907, de $5,688,416.53. Em fins de novembro de 1907, 
este augmento era ]& de mais de $11,000,000. 

''A Commissao de Cambios e Moeda tem desempenhado suas func- 
^oes com notavel acerto. Aproveitando-se de todas as circumstan- 
cias f avoraveis, tem conseguido em dous annos substituir quasi todas 
as moedas velhas por pe^as cunhadas confomie k lei monetaria de 
1905; tem distribuido a nova moeda em todo o Territorio Nacional, 
fazcndo frente as numerosas difficuldades que a escassez ou a abun- 
dancia do meio circulautc tem provocado em cada localidade ; tem 
attrahido o ouro d Republica em grandes quantidades e retido no 
paiz grandc parte da produc^ao nacional, e tem contribuido para 
manter com iirmeza a laxa de cambio com as na^Oes estrangeiras. 

**Nos primeiros mezes de 1907, o valor dos bens de raiz e o pre^o 
dos titulos de conipanhias industriaos, mineiras e commerciaes conti- 
nuaram em augmento, e a compara^ao dosses valores com os corres- 
pondentes de 1906, da um resultado muito satisfactorio. Em 
meiados do anno, a escassez de <linheiro que se sentia nos mercados 
estrangeiros come^ou a communicar-se ao Mexico e tomou-se difficil 
o emprego de capitaes europeos no Mexico. Nfto obstante a influ- 
encia (h^s acontecimentos citados, tixlos os signaes da riqueza publica 
do Mexico demonstram muita firmeza e vitalidade. 

MEXICO. 211 

"No or^amento da receita para o exercicio de 1908-9, os impostos 
8obre o commercio de importa^ao e de exporta^ao sfto calculados em 
$49,600,000; os impostos intemos, em $32,055; os impostos especiaes 
noDistricto Federal e Territorios, em $10,930,000; servi^os publicos, 
em $6,405,000; renda proveniente de terras nacionaes, em $265,000, 
e outras fontes de renda, $4,130,000." 


O Senhor Gottschalk, Consul Geral dos Estados Unidos na cidade 
de Mexico, dirigiu ultimamente ao sen Governo um relatorio sobre 
as condi^Ces actuaes da industria do guayule que demonstra o estado 
precario desta industria a menos que se descobra um methodo seguro 
de propagar a planta. O Senhor Gottscualk prev§ a pouca dura^ao 
dessa industria sr o guayule eontinuar a ser explorado como o 6 na 

Eis o resumo do relatorio: 

Um dos productos que nos ultimos dous annos tem attrahido a 
atten^do do nmndo 6 o guayule (Parthenium argentum) que ante- 
riormente se considerava como uma praga, tornando imprestaveis os 
terrenos em que elle abundava, mas se descobriu que tinha certa 
importancia commercial como uma planta productora de borracha. 
Os terrenos gua3ruleiros da parte septentrional do Mexico foram logo 
explorados e os prepos pagos pelo producto augmentaram enorme- 
mente, ao passo que foram estabelecidas grande numero de fabricas 
para a extrac^&o da borracha, principalmente em Torreon, Saltillo e 
Coahuila. Fizeram-se contractos para a entrega de grandes quanti- 
dades do arbusto, pagando-se em alguns casos at6 $50 ouro, por 
tonelada e vendendo-se a borracha de guayule por $1 a libra. Como 
resultado deste enthusiasmo, fizeram-se investiga^Ses das proprie- 
dades da planta, verificando-se que ninguem parccia ter uma idea 
exacta quanto ao methodo a ser empregado para a propaga^ao da 
planta. O dono de uma grande planta^ao de gua^^le manifestou 
ao Senhor Gottschalk que havia descoberto, demasiado tarde, que 
81 se tivesse o cuidado de deixar fructificar antes de cortal-o, e se 
sacudisse cuidadosamente a planta depois de haver-se cortado afim 
de que as sementes cahissem ao solo, este terreno continuaria pro- 
duzindo dita planta. Como, por6m, a maior produc^ao de borracha 
fie obtem cortando a planta quando relativamente nova, e como as 
sementes poderiam permanecer latentes e improductivas durante 
dous ou tres annos, se comprehendera dcsde logo que o cxplorador 
de borracha ordinario nao estaria disposto a adoptar as precau^des 

O guayule cresce espontaneaniente em uma area muito limit a<la 
do Mexico. O trabalho de recolher o arbusto e feito sem methodo e 


nao se cuida absolutamente de sua reproduc^iao, quer por semente, 
quer por outro meio. Sem embargo, um contracto recente celebrado 
com o Govemo relativo a esta industria, comprehende certas estipu- 
la^des acerca deste assumpto. 

Os elevados pre^os que as fabricas pagam pelo guayule fazem com 
que este 6 recolliido antes que esteja sufficientemente maduro, com 
o resultado de que frequentemente se recebem grandes quantidades 
de gua}njle que nao produzem a quantidade de borracha que devem 

O Professor F. A. Lloyd, ex-cathecbatico do Laboratorio de Bota- 
nica no Instituto de Carnegie, estabelecido em Tucson^ Arizona, ao 
tratar de descobrii* um meio de propagar a planta de uma maneira 
adequada, tern fcito experimentos scientificos em uma das planta- 
^des de Cliihuahua, mas ate a data nao se tem annuneiado os resul- 
tados de seus experimentos. 

O consumo actual do gua^idc na rogiao central onde estao esta- 
belecidas as fabricas 6 calculado em 1,000 toneladas da planta por 
mez, e o Senhor Gottschalk afFu*ma que os fabricantes Ihe tfem 
manifestado que a industria podera durar apenas tres ou quatro 
annos, a menos que se empreguem methodos efficazes pai-a a repro- 
duc^ao da planta. 




Com a inaugura^ao do novo servi^o de navega^ao a vapor entre 
New York e Callao, A'ia Panama, pela Companhia Nacional de 
Vapores e Docas do Callao, sera dado um grande passo economico no 
intercambio commercial das duas sec^oes. Esta empreza, que se 
espera que inaugurara sou servivo em principios de 11K)8, tem um 
capital de $15,000,000, e recobera do Governo do Peru uma sub- 
ven^ao de $1,500,000. Estao actualmente em construc^ao na 
Inglaterra vapores rapidos para esta linha. A companliia pretende 
fazer a viagom de Panama a Callao em cinco dias, em vez de onze ou 
doze dias, (lue e o tempo actualmente empregado nessa viagem. 

Callao e o maior porto do Pacifico entre San Francisco e Valparaiso, 
e o estabelecimento de um servi^o de vapores rapidos com os portos 
da Europa e <los Estados Unidos dara sem duvida alguma um gramie 
impulso ao sen desenvolvimento. 




"El Economista Argentino'' publica dados interessantes organiza 
dos pelo Sr. Gabriel Carrasco, mostrando as receitas e despezas 
absolutas e relativas das differentes Republicas Latino-Americanas. 
Os algarismos, na maioria dos casos, correspondem ao anno de 1905. 

Republica Argentina. 





Costa Rica 


Republica Dominicana. 



Haiti ^ 



Nicaragua (1903) 

Paraguay (1904) 










43 i 














887,000 j 



ft. 1 49,000 

10. 1199,000 

1 1, .=>[», 000 




Venezuela (1903). 

J 11, 

758.000 I 
070.000 ! 
474.000 ! 

11,856, OCX) 


l>eflpe7.rt Receita 
|ior habi-por habi- 
tants, I taiite. 





19. 59 

Bulletin Mensuel 


Bureau International des R^.publiques AmIiricaines, 

Union Internationale des R^publiques Am^ricaines. 

Vol. XXVI.. JAN\^IER 1908. No. 1. 

^Un grand numbre des articles que Ton traite oi-dessous ne Pont publics en eiitier 
que dans les parties anglaisc et espagnolc du Bulletin.) 

La reception que le Gouvernement et le peuple brfeiliens ont faite 
k la flotte de cuirasses des fitats-Unis lors de son entr6e dans le port 
de Rio de Janeiro le 12 Janvier dernier a 6t6 si sincere et si cordiale, 
et rhospitalit6 que les officiers et les marins ont re^ue pendant les 
dix jours qu'ils sont rest^s dans le pays a 6t6 si grande et si chaleu- 
reuse qu'ils n'oublieront jamais les attentions dont ils ont 6te Tobjet. 
Dans toute Thistoire des croisieres de la marine am6ricaine k V^- 
tranger, e'est le Brfeil, dans son port de Rio de Janeiro, qui a mani- 
festo le plus de sympathie lors du passage des navires de guerre. 
D'aprds les renseignements que Ton a re^us, il parait que le gouverne- 
ment et le peuple pOruviens s^appr^tent k faire k nos officiers et k nos 
marins dans les villes de Callao et de Lima, une reception qui ^galera 
celle de Rio de Janeiro en sinc6rit6 et en magnificence. 

Quoique Punta Arenas, le seul point du territoire cliilien oil la 
flott€ fera escale, soit trSs ^loign^ de Valparaiso, le port principal, 
et de Santiago la capitale, le gouvernement cliilien fait de grands 
preparatifs pour y f6ter la flotte de maniere a ce que los officiers 
et les marins puissent aussi se rappeler de leur court s6jour dans les 
eaux chiliennes. 

Par sa pr&ence dans les eaux de TAm^rique du Sud, la flotte de 
cuirasses des fitats-Unis en route pour le Pacifique fait beaucoup 
pour 6veiller un intOrfet encore plus grand parmi les habitants des 
fitats-Unis et des ROpubliques latino-am^ricaines. I^e Bureau 
re^oit un grand nombre de lettres venant, non seulement de jour- 
naux et d'autres publications, mais aussi de particuliers (jui ont, 
comme on peut le voir dans leurs lettres, le vif d6sir de se proexK^^ 

24181— BuU. 1-m 15 V& 


iin plus grand nombre de renseignements sur les pays par oh la flotte 
passera et sur les ports ou elle fera cscale dans le cours de son admi- 
rable voyage. Aussi on a donn6 a plusieurs centaines de joumaux, 
des descriptions completes de Rio de Janeiro, de Punta Arenas et de 
Callao de maniere h leur permettre de publier des articles qui d6cri- 
ront ces divers points a leurs lecteurs. A ce sujet, nous dirons 
qu'avant le depart de la flotte, le Bureau a fait parvenir aux officiers 
et aux marins de chaque navirc une s6rie de publications que le 
Bureau a faites sur TAm^rique latine pour qu'ils puissent avoir les 
plus amples renseignements sur TAm^rique du Sud pendant leur 
voyage autour du continent meridional. Les lettres cordiales de 
remerciments que Ton a revues des capitaines des navires montrent 
combien ils ont 6t& sensibles a cette provenance de la part du Bureau. 


A la r6union du Conseil d'Administration du Bureau qui a eu 
lieu le 8 Janvier, on a Omis le voeu que la prochaine Conference pan- 
ainfiricaine se rOunisse h Buenos- A jtcs en 1910. On a diff6r6 le vote 
h ce sujet jusqu'a la prochaine rOimion du Conseil d' Administra- 
tion, qui aura lieu le o f^vrier, afin que les membres du Conseil 
puissent s'entendre avec leurs gouvemements et s'informer de leurs 
dOsirs h ce sujet. A la cl6ture de la Conference de Rio de Janeiro 
en 1906, il avait ete entendu que la prochaine Conference aurait 
lieu a Buenos-Ayres, mais on avait laisse au Conseil d' Adminis- 
tration (hi Bureau le soui de decider ulterieurement la date et le 
lieu do reunion. La raison principale pour laquelle on a chosi 1910 
au lieu de 1911 ou 1912 est que la Republique Argentine <loit ceiebrer 
en 1910 le centenaire de son independance et elle compte avoir ii 
cette epoque une grando ex|)osition. Par suite des grands progr^s 
politiques et commerciaux fuits niaintcnant par FAmerique Latine 
et aussi par suite du developpement de relations plus suivics entre 
les Etats-Unis et ses Kepubliques sceurs, la quatri^me Conference 
pan-americaine aura ccTtainenient a etudier beaucoup de choses 
interessantes pour les j)ays qui en font partie et elle aura sArement 
une grande influence sur leurs relations futures. 


Le Bulletin a dejJl attire I'atiention d une maniere particuliere 
sur rex])osition que le Cfouvemement bresilien tiendra cet ete & Rio 
de Janeiro et sur celle que le Gouvernement argentin tiendra k Buenos- 
Ayres en 1910. Maintenant le Gouvernement de Tfiquateur annonce 
une exposition k Quito en 1901 et il a invite le Gouvernement des 


£tats-Unis k y participer. Pour r6pondre a cette invitation I0 
Pr^sid^it Roosevelt a envoyfi un message au Congrfes recom- 
mandant une allocation dans ce but. Ni le Gouvemement du Br^sil, 
m celui de la R6publique Argentine ne comptent inviter les pays 
Strangers k y participer bien que leurs fabricants et conuner^ants 
puissent y prendre part dans des conditions sp^ciales. Conune 
rfiquateur a sp^cialement invito les fitats-Unis k participer a I'Expo- 
sition de Quito, il est h souhaiter que le Congres vote les fonds n^ces- 
saires- pour la construction d'un batiment convenable et pour Tenvoi 
d'une exposition digne des Etats-Unis, Avant peu, le chemin de 
fer de Guayaquil sur la cote de I'fiquateur k Quito, la capitale, k 
Kint^rieur, sera achevfi, de sorte que les voyageurs pourront, en 
d^barquant des navires Jl Guayaquil, faire le trajet k Quito en 24 
heures par une ligne de chemin de fer qui est une des merveilles du 
monde au point de vue des difficult^s que I'art du g^nie a su vaincre 
et du paysage magnifique qui s'ofFre k la vue du voyageur. Quito 
est une des villes int6ressantes d« FAm^rique du Sud et le climat 
en est agr6able. Par suite de son ^l^vation d'environ 10,000 pieds 
au-dessus du niveau de la mer, Quito ne souffre pas des chaleurs 
excessives que Ton rencontre dans les terres basses des tropiques et 
sa proximity de T^quateur le protege des grands froids. A Touverture 
de TExposition on pourra faire le voyage de New York k Quito en 
moins de dix jours et on espere qu'il y aura beaucoup de personnes 
venant des Etats-Unis. 


On doit f^liciter la eompagnio de navigation maritime Lamport & 
Holt des ameliorations qu'elle a apport^es au service maritime entre 
New- York, Rio-de-Janeiro et Buenos-Ayres. On s'est grandement 
plaint que panni les vapeurs faisant le service entre le port principal 
des fitats-Unis et les ports de la c6te orientale de rAm^rique du Sud, 
il n'y en avait qu'im trop petit nombre disposes de mani^re k recevoir 
des passagers de premiere classe. On vient de mettre en service 
trois nouveaux navires de 9,000 tonnes chacun, installes pour trans- 
porter 150 passagers de premiere classe, 50 do deuxieme classe et 
des passagers de troisidme classe. Le Verdi est le premier do ces 
nouveaux navires ti faire le voyage. Pour fdtcr cet dvenement 
iinj)ortant on a offert le 14 Janvier k New- York a bord du Verdi un 
grand diner auquel assistaient des personnes de New- York et d'autres 
parties du pays. Toutes cespersonnes s'int^ressent au developpement 
du commerce avec TAm^rique du Sud. Ceux qui ont visits le vapeiir 
en ont 6i6 enchant^s, et chaque visit^ur se sentait pris du desir de 
s'embarquer imm^diatement pour TAmdrique du Sud. II est k 
souhaiter que les personnes des £tats-Unis qui ont h^sit^ jusqu'ici St 


aller dans TAm^rique du Sud i\ cause du mauvais service soient 
tent^cs de le faire maintenant qu41 y a ces nouveaux navires. En 
revanche, on esj)^re que les Americains du Sud qui ne sont pas venus 
aux fitats-Unis pour la m6me raison se d^cideront k y venir. On 
sait que le meilleur moyen d^encourager des relations amicales entre 
diff^rentes contr^es est de voyager dans les pays les uns des autres. 



Toutes les personnes qui s'int^ressent au d^veloppement de rela- 
tions plus intimes entre les fitats-Unis et rAni^rique Latine ont 6t6 
heureuses de voir la mani^re dont le President Roosevelt a parlS 
du Bureau International dans son message, que nous avons repro- 
duit dans le dernier num^ro du Bulletin. De plus, le President a 
6crit r^cemment k M. Rowe, professeur k TUniversit^ de Pennsyl- 
vanie, une lettrc dans laquelle il montre les grands avantages qui 
peuvent rfeulter d*une association intellectuelle plus ^troite entre 
TAm^rique du Nord et TAm^rique du Sud et aussi combien il s'int6- 
resse aux pro jets ([ue Ton a faits pour arriver k ce but. On reproduit 
dans une autre partie de ce num^ro du Bulletin la lettre de M. 

prochaixe conference du lac mohonk. 

M. H. G. Phillips, secretaire de la Conference sur TArbitrage 
International du Lac Mohonk, fait savoir au Bureau que la session 
pour Tann^e 1908 aura lieu les 20,21 et 22 mai,et que 1 on a Tinten- 
tion de s'occuper beaucoup des affaires pan-americaines. II espdre 
que le Bureau et le Conseil d' Administration s'int^resseront tout 
specialement k cette conference et se feront repr^senter aux delibera- 
tions. Dans sa lettre k ce sujet M. Phillips dit: **Je pense que 
Ton peut assurer ([ue Tattention attiree par la session pan-ameri- 
caine de Tannee derniere a ete d'un jrrand avantage k la cause ge- 
nerale de Tarbitrage, et que si Ton donne assez de publicit6 k la ses- 
sion de cette annec elle produira encore de meilleurs resultats." 


M. Rafael Reyes, President de la Republiciue de Colombie, et 
M. A. Vasquez Cobo, Ministre des Affaires fitrang^res du m6ine 
pays, ont etabli a Bogota, un bureau central de renseignemcnts avec 
succursales k I^ndres, Paris, Bruxelles, Hanibourg et New York. 
Us ont fait ainsi un grand pas en avant pour mieux faire connattre 


la Colombie au monde entier. Dans le cl^cret qu'il a public le Mi- 
nistre des Affaires Etrangferes fait savoir, que Ton trouvera dans ces 
succursales des joumaux et autres publications d'int^rfit general 
pouvant renseigner le public en Europe et aux fitats-Unis au sujet 
de la Colombie et des occasions qu'il y a pour le placement de capi- 
taux strangers. Le Ministre ajoute aussi que ce Bureau de renseigne- 
ments aura pour correspondant le Bureau International des R^pu- 
bliques Am^ricaines ^tabli h Washington et il demande que ce dernier 
veuille bien aider autant que possible le Bureau colombien dans cette 
oeuvre importante. 


Le rapport sur les conditions commerciales de la Colombie, pr6par6 
par M. Charles M. Pepper, agent special du D^partement du Com- 
merce et du Travail, et public demi&rement par le Bureau des Manu- 
factures, est trSs int^ressant et parait au moment opportun. II 
discute soigneusement tous les faits au sujet du commerce, de I'in- 
dustrie, des ressources de la Colombie et des avantages qui s'y pr6- 
sentent. Tous ces renseignements sont n^cessaires k ceux qui comp- 
tent entrer en relations commerciales avec ce pays ou y faire des 
placements de capitaux. M. Pepper s'est rendu en Colombie et a 
fait une ^tude s^rieuse des conditions actueUes avant d'^crire ce 
rapport. II continue ses reclierches dans Tfiquateur, au P6rou et 
dans d' autres pays sud-am6ricains sur lesquels il fera des rapports 


L' Association Rationale des Manufac tuners, qui a son si^ge social 
8itu6 Broadway No. 170, New York, etqui a pour president M. James 
W. Van Cleave de Saint Louis, Missouri, va doimer un nouvel assor 
k une section secondaire de son organisation qui est d^uhe grande im- 
portance. La revue ''American Industries'^ d^crit dans son num^ro 
du mois de dficembre comment TAssociation compte foumir k ses 
membres tous les renseignements qu'ils pourront d&irer au sujet des 
conditions commerciales des 'pays strangers. En m^me temps on 
fait savoir que les commer^ants strangers pourront toujours rece- 
voir, k titre gracieux, les reseignements dont ils ont besoin au sujet 
du commerce et de Tindustrie. Si un exportateur ou commer^ant do 
TAm^rique du Sud d&ire entrer en relations commerciales avec une 
maison des fitats-Unis, il peut ^crire k I'Association Nationale des 
Manufacturiers et recevoir les donn^es dont il a besoin au sujet des 
maisons avec lesquelles il veut entrer en communication. Cette 
Association contribuera beaucoup k encourager le commfttc^ «ofetft 


ks £tats-Unis et les R^publiques latino-am^ricaines. Le Bureau 
appr6cie F off re de cooperation que F Association hii a faite pour 
encourager le commerce pan-am6ricain et il sera toujours heureux de 
f oumir tous les renseignements^dont il dispose, aux membres de T Asso- 
ciation qui d&irent entrer en relations d'affaires avec les comnier- 
9ant4> de TAm^rique Latine. 



D'apres le rapport pr^par^ par M. Francisco J. Yanes, Secretaire 
du Bureau et dei^gu^ cle celle institution a la Troisieme Convention 
Sanitaire Internationale qui a eu lieu k Mexico pendant le mois de 
d^cembre 19Q7, on voit la part active prise par le Bureau dans cett€^ 
convention. Ce rapport, qui est public dans ce num^ro du Buixetin, 
montre nan seulement I'int^rfit de TAmgrique Latine au sujet des coib- 
ditions hygi^niques modemes, mais aussi son appreciation toujours 
eroissante du travail fait par le Bureau pan-am^ricain h Washington. 


Les diiffres foumis par le Bureau des Statistiques de la R^pu- 
bli([ue Argentine pour los neuf premiers mois de Tannfie 1907 font 
ressortir unc balance commorciale satisfaisantc de $38,043,393 en 
favour du pays. L(»s importations se sont 6lev6es k $202,835,218 et 
les exportations a $240,878,811. En faisant la comparaison avec 
la m6me p6rio(le de rann6e precedente on remarque des deux 
c<5t6s des augmentations sensibles, cello des importations 6tant de 
$0,519,704 et celle des exportations de $16,247,350. 

On pent voir le developpoment agricole qui se continue dans le 
pays par le rapport officiol sur los superficies ensemenc^s. En effet 
c'est en 1907 que Ton a consacr6 le plus de torre a la culture du 
ble, du lin et de I'avoine. C*ost dans tout (pie Ton voit regner Tesprit 
de progres. Pour encourager I'industrie niini^re et m^tallurgique 
dans le pays on vient de passer une loi acconlant pour une p^riode 
de dix aus I'exemption des dn)its d'entree sur les machines, les 
outils et tout le mat6riel destin6 aux etablissements miniers et 
m6tallurgi<pios, ce (pii fora prendre un nouvel essor i ce genre <rin- 


Malgr6 la diminution en valeur des deux principaux articles d'ex- 
portation — ^le caf6 et le caoutchouc — pendant les mois d'aoftt et de 
septembre 1907,1a balance commereiale en fa veur du pays accuse line 
augmentation sensible pour les neuf premiers mois de Tannfie com- 
part h celle de la mfime p^riode de Tann^e 1906, ayant passg de 
$53,000,000 k $63,000,000; le total des importations s'gleve ^ $147 ,000,- 
000 et celui des exportations k $210,000,000. Des deux c6t6s il y a 
eu des augmentations sensibles sur Tannge pr6c6dente et les grandes 
importations de machines et de mat^riaux pour les travaux publics 
ont continue jusqu'i la fin de Tann^. 

L' organisation d'une banque agricole au capital de $10,000,000 est 
une mesure importante pour eneourager les industries nationales. 
Cette nouvelles banque doit faciliter par tons les moyens possibles le 
d^veloppement de T agriculture en fournissant les fonds et le credit 
pour garantir les entreprises. 

Jje progr^s agricole du pays sera plus encourag6 par r^tablissement 
de colons japonais dans les Etats de Rio de Janeiro et de Sao Paulo, 
les autorit^ locales et la compagnie int6ress6e ayant fait des arrange- 
meots pour y faire venir des colons. 



Tout en souhaitant la bienvcnue h Scfior Don Axibal Cruz, 
nouveau ministre du Chili aux fitats-Unis, le Bureau des R^pu- 
bliques Am^ricaines reconnait les grands services rendus par le minis- 
tre pr^c^dent, Seftor Walker-Martinez, qui represente actuelleinent 
la circonscription de Santiago au congres chilien. A Toccasion de la 
presentation de ses lettres de cr^ance au President des Ctats-Unis 
le 16 novembre 1907, Seflor Cruz a fait eonnaitre combien son gou- 
Temement est dfeireux de maintenir les bonnes relations qui existent 
entre les deux pays, sentiments que M. Roosevelt a fortement 
appuyfe dans sa r^ponse. 

La culture du lin au Chili sera encourag^e par un subside gouveme- 
mental si le projet de loi prfeent^ par le Prfeident au C^ongres le 25 
octobre 1907 est vot^. Dans le projet de loi dont il est question 
$450,000 sont consacr^s au paiement de primes sur le lin r^colt^, 
manufacture et exports dans le pays pendant 12 ans. 

On pent se faire une idee de la bonne situation financiere du pays 
par les reeettes douani^res per^ues dans les diff^rents ports pendant 
les neuf premiers mois de Tannee 1907. Ces reeettes se sont 6levees 
a $26,000,000, accusant une augmentation de plus de $3,000,000 sur 
celles de la mSme p^riode de I'annee precedente. 




On reprodiiit dans ce numero du Bulletin des renseignements 
pr^cieux sur le caoutchouc et la manufacture du coton dans le pays. 
Ces renseignements sont extraits des rapports transniis au D6parte- 
ment d'Etat par M. I. A. Manning, Consul des £tats-Unis k Car- 
tagene. En 1906, les expeditions de caoutchouc de Cartagene se 
sont 61ev6es a 159,580 kilos, tandis que dans les neuf premiers mois 
de I'ann^e 1907 on en a exports 136,680, ce qui fait voir Taugmenta- 
tion de la culture de caoutchouc dans le pays. Non seulement on 
etabht des plantations de grande etendue, mais on prend des mfe- 
sures preventives contre la destruction des arbres sauvages. 

On public aussi les diverses modifications apport^es au tarif coloni- 
bien pendant Tann^e 1907. 



Seflor Don Luis Anderson, un des delfigufe de Costa-Rica au 
Congr^s de la Paix centro-am^ricain tenu h Washington, a eu en 
mfeme temps Thonneur d^etre nomm6 Envoy6 extraordinaire et 
Ministre pl^nipotentiaire de Costa-Rica en mission sp^ciale aux 
fitats-Unis. II a 6t6 re^u on cottc quality le 12 novembre 1907 par 
M. Roosevelt, President des fitats-Unis, k qui il a prfeent^ les 
salutations cordiales de M. Gonzalez Viquez, President de la 
R^publique, ainsi que celles du Gouvernement et du peuple de Costa- 


Par suite d'un d6cret pr6sidentiel en date du 2 d^cembre 1907, on a 
^tabli des comices agricoles sp^ciaux afin d'encourager et de d6ve- 
lopperl'agriculture dans les diff^rcnts d^partements,et il est k d&irer 
qu'on puissc faire hausser la valeur industrielle des autres produits 
indigenes autant qu'on I'a fait pour celle des bananes. 

Au sujet de cette dernidre culture M. Merry, Ministre des £tats- 
Unis, fait savoir que par suite du refus des grandes compagnies 
int6ress6es dans la culture et Texp^dition de ce produit d'accepter le 
droit d'exportation de 1 cent impos6 recemment sur chaque regime 
de bananes (la loi ayant etc faite sujette k cette acceptation), T^tat 
de rindustrie reste tel qu'il 6tait en tant qu*il est question du droit 


D'aprfes le recensement de Cuba fait en 1907, la population s'elfeve 
h 2,028,282 habitants contre 1,572,845 en 1899, les provinces de la 
Havane et de Santa Clara ayant le plus grand nombre d 'habitants. 
L'immigration pour Tannfe fiscale 1906-7 montre une diminution 
sur celle de Tann^e prec6dente qui s'61evait au chiffre de 23,080. 


Les recettes douani^res encaiss^es au port de la Havane pendant 
Tann^e 1907 se sont 61evges k $20,005,048.12, soit une augmentation 
de $l,300,00p sur I'annfe 1906. On a vot6 une allocation de $350,000 
pour servir h prendre des mesures sanitaires dans diff6rentes muni- 
cipality contre la fifevre jaune. 


•Une exposition nationale aura lieu k Quito le 10 aofit 1809 pour 
c616brer le centenaire du soulfevement jy)ur Tind^pendance dans 
TAm^rique du Sud. Le dficret ordonnant la calibration a 6t6 publifi 
en octobre 1907 par M. Alfaro, Prfeident de la R6publi([ue. L'expo- 
sition comprendra non seulement les produits des for6ts, de I'^levage, 
de Tagriculture et des mines, ainsi que les chemins de fer, mais il y 
aura aussi des sections consacr^es aux faits liistoriques et artistiques 
d'int^ret international. Le Gouvernement a offert des prix pour la 
meilleure composition traitant de sujets patriotiques et historiques. 
On a fait des arrangements pour la participation des pays strangers k 


L'ouverture au Guatemala de la route commerciale inter-ocianique 
allant de San Jos6 sur le Pacifique k Puerto Barrios sur TAtlantique, 
(iont rinaguration a eu lieu le 19 Janvier 1908, augmente d'une 
mani^re tres sensible Tint^rfet et la valeur de la brochure publi^e 
r6cemment par Sefior Victor Aguilar Pelaez, Consul du Guatemala 
a Liverpool et k Manchester. Afin de r^pondre k I'int^r^t qui s'est 
manifest^ r^cemment au sujet de tout ce qui touche cette partie de 
TAm^rique Centrale, le Bulletin a reproduit la plus grande partie de 
la brochure dont il est question. Cette brochure donne un r6sum6 du 
commerce et des conditions ^conomiques du pays en 1906. 


II y a eu une grande f 6te dans la capitale du Guatemala k roccasion 
de r entree du premier train venant de Puerto Barrios, et en comme- 
moration de cet 6venement il y a une exposition nationale des produc- 
tions industrielles. Des represent ants sp6ciaux des pays Strangers 
ont assists aux c^r^monies qui ont eu lieu. Le chemin de fer en ques- 
tion facilitera grandement le transport des produits indigenes aux 
ports d'embarquement. II a une longueur de 269 milles, et il est une 
preuve ^vidente du d^veloppement de la marche progressive de ce 

6tablissement d'une chambre de commerce a HAin. 

Pour se conformer au d6cret pr^sidentiel, en date du 30 nomTebre 
1907, on a 6tabli une chambre de commerce ^ Port-au-Prince dans le 
but d'encourager les int^r^ts commerciaux, agricoles, industriels et 
maritimes du pays. Le Gouvernement a vote une somme de $1,800 
pour f aire face aux frais d'installation et le President de la R^publique 
en a 6te nomme prfeident honoraire. Cette Society no se conten- 
tera pas de donner des reuseignements au sujet des industries et des 
produits indigenes, mais de plus, elle servira d*intermWiaire pour 
r^pandre h Tint^rieur du pays les renseignements qui pourraient lui 
6tre utiles. 



Aiin d'ameliorer dans les ports situfe au nord du Honduras, les 
wharfs et les constructions qui en df^pendent servant k Texp^dition 
des bananes, le Gouvernement a augmente de deux k troiscentavos le 
droit d'exportation sur chaque regime de bananes. Cet imp6t addi- 
tionncl servira a faire les ameliorations et changements qu*on jugera 


Seilor Licenciado Jose Yves Limantour, le distingue Ministre des 
Finances du Mexique, vient de faire paraitre sur la situation financidre 
et ^conomique du pays son rapport annuel qui fera gpoque dans les 
annaies du Mexique. Toutes les personnes qui dfeirent se faire une 
idee exacte des affaires mexicaines dovient lire le rapport qif il a fait 
le 14 decembre 1907 au Congres national. On publie dans ce num^ro 
du Bulletin un r6sum6 qui relate lesfaits les plus saillants, montrant 
les conditions satisfaisantes dans les(|uelles se trouve cette contrte 
importantc de 1' Union pan-americaine. 


Le rapport sur le coninierce {>endant le premier trimestre de I'ann^e 
fiscale 19€7~8 moutre uiije augmeiitatioBL de plus de $5,000,000 en im- 
portations et exportation^, ce qui est d'autant plus satis£aisant que 
dans la m*me p6rio4le des deux aonies fiseales pr6G6dentes il y avait 
une diminution dans les exportation^ 

Les amSlioirations qui sont eu voie d' execution et celles 4ud ne sont 
encore quk I'fitat de projet aux points extremes du chemin de fer de 
Tehuantepec, allant de TAtlantique au Pacifique, excitent le plus 
grand int6r6t parmi les promoteurs d'un moyen de communication k 
t ravers risthme et Ton se pFop4)se de faire de Saltna Cruz et de Coatzo- 
coalcos des ports de transbordement pour les marchandises, pouvant 
piraliser avec ceux du monde en tier. 


Le message prononc6 devant le congres le P"" decembre 1907, par M. 
Zelaya, President dn Nicaragua est un document important qui ren- 
fenne les vues du Pouvoir Ex^cutif au sujet des causes et des r&ul- 
tats de la r^cente Conference de la Paix tenue a Washington. 

La concession accordSe pas le Gourernement h MM. Guerrero et 
Mo&Ei&A pour Texploitktion des for^ts d'arbres a caoutclxouc du 
pays pendant une durfie de dix ans a partirdu IQseptembre 1905, vient 
d'etre transferee k la Compagnie Industrielle de I'Atlantique qui en 
continuera Texploitation commencee par les anciens concessionnaires. 

Une nouvelle loi sur les marques de fabrique, promulgee le 26 no- 
vembre 1907, a une grande portee sur la protection industrielle au 
Nicaragua. FAle a pour but de prot^ger le commerce exterieur et 


Dans son rapport sur te commerce de Bocas del Toro M. James C. 
Keijlooo, consul des fitats-Unis k Colon, inontre que les importations 
dans ce port pendant Fannie fiscale 1907 ont augment6 sur la mt^me 
p^riode de Tann^e pr6cedente, mais que les exportations ont diminue. 
On espere que Texpedition de bananes en Europe, en vue de la(|uelle 
on a installs des appareils frigorifiqucs dans les vapours, produira 
cette ann^e des r^sultats completement opposes. Ce sont les fit at s- 
Unis qui ont la phis grande part dans le commerce de ce port. 


On vient de pr^enter au Congres paraguayen un projet de loi pour 
r^tablissement d'une banque mixte avec autorisation du goveme- 
ment. Cette organisation financiere sera connue sous le nom de 
Banque de la Republique et disposera d'un capital de $20,000,000 en 
or. On fait voir dans ce num^o du BuLLETiN les differentes operations 
auxquelles se liverera cette banque. 


L' inauguration d^un nouveau service de bateaux S, vapeur entre 
New York ot Callao via Panama sera un grand pas fait en avant'dans 
les rapports de ces deux centres commerciaux. Cett€ entreprise, qui 
est sous la direction de la Conipagnie Nationale de bateaux k vapeur 
et des docks flottants de Callao, a dti commencer ses voyages de trJs 
bonne heure en 1908. Le capital de cette soci6t6 est de $15,000,000, 
outre cela, elle a re^ u du gouvernement p^ruvien une subvention de 


D^apr^s les derniercs statistiques les recettes douanieres du Salva- 
dor se sont eJev^es h $543,624.72 pour le premier trimestre de Fann^ 
1907, et en les comparant avec celles de la m^me p^riode de Tannic 
1906, on voit qu'il y a une diminution de $145,904.42. 


Bien que les recettes douanieres de TUruguay en octobre 1907 
accusent une diminution 16gere sur celles du meme mois de Tannte 
1906, le total pour les dix mois finissant en octobre fait ressortir 
une augmentation, les totaux pour les deux ann6es — Janvier It 
octobre— 6tant de $] 1 ,271 ,871 et de $11,006,639, respectivement. 

Le Cor])s Legislatif, en la soumettant au Gouvernement, a fait de 
grands changements k la loi sur I'impot pour I'annfie 1908. Une des 
provisions augmente de 3 li 7 pour cent I'impot sur les primes des com- 
pagnies d 'assurance etrangeres. 


Un dOcret gouvernement al en date du 14 novembre 1907 frappe 
d*une surtaxe difTOrents produits alimentaires et des articles d*usage 
courant. Des modifications apportOes rOcemment au tarif ont trait 
it d'autres articles. 




Le Premier Congrfes Scientifique Latino-Am^ricain a eu lieu en 
1898 k Bu^nos-Ayres, capitale de la R^publique Argentine. La 
seconde session du Congres a eu lieu en 1901 k Mont^vid^o, capitale 
de rUniguay, et la troisieme en 1905 k Rio de Janeiro, capitale du 

On a maintenant d6cid6 de tenir la quatri^me reunion k Santiago 
pendant les dix premiers jours du mois de d^cembre de 1908, et le 
Gouvernement chilien a envoys des invitations a cet effet. 

De plus, on s'est d6cid6 k 6tendre la sphere d'action du Gongrfes 
et i y faire participer toutes les R6publiques Am6ricaines; dans ce 
but le Gouvernement chilien a envoy6 une invitation officielle aux 
Etats-Unis. En mSme temps, on a chang^ le nom du QuatriSme 
Congres Scientifique Latino-Am6ricain en celui de Premier Gongr&s 
Scientifique Panam^ricain, denomination plus en rapport avec le 
grand nombre de pays qui en feront partie. 

M. Roosevelt, Prfeident de la R6publique, en transmettant au 
Congrds le rapport que M. Root, Secretaire d^Etat, a fait k ce sujet, 
a appuye fortement la de.mande de M. Root, afin que les Etats-Unis 
donnent une indemnity suffisante pour se faire reprfeenter k ce Con- 
gres (rune maniere convenable. 


M. L. S. RowE, professeur k TUniversite de Pennsjivanie, un des 
dei^gufe des fitats-Unis a la Troisieme Conference Internationale 
Americaine qui a eu lieu k Rio de Janeiro au mois de juillet 1906, a 
fait k Tissue de cette conference un voyage d'un an et demi dans 
TAmerique du Sud pour etudier d'une maniSre serieuse les condi- 
tions economiques, sociales et politiques des differentes republiques 
soeurs qui se trouvent au sud de I'isthme. 

Depuis son retour, M. Rowe a eu avec M. Roosevelt, President 
des fitats-Unis, plusieurs entrevues sur le but et les resultats de son 
voyage et en particulier sur les projets qu'il a faits pour le developpe- 
ment de relations intellectuelles plus suivies entre les Etats-Unis 
et les republiques de TAmerique du Sud. Voici la lettre d^appro- 
bation que M. le President Roosevelt a ecrite au distingue pro- 

**Cher MoNSiELTi Rowe: C'est avec le plus vif inte^et que je me 
suis entretenu avec vous au sujet des resultats de votre voyage dans 
FAmerique du Sud et aussi au sujet des differents projets cyj^a nqm^ 


avez formes pour d^velopper des relations intellectuelles plus suivies 
entre le nord et le sud du continent am^ricain. En plus des relations 
amicales qui existent entre les Gouvernements des R6publiques Am^ 
ricaines, il me semble qu^il est de la plus grande importance d'^tablir 
des relations personnelles des plus ^troites entre les hommes les plus 
en vue, intellectuellement parlant, dans ces difffirents paj^s. Des 
relations de ce genre contribuent grandement k faire disparattre les 
pr^jug^s mal fond6s et les malentendus qui surgissent faute de se 
connattre mutuellement. Mises en rapport entre elles, toutes les 
R6publiques de rh6misph&re occidental peuvent apprendre et ensei^ 
gner tout k la fois. 

*^Pour arriver k ce but si important, les colleges amSricains du 
continent am^ricain sont sArement les meilleurs agents. II y a un 
grand nombre de probl^mes 6conomiques, sociaux et industriels, sans 
parler de ceux qui sont purement scientifiques, dont le caractdre est 
essentiellement am^ricain et F^tendue d' action tout k fait, c(mtinen- 
tale. Par I'entremise des 6tudiants des difffirentes nations et ceux 
qui s'y livrent k dos recherches, Texp^rience ainsi accumul^ de notre 
h^misph^re peut avoir une grande port6e sur ces probldmes et en 
faciliter par la mdme la solution heureuso. L^union de pens^ 
et d^action suscit^e de cette maniere contribuera k rendre de plus 
grands services aiix diflf^rents pays en r^tr^cissant de plus en plus les 
iiens d'amiti^ qui unissent dejJi les peuples de Fh^misph^re occidental. 

^'En vous souhaitant la plus grande r^ussite dans cette entreprise 
je vous prie de recovoir T expression de ma plus haute consideration. 

' ' Theodore Roosevelt. ' ' 



En vertu d'une loi du Congres Argentin du 30 septembre dernier, 
sont exoneres dos droits de douane pour un terme de dix ann^s: lies 
machines, les outils et tout le materiel n6cessaire pour Tinstallation 
et I'exploitation dos etablissemonts miniers et m^'tallurgiques qui 
s'etabliront ou cjui existent d^ja dans la Rf»publique. Cette exemp- 
tion concerne entro aulros le materiel destin^ aux perforations faites 
dans le but d'utiliser les oaux du sous-sol. 

I^os d^penses occasionnoes par la verification du materiel introduit — 
verification qui dovra otro cha(|Uo fois doinandeo par ecrit i la douane 
competente — senmt a la charge de ceux qui r^clament rexon^ration 
des droits. 


oomrBTioK EynfHTExm pendant lss neitf pbemiebs mois 

DE L'ANN]gE 1907. 

Le Bureau des Statistiques du Gouverneinent argentin vieiit 
de pubUer soa bulletin r^ulier, *'E1 Coiuercio Exterior Argentin/' 
sur le commerce ext^rieur pendant les neuf premiers mois de Tann^e 
1907. La valeur des importations pour cette p^riode s'est 61ev^ a 
(202,835,218 en or, ce qui fait ressortir une augmentation de 
$5,519*704 sur les chiffresde la m^me periode de I'annee 1906. Les 
exportations se sont ^lev^es a $240,878,611, soit une augmentation 
de $16,247,350 sur les chiffres de la mfime periode de I'ann^ pre- 
cWente. Le» importations soumises aux droits de douane se sont 
6Iev6es k $128,184,517 et celles qui ont 6t6 admises en franchise 
de droits k $74,650,701, lor et Targent, y figurent pour $23,440,946. 
Sur la liste des exportations les articles soumis aux droits de douane 
se sont £lev^ k $868 et les exportations admises en franchise de 
droits se sont 61ev6es k $240,877,743, les expeditions d'or et d^argent 
se montant k $281,750. 

D'aprds les chiflres ei-dessus on voit que la balance commerciale 
ea favour du pays s'est ^levie, pendant les neuf mois dont il est 
question, k $38,043,393, tandis que les importations d'or et d^ argent 
out d4pass6 de $23,059,193 les exportations. 

Voici, par ordre d'importance, les pays exportateurs ainsi que 
la valeur de leurs exportations: Angleterre, $71,964,236; AUemagne, 
$32,131,549: fitats-Unis, $26,476,423; France, $18,447,927; Italic, 
$17,577,375; Belgique, $11,471,881; Br^sil,, $5,371,721; Espagne, 
$5,191,250; Colonies anglaises, $2,641,515; Uruguay, $1,874,291; 
Autriche-Hongrie, $1,731,721; Suisse, $1,567,371; Pays-Bas, 
$1,162,333; Paraguay, $983,143; Canada, $687,141; Perou, $531,843; 
Chine, $404,409; Cuba, $386,964; Xorv^ege, $336,171; Chili, $313,955; 
SuMe, $280,076; Russie, $261,815; Bohvie, $105,457; Australie, 
$44,418; Danemark, $38,744; Grece, S31,555; Turquie, $30,044; 
Colonies hollandaises, $30,039; £([uateur, S23,52.S; Afriquo, $15,997; 
Venezuela, $9,633; Colonies nord-am^ricanes, $9,355; Colonies 
fran^aises, $6,875; Mexique, $3,622: Colombie, $2,493; Koumanic, 
$1,675; £gypte, $1,103; Salvador, $708; Guat6mala. $689; Perse, 
$547; R^pubhque Dominicaine, $287. 

En faisant la comparaison avec les neuf premiers mois de Tannee 
1906, le^ pays suivants font voir une augmentation dans lours 
exportations ainsi que dans la valeur de ces dernieres: Ailemagne, 
$3,617,968; Rbyaume-Uni, $2,803,301 ; Belgiquo, $2,262,096: Autriche- 
Hongrie, $545,587; Uruguay, $520,521: Bresil, $598,085: Paraguay, 
$84,318, et Bolivie, $10,862.^ 

IKun autre cdt^ on remarque une diminution dans la valeur des 
exportations des pays suivants: France, $2,216,698; Italic, $1,009,397; 
fitats-Unis, $719^29; Espagne, $358,155; Chili, $132,410; Pays-Bas, 
$27,344, et Afrique, $5,265. 


Voici par ordre d^ importance les pays iinportateurs ainsi que la 
valeur de leurs importations: Angle terre, $40,561,378; AUemagne, 
$28,784,527; France, $28,351,594; Belgique, $24,637,880; Br6sil, 
$10,388,686; fitats-Unis, $8,627,941; Pays-Bas, $3,526,970; Italie, 
$3,283,705; Uruguay, $2,839,833; Chili, $1,586,677; Afrique, $1,326,- 
650; Espagne, $1,287,154; Norvege, $1,061,144; Sufede, $665,149; 
Bolivie, $543,853; Autriche-Hongrie, $521,492; Cuba, $217,811; 
Paraguay, $117,139; P^rou, $90,613; Danemark, $89,238; Colonies 
anglaises, $45,197; Portugal, $25,401; Colonies fran^aises, $664^^ 

Voici les diff6rents pays qui accusent ime augmentation dans leurs 
importations: Angle terre, $9,300,538; Belgique, $5,027,366; France, 
$3,711,702; Br^sil, $1,598,683; Pays-Bas, $1,189,856; Autriche- 
Hongrie, $486,951; Chili, $430,984, et Bolivie, $246,076. 

Voici les diff^rents pays qui accusent une diminution dans leurs 
importations: Afrique, $1,957,171; fitats-Unis, $1,701,312; Italie, 
$1,526,770; Uruguay, $977,049; Espagne, $574,033; Allemagne, 
$399,408, et Paraguay, $17,709. 

C'est pendant les neuf mois de Fannie 1907 que les importations 
ont atteint le chifTre le plus 61ev6 dans le cours de la p^riode d^cennale 
1898-1907. Quant aux exportations, dans la infime p^riode, elle 
n'ont 6t6 depass6es qu'en 1905, 6poque k laquelle elles ont atteint 
le chifTre de $247,110,133. 

D'apres les chiffres ci-dessus les provisions officielles du commerce 
d'importation pour TannOe enti^re donnent le chiffre de $268,655,217, 
contre $260,970,521 en 1906. D'un autre c6i6 les provisions offi- 
cielles pour le commerce dVxportation de PannOe entifire donnent le 
chiffre de $318,622,501, contre $292,253,829 pour TannOe 1906. 

Voici les importations pendant les neuf premiers mois de Pannie 
1907, par ospeces et valeurs, montrant les augmentations ou les 
diminutions qui en rcssortent en les comparant h la pOriode corres- 
pondante de 1906: 


Animaux siir plixi 

Produits alim(>ntain's. 
Tabac et ses produits. 

VIns et liqueurs 


lluiles. etc 

Produits chimiques et pharniaceutlquos 

Couleurs et teinturea 

Bois et articles en hols 

Papier et articles en papier 

Cuir et articles en cufr 

Fer et acier et ol)jets en fer et ucler 

Autros mi^taux 

Outils agricolea 

Voitures et ses parties 

Produits c6ramiques i 14, 

Mat4riaux pour la const mot ion 

Appareila wectriques 

Articles divers 

Neuf pre- 


miers mois 

avec Tan- 

de 1907. 



- 184. in 


+ 1,427.290 


- 313. 171 


- 122,005 


- 7.292,130 

T), 706. 485 

+ 152.479 


•+ 53,00 


- 77.482 

4, 142. 710 

+ 99,680 


■¥ 400.900 


- v»,sa2 


- 3.045,000 

5. Oa5. 933 

- 972.505 


- 1.094.407 


+ 16.270,779 


- 412,055 


+ 604.040 


+ 287.154 


+ 47.210 


Voici les exportations pendant les neuf premiers mois de Tann^e 
1907, par esp^ces et valeurs, montrant les augmentations ou les 
diminutions qui en ressortent, en les comparant h la p6riode corre- 
spondante de 1906: 

: Neuf prr- 
Articles. miers mois 

• do 1907. 

Produits ftnimaux ' fR8,24('), rm 

Prodoita agricoles. 
Produits des for^ts. . . 
Produits des mines. . . 
Produits de la chasse. 







avec I'annee 


+ 19,524,731 

- fc05,130 
+ 302,712 


- 1,217,240 


L'ANNISE 1907. 

Les recettes provenant d^imp6ts interieurs pendant les neuf pre- 
miers mois de Fannie 1907 se sont 61ev6es k $31,493,006.17 papier 
et $21,641 or, contre $28,744,276.68 papier et $19,634.16 or pendant 
la m6me p^riode de I'ann^e pr6c6dente. 


Voici, d'aprfes les donn^es publi6es par le Bureau d'ftconomie Rurale 
au Minist^re de rAgriculture de la R^publique Argentine, le nombre 
total de bfites sur pied, calculi approximativement selon certains 
faits <lans les provinces et autres renseignements provenant de m^me 
source : 

Boeufo 25, 844, 811 Mulcts et anes 545, 870 

Moutons 77,580,500 Cochons 2,845,700 

Che\-aux 5,462,170 Ch^vres 2,566,800 


D'aprte les renseignements qu'on a pu se procurer au Ministere de 
rAgriculture, il y a 4,000 hectares de terre, soit environ 10,000 acres^ 
consacr^s k la culture du coton. Ces terres se trouvent principale- 
ment dans les provinces de Comentes, de Santa F6, de La Rioja et de 
Tucuman. Pendant les mois de juin et de juillet 1907 les exportations 
de ce produit en Angleterre se sont elev6es k 46,000 kilogrammes 
(101,200 livres): 

II n'y a que deux filatures en activity dans le pays, les ateliers de 
tissage sont au nombre de 62, employant en grande partie la laine 

Les demiers renseignements a ce sujet indiquent que le climat et le 
sol de la R^publique Argentine conviennent &- cette culture, etd'aprds 
Tavis d'experts en cette matiSre, on pourrait employer les Indiens 
pour supplier au manque de bras. 
2Ml^-%M. 1-^6 16 




DE L'ANNl^E 1907. 

Les statistiques du commerce ext^rieiir du Brfeil pour les neuf 
premiers mois de Tannde 1907 (janvier-septembre), montrent un 
total de 468,550:938$ ($147,000,000) pour les importations, contre 
337,984:983$ ($114,500,000) dans les m^mes mois de Tannge 1906 
et un total de 669,286: 556$ ($210,500,000), contre 498,691:572$ 
($168,500,000) pour les exportations dans la m^me p^riode de Tann^ 
pr6c6dente. On y voit done une augmentation de $22,000,000 dans 
les importations et $42,000,000 dans les exportations pour les neuf 
mois dc rann6e 1907, et la balance commerciale en faveur du pays 
s'est 6levee a $62,000,000, contre $53,000,000 pour les mfemes mois 
de Tannic 1906. 

Ijc chiffre 6norme de cette balance commerciale provient des sept 
premiers mois de Tannic 1907, car dans les mois d'aoflt et de sep- 
tembre il y a une diminution dans les exportations du caf6 et du 
caoutchouc. D^un autre c6t6 les importations pendant les deux 
mois dont il est question out continue a augmenter par suite de la 
demande de macliines et de mat^riaux n^cessaires aux nombreux et 
importants trava\ix publics en voie de construction an Br^siL 


Ijes recettes douanidres des diff^rents bureaux de douane <lo la 
R6publiciue Br^silienne pour les neuf mois — Janvier & octobre — de 
Pann6e 1907, se sont 61evees k 218,555$000 ($72,123,150), centre 
175,177$000 ($57,808,410) dans la m^me p^riode de Tann^ pr6c^ 
dente, soit ime augmentation de plus de $14,000,000. 



L'ANN]£E 1907. 

Ix*s recettes tot ales des douanes chiliennes pour les neuf premiers 
mois finissant en septembn» 1907 se sont ^lev6es & 78,371,077.96 
pesos (environ $36,000,000), ce qui fait ressortir une augmentation 
de 9,270,839.31 pesos (eYiviron $3,000,000) sur la mfeme p^riode de 
I'annfie pr6c6dente. 


D'apr^s la ''Revista Comercial" du 12 octobre 1907, les fonds 
d'l5tat d^pos^s dans les diff ^rentes banques chiliennes se sont ^levjes 
au 30 soptembre & 53,440,677.32 pesos (environ $18,800,000). 



Voici le iioin des banques oil ces 


Ban<o do Chile 18, 018, 863. 96 

Banco de la Repdblica ... 6, 025, 809. 72 

Banco Nacional 9, 951, 364. 72 

Banco de Santiago 3, 855, 968. 09 

Banco Populan 751, 412. 44 

Banco Minero 20, 817. 40 

Banco Espauol de Chile. . 6, 638, 420. 43 

Banco Italiano 1, 058, 915. 73 

Banco de Concepcion 785, 385. 65 

Banco Industrial de Chile 62, 441. 42 

fonds ont 6t6 deposes: 

Banco Union Comercial . . . 
Bank of A. Edwards Sc Co. 

Banco de La Serena 

Banco Mobiliario 

Banco de Talca 

Banco de Melipilla 

Banco Hipotecario de Val- 

Banco de Nuble 

Banco de Punta Arenas. . . 

71, 508. OG 


210, 332.-53 

3, 490, 372. 89 

508, 567. 42 

80, 337. 12 

166, 533, 08 
41, 650. 99 
57, 100. 00 

EMPBXJNT DE d&l, 100,000. 

liC 16 septembre 1907 le Groiivemement chilien, represente par son 
MinLstre P16nipotentiaire k Londres, a contracte avec MM. X. M. 
RoTSCHiLD ET FiLS un emprunt de £1,100,000 qui sera 6mis en bons 
du tr6sor payables k la bauque de ladite compagnie a I^ndres le 24 
mars 1909. 



Voiei, d'apres des donnees ofTicielles revues dernierenient du Chili, 
raugmentation des importations de colis-postaux pendant les cinq 
mnn^es de 1902-1906: 



. - 







des col is- 



des colis- 







893, 44() 






MOIS DE L'ANNlgE 1907. 

Les bureaux de <louaue du Chili ont per^ii pendant les huit pre- 
miers mois de Tannee 1907 un total de 70,117,153.75 pesos ($23,- 
372,384.58), contre 61,839,696.89 p^^os ($30,613,232.29) pour Fannee 
1906, soit une augmentation de 8,277,456.86 2>e9o« ($2,759,152.25). 
Les recettes pour le mois d'aotit 1907 so sont 61evees a 9,082,241.81 
pesos ($3,024,080.27), contre 6,782,166.81 pe^sos ($2,260,722.27), pour 
le m^me mois de Tann^e 1906. 

Les recettes pendant les neuf premiers mois de I'annee 1907 se 
sont 6lev6es k 78,371,977.96 pesos ($26,123,992.65), contre 68,963,- 
529,72 pesos ($22,987,843.24) dans les m6mes mois de raiuiee 1900, 
soit une augmentation de 9,408,448.24 pesos ($3,136,149.41). Au mois 
de septembre 1907 les recettes se sont 6lev6es a 8,254,824.21 pesos 
($2,418,274.73), contre 7,123,832.83 pesos ($2,341,277.61) dans le 
mdme mois de I'ann^ 1906. 




I"n (16cret du President de la Republique de Colombie, en date du 

5 decembre 1907, prolonge jiisqu'au V mai 1908 la validity du 

il6cTGt Xo. 1345 (111 5 novembre 1907, exemptant de droits de douane 

le mals d^en^ imports par le port de Riochacha h, destination de la 

Goapjira. Cetto exemption affecte sp6cialement les importations 

faites depuis le V^ novembre 1907 jusqu'au 1"^ mai 1908. Jje mals 

imports? par les ports de TAtlantiqiie est exempt aussi du paiement 

des droits de donane depuis le P'" decembre 1907 jusqu'au l*"' ma 



I" Pfario Oflclul" du ISavril 1907.] 

Article unique. Jusqu'a ce qu'en execution des dispositions de la 
loi 59 de 1905, <m ait etabli dans tout le pays la circulation de la mon- 
naic (VoVj est autorisee Tiniportation par les ports de Tumaco, Buena- 
ventura, Tpiales, Arauca et Cucuta des monnaies d'argent nationales 
ou 6tran<;cfres au titre de 0.900, pour\'n quVUes ne soient pas d6mon6- 

Paragraphe, Sont en consequence suspendues les dispositions des 
articles 14 et 16 de la loi 59 de 1905 k partir de la dat<j de la publication 
du prfeent decret dans le ^'Diario Oficial.'' 

[•' Duirio OlifUl " du 24 avril 1907.] 

AuTirLE 1*^ A partir de la date de la publication du prfeent decret, 
le payement des droits d'exportation sur les m6taux pr^cieux peut 
6galem(Mit s'efTectiier dans les administrations d^partementales des 
rentes r^organis^es. 

Art. 2. Los certidcats relatifs au payement do ces droits, d^livr^i 
par les administratours desdites rentes, feront foi par devant les 
adniinistrateurs des'douanes. 

Art. 3. Les exportateurs d*or, d'argent o\i de platine prfeentenini 
en temps opportim au bureau competent des rentes r6organis^e8 
un numifeste en triple expedition, contenant les indications suivantes: 

P. Les manjues des caisses, groups {portesi), barres ou lingotsdoni 
sc c<mip<)se Tenvoi d*or; 

2". Le nonibre ou la quantit6 des colis et leur num^ro qui diiT^rera 
pour chaque colis; 

3**. Tjos noms de Texpediteiir et du destinataire; 

4". Ta* lieu de destination de Tenvoi; 

5". L^espece du m6tal, avec designation de son poids d^apr^s le 
systc'^me metriijue ; 

ft". Tja somme pour laf^uelle Tenvoi a et6 assurd et sa valeur 


Art. 4. Est ainsi compl6t^ Tarticlo 3 du (16(Tet No. 1328 du 16 
novembre 1905. 

['•Diario Ottcisil " da 2 mai 1907.] 

Attendu que les droits d'entr^e sur les marchandises import6es 
par les douanes de Buenaventura et de Tumaco sont moins ^levfe que 
ceux impost k Tentrfie k Barranquilla et, qu^en raison des facility 
de transport moins on^reuses et des droits de douane plus avantageux, 
la marchandise imports par Buenaventura et Tumaco pent, 6tant 
introduite dans les D6partements du Tolima et Huila, faire con- 
currence k celle import^e par Barranquilla, au prejudice des recettea 
de la douane et des int^rfits du commerce, il a 6t6 decr6t6 ce qui suit: 

Article l^*". Est declar^e de contrebandc la marchandise qui, des 
D^partements de Cauca et Xarino, est introduite dans les D6parte- 
ments du Tolima et Iluila ou transite k travers ces D6partements. ^ 

:|: * * * * . * * 

Art. 3. I^ present d^cret entrera en vicjueur quinze jours aprfes 
sa publication dans le ^^Diario Olicial.'' 

I'- Disrio Onciai" du 4 luui 1907.] 

Art. 9. Les produits du sol et de Tindustrio de Tune des deux 
R^publiques, exports par les ports de Tautre, n'acquitteront pas k 
leur sortie des droits autres ou plus 61ev6s, de toutes especes ou de- 
nominations, nationaux, municipaux ou locaux, que ceux qu^acquittent 
ou acquitteraient k leur exportation les monies produits du sol et de 
rindustrie de la R6publique par les ports do laquelle ils sortent. 
. Art. 10. L'importation ou I'exportation dans les ports ou par les 
ports de Tune des deux R^publiques des produits du sol et de Tindus- 
trie ne sera pas interdite; cependant la liberty d'importer ne pourra 
exceptionnellement pas s'appliquer aux articles soumis ou qui seraient 
souniis au regime de la r^gie ou dont la fabrication ou la vente sont ou 
seraient r6serv6es en vertude lois, au Gouvernement de Tunc ou do 
Tautre des deux R^publiques, pas plus qu'aux produits des autres 
pa3's dont Timportation est prohib^e, lesdits articles 6tant 6galement 
proliib^s lorsqu'ils proviennent d'autres pays. 

Art. 11. Les produits du sol et de I'industrie des deux R^publiques, 
dont le commerce est autorise ou dont la fabrication ou la vente n'est 
pas ou ne serait pas r6serv6e en vertu de lois au Gouvernement de Tuno 
ou de Tautre des deux R^publiques (lesdits articles 6tant 6galement 
prohibfes lorsqu'ils proviennent d'autres pays), n'acquitteront pas de 
droits ou impdts quelconques nationaux ou municipaux k la sortie ou k 
Tentrfie par leurs frontiSres de terre; lesdits articles ne paieront pas, 
comme taxe de transport ou d'accise dans le lieu de consommation, des 
droits ou imp6ts autres ou plus Aleves que les droits ou imp6ts natio- 
naux, municipaux ou locaux frappant ou qui frapperaient les produits 
nationaux du sol et de Tindustrie de mfime espSce. En d'autrea 


termes, aucim dos doux pays nc pourra soumettre k des droits d'expor- 
tatioii l(\s produits do son sol, parmi lesquels est compris le b^tail, iii 
coux do son industrio, oxportes k dostination do Tautro pays, ni & des 
droits d'importation los produits do m^mo osj^^co provenant do Taiitre 


Ainsi quo cola a 4te dit, la franchise r6ciproque ^tablio dans la pr^ 
sento clause ne s'^tend pas aux articles soumis au r^^me do la r^ffic" ni 
ib Qoux faisant Tobjot d'un inonopolo dans Tun on I'autre dos doux 

Art. 12. Los produits du sol et do Tindustrio des nations ^traiig^res, 
introduits do Tun des doux pays contract ants dans Taiitre, acquitteront 
les droits qui lour sont applicablos d'apr^s le tarif gr^n^ral. 

i" Dlario Oftcial " du 4 iimilOOT.] 

Les commis voyagours pourront r6oxi)ortor lours ^chantillons par 
les douanos do lour choix, moyennant lobservation des fonnalit^s 

1". Los adniinistrateurs do la douano fixeront los droits d'entr^ 
applicablos aux ochantillons qu'importont los commis voyageurs et 
sursoioront a la pt^rcoption de cos droits moyennant caution garantis- 
sant le paiement en douano du montant de cos droits, si les ^faantillons 
nc sont pas riVxportt^s par losdits voyageurs dans le d61ai <le doiize 

2'\ l-ios Ci>mmis voyageurs devront conserver le bordereau de 
douano 6tablissant los droits d'importation auxquels sont soumis les 
Wuintillons ([u'lls intro<luisent, afm do pouvoir le prfaenter au 
chef do la douano du port choisi pour lour sortie, et que ce fone- 
tionnairo soit on mosure do const ator si les^hantillons qui lui sont 
pr^stMit^s sont los memos (lue ceux d^sign^s <lans le bonlereaii d'im- 

'A'\ Apros veriiication du poiils ilos Ochantillons et constatation de 
lour identity, Tailministratour do la douano decharpera la caution 
foiurnio, o(, si lexportation des Ochantillons no s'effectue pas par 
lo mOmo port quo rimjH>rtation, lodit fonctionnaire en donnera avis 
& radministralour de la douano d'entreo iles echantillons. |K>ur que 
celui-ci proc^do a la dechargo ilo la caution. 

4'\ Si roxiH>rtatii>n dos tVhantillons no s'ost pas effectuOe dans le 
delai d'un an proscrit pour lour reexport at i«>n. les ailministrateurs de 
la douane pn>cevloront a la iHTcoption ilos dnuts d'entree dfls. 

Article unique. Est diffOrOe au V^ janvior lOOS. la mise on 
vigueur du docret No. 476 du 22 avril 1 W7 rolatif a la contrebande. 

I^ vin do Saint-Uaphael sera assimilo aux vins rouges et rangi^ 
dsiis Ih (juatricino classo ilu tarif. 


["Diario Oficial" dti 18 jnnvlor 1907.] 

Les rouleaux en bois avec papier perform, pour pianolas et autres 
instrument's analogues^ seront assimil6s aux parties cVinstniments 
dits orgues et pianos ranges dans la sixi^me classe du tarif . 

["Diario Oficial" du 18 Janvier 1007.] 

Ne pouiTont ^tre consid^r^s de production nationale les articles 
manufactures dans le pays avec des mati^res premieres ^trangeres, 
pas plus que ceux travaill^s ou manufactures en dehors du pays avec 
des matieres premieres d^origine colombienne. 

[" Diatio Oficial " du 28 janvior 1907.] 

Article V, Sont exempt^s des droits d'importation tons les 
engrais chimiques et les produits suivants servant a leur fabrication: 
Phosphates dechaux et superphosphates, c^est-a-dire, phosphate traite 
par Tacide sulfurique; sels de potasse, tels que chlorure de potassium 
connu dans Tindustrie sous le nom de muriate de potasse, sulfate de 
potasse et kainite; engrais azotes, tels que nitrate de sonde et sulfate 
d*ammoniaque, calciocyanamide ou cyanamide de calcium, ^galement 
connu sous le nom de chaux nitrogen^e; sulfate et bisulfure de 
carbone, et bitume ou vemis pour carton impermeable ou trop^nol. 

Art. 2. Est exempte de la surtaxe de 70 pour cent le fil m6tallique 
pour el6tures. II est toutefois entendu que cette diminution s'effec- 
tuera par dixi^mes, conform^ment aux dispositions de T article 205 de 
la Constitution. 

Paragraphe, Est modifie par I'article P"" du present decret le qua- 
triitoe alin^a de Tarticle imique du decret No. 1026 du 28 aodt 1906. 

("DiaTio Ofioiai" du 6 f^vrior 1907.] 

Article unique. Sont exempt^s du paiement des droits d'entr^e 
les materiaux importfe pour le compte de la municipality de Barran- 
quilla et destines i r^clairage dlectrique, au marche public et an 
num^roti^e et designation des rues de ladite ville. 

Paragraphe. Les materiaux dont il s'agit seront egalement exemp- 
tes du paiement de rimp6t. 

r* Diarlo Oficial" du 19 Wvrier 1907.] 

Article unique. A partir de la date de la publication du present 
decret, les droits de douane k percevoir k I'importation des marchan- 
dises par le port de Tumaco seront acquittes en argent au titre de 

Paragraphs. Le present decret, qui sera conununique a I'adminis- 
trateur de la douane de Tumaco par teiegraphe, ne modifie pas le 
decret No. 717 du 16 juin 1906, en vertu duquel les droits applicables 
i^ rimportation des marchandises JtPasto doivent etre per^us en argent. 


["Diario Oficial'' du 2 mars 1907.1 

Sont exempt^s du paiement des droits, non seulement les ^hantil- 
lons de tissus en petits coupons, mais aussi toutes les tnarchandises, 
telles que papier, carton, cuir, fer ^maill6, plaques de verre 6tam6es ou 
non, pourvu qu'ils soient pr6sent& en petits morceaux, que, de Tavis 
de Tadministrateur de la douane, ils n'aient aucune application et 
que, conform^ment au tarif, ils ne soient pas import^s en quantity 
sup6rieure k 25 kilogrammes. 



Afin d^encourager le d^veloppement de F agriculture sur le terri- 
toire de la R6publique de Costa-Rica, le President, dans un d6cret 
en date du 2 d^cembre 1907, a donn^ Fordre d'^tablir des comices 
agricoles dans les difT^rents cantons excepts dans celui de San-Jos6. 
Ces cornices so composcront de sept membres, et ils seront places sous 
la direction de la Soci6t6 Xationale dAgriculture. lis sont fond^ 
dans le but d'encourager et de d6velopper I'agriculture dans leurs 
cantons rospectifs. 



La '^Gaceta Oliciar' du 19 octobre 1907 public une circulaire 
disant que les droits de douane ne doivent fetre perr'us que sur les 
marchandises actuellement import^es et d^barqu^es dans Tile et 
non sur les marchandises perdues, soit en route, soit au d^charge- 
ment des cargo-boatSj mSme quand ces marchandises sont men- 
tionnfies sur le manifcste ou connaissement. Cette loi annulc toutes 
les circulaires contraires k ce reglement. 



D'aprds les chiffres publics derni^rement par la Division des 
Statisticjues du D6partement des Finances de Cuba, il est arriTfi 
dans les ports de Tile, pendant Tannfie fiscale 1906-7, 29,572 immi- 
grants, dont 23,831 hommes et 5,741 femmes. 

CUBA. 239 

Voici, par ordre d'importance, le nombre et la nationalite de ces 

Espagne 22, 178 Am^rique dii Sud 143 

Angleterre : 2,044 Mexique 132 

Am^rique du Nord 1, 907 Scandinavie 100 

Porto Rico 707 Gr^ce 81 

Autres Indes Occidentales 953 Autriche 36 

Syrie 294 Portugal 26 

France 281 Indes Orientales 2G 

Turquie 264 Hollande 25 

lUlie 215 Pays divers 86 

Arable 182 

En comparant le total g^n^ral de I'ann^e 1906-7 avec celui de 
I'ann^e pr6c6dente, on constate une diminution de 23,080 sur I'ann^e 
1906-7, le nombre d'immigrants en 1905-6 ayant 6t6 de 52,652. 


D'aprfes le recensement fait en 1907 ct transmis en decembre par le 
Directeur G6n6ral du Recensement au Gouvemeur Provisoire de Cuba, 
la population de Tile s'^lfeve k 2,028,282 habitants, r^partie de la 
maniere suivante dans les diff6rentes provinces. On donne aussi les 
chiffres du recensement fait en 1899, afin de les comparer avec ceux de 

i i 

Provinces. 1S99. 1907. 

Pinmr del Rio 1 73 . 082 

Uabana 124,811 

MatanzM 202, 462 

Santa Clara 376,537 

Camaguey 88,237 

Oriente 327,716 

Total 1 , ;772, 845 


2, 028, -282 



(•• Uogistro Oflcial" du 17 janvirr 1907.] 

Article 1^. Sont exempts de tout imp6t fiscal et municipal les 
produits suivants de premiere n^cessite: Mais, orge, pommes de terre, 
haricots, vesces, lentilles, froment et sucre. 

Le droit applicable k T importation des p&tes alimentaires sera de 
1 centavo par kilogramme, aussi bien en vertu du prdsent d6cret 
qu'aux termes du tarif des douanes. 

Sont ^galement exempts de tout imp6t fiscal et municipal, le riz 
et les farines import^s du P^rou dans la Province de Loja par la 
douane de terre du Macara. 


Art. 7. II sera i)ervu im impot de 2 centavos par bouteille de 
biere fabriquee dans le Littoral et im droit d^ 3 centavos par kilo- 
gramme brut, et en plus la surtaxe de 100 pour cent, comme droit 
unique, a Timportation de la biere ^trang^re; est abrog6 eti conse- 
quence rimpot de consommation applicable k cette boisson. 

Art. 12. La pr^sente loi entrera en vigueur dans toute la R6pu- 
blique six jours apr^s sa promulgation dans la capitale. 


Le 31 octobre M. Alfaro, President de la R^publique de r£k)ua- 
teur, a promulgu6 un d^cret pour organiser sur une grande ^chelle, k 
Quito, une exposition nationale dont Tinauguration aura lieu le 10 
aodt 1909, jour du centenaire du premier mouvement r^volutionnaire 
de TAmerique du Sud. Cette revolution s'appelle en espagnol ''EH 
grito de indepondoncia," ce qui veut dire *^Appel du peuple du 10 
aoftt 1809 pour Tindependance." L'exposition est en commemora- 
tion de cet evenement. Dans cc decret il est dit que Ton construira 
sur des terrains publics, pres de la capitale, un grand b&timent ou 
pavilion national, ainsi qu\in certain nombre de constructions moins 
importantes pour IVxposition. Le conseil municipal de la \nlle de 
Quito fera faire un magnifique esplanade conduisant ii Texposition. 
Les travaux pr^liminaires d' organisation et d'installation seront sous 
la direction d'un comite central ayant son siege h Quito. Ce comitfi 
sera compose de trente jnembres choisis k cet effet par le gouveme- 
ment et h. son tour ce comite choisira panni ses membres un conseil 
d'administration. Y>o plus, chacune des provinces de la Republique, 
par Tentremise du gouvemement, constituera un comite local qui 
relevera du comite centrai. 

Tout en rappelant les faits historiques dont nous venons de parler, 
Texposition montnTa les produits du commerce, de Tindustrie, des 
arts de TEcjuateur, ainsi que sa situation fmancidre. H y aura aussi 
une section speciale pour montrer le systfme scolaire des ecoles du 

La section consacree aux forets et produits forestiers sera sans 
doute la plus importante de Texposition. On y verra les bois indi- 
genes, surtout les nombreuses especes d'arbres a caoutchouc ; la methode 
d'extraction du caoutchouc et la maniere de le preparer pour le 
marche. On fera voir comment on cultive les arbres k caoutchouc, 
cette culture etant I'objet d'une attention toute sp6ciale dans le pays. 
On exposera des bois de teintures, des ecorces, des arbres et d*autrps 
plantes aj'ant des proprietes agricoles, ainsi que les arbres qui four- 
nissent le bois de ccmst ruction. 

EtATS-UNIS. 241 

Dans certaines parties de rexpositioii, on fera voir les difT^rentes 
cultures du pays, telles que la culture des grains, des plantes textiles, 
et des fruits. On veira aussi la fabrication du sucre, des spiritueux 
et du vin. 

On apportera tous les soins pour mettre sous les yeux des visiteurs 
les diff6rentes mfithodes employees dans Tindustric de la soie, afin 
dVncourager la culture du ver k soie sur une plus ^ande 6chelle dans 
rfiquateur. Dans ce but on fera venir de Chine, du Japon, de I'lnde, 
de Madagascar, de France, d'ltalie, d'Espagne, de Ilongrie et des 
fitats-Unis des 6chantillons pour les exposer. 

L'61evage des bestiaux, qui est une des industries les plus importantes 
de rfiquateur et de beaucoup d'autres R6publiques sud-am6ricaines, 
sera Tobjet d'une attention toute sp^ciale. On s'occupera aussi d'une 
mani^re toute particuliSre des progres que Ton a faits dans la repro- 
duction des bestiaux de pure race et de T amelioration des animaux 

II y aura une section pour les p^cheries, une autre pour les mines et 
une autre pour les chemins de fer. 

Le Gouvemement de I'Cquateur offre un prix de 10,000 sucres pour 
la meilleure -composition litt6raire sur des sujets patriotiques et 

Bien que Texposition soit nationale, on invite cordialement les 
pays strangers k y participer, et on fera des arrangements pour leur 
donner Tespace nficessaire, ainsi que pour la manipulation et le 
remisage des produits Strangers. 



On trouvera k la page 101 le dernier rapport du commerce entre les 
Etats-Unis et rAm6rique Latinc, extrait de la compilation faitc par le 
Bureau des Statistiques du Ministere du Ci)mmerce et du Travail. I^e 
rapport a trait au mois de novemhro 1907, et donne un tableau com- 
paratif de ce mois avec le mois correspondant de Tann^e 1906. 11 
donne aussi un tableau des onzc moLs linissant au mois de novembre 
1907, en ies comparant avec la p^riode correspond ante de rann6e 
pr6c^dente. On sait que les cliiffres des differents bureaux de douane 
montrant les importations et les exportations pour un mois quelcon- 
que ne sent re^ois au Ministire des Finances que le 20 du mois suivant, 
et qu'il faut un certain temps pour les compiler et les faire imprimer, 
de sorte ijpie les rfisultats pour le mois de novembre ne pouvent 6tre 
public avant le mois de Janvier. 




Dans une brochure tr^s int^ressante, publi6e par Seflor VfcroR 
Aguilar Pelaez, consul du Guatemala k Liverpool et k Manchester, 
on trouve les renseignements suivants au sujet des ressources et des 
conditions 6conomiques actuelles qui existent dans le pays. 

Les importations, dont la valeur s'est ^lev6e k $7,220,759 or pour 
Tannee 1906, se composent de presque toutes especes d'articles manu- 
factures et de machineries; lainages, colonnades, soieries, lingerie, 
chapellerie, comestibles, vins et liqueurs, conserves, porcelaines, 
faience, verrerie, ferronnerie, mercerie, pianos, voitures, billards, 
instruments de musique, tableaux, vemis, medicaments parfumerie, 
bijouterie, pierres pr^cieuses, articles de fantaisie, etc. Voici, par 
ordre (Vimportance, les pays d'oil provienncnt les articles nomni^s 
ci-dessus: £tats-Unis, Allemagne, Angleterre, France, Italic, Espagne, 
Belgique, Suisse, Autriche, Hollande, Japon, Chine, ilexique, P6rou, 
Chili et autres republiquos de rAm6rique Centrale. 

Les exportations, dont la valeur s'est clev6e k $7,136.27 or pour 
Tann^e 1906, sc composent principalement des articles suivants: 
Cafe, Sucre, bananes, bois, cuirs, caoutchouc, plantes m^dicinales; 
fruits, etc. Le principal article d'exportation est le caf6, dont on a 
expedie environ 50,000 tonnes, et il est consider^ comme article de 
premic^re qualite sur les marches du monde entier. Voici les prinei- 
paux paj's auxquels le Guatemala exporte les articles mentionn^s 
ci-dessus: fitats-Unis, Allemagne, Angleterre, France, Italie, Au- 
triche-IIongrie, Esi)agne, Belgique et Chili. 

Le commerce exterieur se d^veloppe, et on compt« que Tinaugu- 
ration du Chemin de Fer Interoceanique — de San Jos6 sur le Pacifi- 
que a Puerto Barrios sur I'Atlantique, points qui sont k 269 milles de 
distance run de T autre- facilitera grandement le transport des pro- 
duits indigenes aux ports d'embarquement. 

Voici les noms des chemins de fer qui sont actuellement en exploita- 
tion: Le Central, TOuest, TOcos, le Verapaz et le Guatemala, et 
rinauguration de celui du Nord a ild avoir lieu au mois de d^eembre 

Les procUiits du Guatemala sont tres abondants et tres vari^. 
Dans le regne v6g6tal on trouve toutes sortes de plantes, de fleurs et 
de fruits appartenant aux zones torrides et temp^r^es. II y a dans 
le pays de riches mines d'or, d'argent, de cuivre, de fer, de plomb, de 
zinc, d'antimoine, de charbon, de marbre, de soufre, de mica, etc. 

Toutefois, c'est 1' agriculture qui constitue la principale riehesse et 
c'est k son exploitation que Fern consacre la plus grande partie des 
placements de capitaux. Par suite de la riehesse extraordinaire du 


sol on ne se sert pas d'engrais, et rirrigation ii'est pas n^cessairc ^ 
cause de la grande humidit6 qui r&gne m^me pendant la saison des 

Dans quelques endroits sur la c6te on peut obtenir deux ou trois 
r^coltes par an. On trouve de grandes plantations de caf6, de 
canne k sucre, de cacao, de bananes, de c6r6ales, etc., et dans les 
D6partements du nord, un grand nombre de compagnies indigenes 
et 6trangSres se livrent k Texploitation des for^ts cjui renferment des 
quantit^s de bois pr6cieux, parmi lesquels on remarque Tacajou et 
le c^dre. On poursuit avec succfes le plantage du caoutcliouc. 

Divers articles manufactures ont atteint un degr6 de perfection 
trts sensible. Certains tissus de laine et de coton, des meubles et 
des chaussures de fabrique indigene sont d'aussi bonne quality que 
les articles imports. Voici d'autres produits de manufacture 
indigene: Chapeaux, selles, articles en fibre, textiles de roseaux, 
articles de poterie, sculpture, instruments de music[ue, savons, 
bougies, cigares, cigarettes, fromage, beurre, biSre, eaux min^rales, 
glace, eau-de-vie, etc. I^s ouvriers indigenes montrent beaucoup de 
dispositions h, apprendre de nouveux metiers et les mati^res j^remiSres 
sont varices et excellentes. 

I^a superficie du pays est de 125,000 kilometres carr6s et la popu- 
lation s'61feve k 2,000,000 d'habitants, la densite etant de 16 par 
kilometre carr6. 

L' aspect physique du * Guatemala est montagneux, mais l)ien 
arros^. Le climat varie d'aprSs T altitude au-dessus du niveau <le la 
mer; sur les c6tes il fait tres chaud; sur les plateaux du centre lo 
climat est temp6r6 et agr6able, et sur les hauteurs il fait froid. 
Pendant la saison des pluies il pleut tons los jours et pendant la 
saison sfiche il pleut de temps en temps. 

Les parties du pays les plus peupl^es sont le sud et Touest. La 
capitale du pays, Guatemala, a une population de 100,000 habitants. 
Elle est relive par voie ferr^e k San Jos6 sur le Pacifiquo et k Puerto 
Barrios sur TAtlantique. De Guatemala k San Jos6, il y a une dis- 
tance de 74.5 milles que Ton peut faire en cinq heures, et de Guate- 
mala k Puerto Barrios il y a ime distance de 194.5 milles que Ton 
peut faire en douze heures. 

If faut quatre jours pour faire le voyage du Guatemala aux Iiltats- 
Unis en partant des ports de TAtlantique et quinze jours pour aller 
en Europe. La c6te du Pacifique s'^tend siu* une longeur dc 250 
kilometres et celle de FAtlantique sur une longeur de 161 kilometres. 
Les ports du Pacifique sont San Jos6, Champ^rico et Ocos, et ceux de 
FAtlantique sont Puerto Barrios, Santo Tomds et Jjivingston. 
Panz6s sur le rio Polochic et Gualdn sur le rio Motagua sont des 
ports fluviaux; Lsabel, siu* le lac du m^me nom, est aussi un endroit 




D'apres des statistiques publides demi^rement par rAdministra- 
tion des Postes du Mexique, les recettes proA^enant du service des 
ports pendant Tannic fiscale finissant Ic 30 jiiin 1907, se sont ^lev^es 
k 4,031,124.86 piastres ($2,015,562.43), contre 3,653,315.87 piastres 
($1,826,657.93) en 1905-6, soit une au?:mentation de 377,808.99 
piastres, ($138,904.49) ou 10.34 iH)ur cent. 


L'ANN^E 1007-8. 

Les recettes post ales du Mexique pendant le premiea: trimestre de 
Tann^ fiscale 1907-8 (juillet-septembro 1907) se sont ^lev^es k 1,043,- 
065.88 piastres ($521,532.94), contre 939,837.20 piastres ($469,918.60), 
soit une augmentation de 103,228.68 piastres ($51,614.34), ou 10.98 
pour cent. 


Le 21 d^cenibre 1907, le President de la R^publique du Mexique a 
promulgu6 une loi dejk pass6e au Congr^s National moilifiant le para- 
graphe 125 du tarif douanier en vigueur afin d'augmenter les droits 
d'importation de 2 piastres 50 ($1.25) par 100 kilogrammes, poids 
brut, sur le sucre ordinaire, le sucre candi et le sucre raffing de toutes 
sortes. Cette loi entrera en vigueur le 15 f^vrier 1908 h. minuit. 


Pendant les trois premiers mois de Tannic fiscale 1907-8, on a 
export^ du port de Progreso, Yucatan, 25,937,342 kilogrammes de 
henequen, d'une valeur de 6,323,765 piastres ($3,161,882.50). Pen- 
dant le mfenie trimestre la valour des marcliandises indigenes entr^s 
par CO port s*cst 61ev6c a 3,727,500 piastres ($1,863,750) et les impor- 
tations dc marcliandises se sont elev^s k 2,320,773 piastres 


D'aprfe des statisticjues publiees derni^rement par le Depart e- 
ment de Fomento du Mexique, il y a i)lus de 1,000 mines en exploita- 
tion; ce sont les mines de cuivre <{ui dominent. Sur ce nombre. il 
y en a 302 dans TEtat de Jalisco, 234 dans celui de Sonora, 96 dans 
celui de Micboncan, 65 dans celui de la Basse-Calif omie, 53 dans 
celui de Cbiluiahua et 51 dans celui de Durango. 

Les mines de Jalisco bien que plus nombreuses s<mt comparative- 
ment petit es, et la production en est de peu d*importance; tandis 
que rEtat de Sonora, dans lequel se trouvent les mines de Canaoea, 

PANAMA. 245 

tient le premier rang pour le tonnage; vient ensiiite I'Etat de la 
Basse-Calif ornie. Dans eette region les fonderies de la conipi^gnie 
Boleo, qui envoie toute sa production en Europe, travaillent par 
mois environ 25,000 tonnes de niinerai, produisant environ 2,000 
tonnes de cuivre. 


[" Diario Oflcial" du 19 novembrc 1906.] 

Les effets de la prfeente loi pourront ^tre suspendus en tout 
temps par d6cret du Pouvoir Ex6cutif. 

Akticle V. II. Les droits d'exportation sur les bois indigenes 
de teinture, de construction et d'6b6nistcrie, ainsi que sur le transit 
des bois Strangers des monies especes, seront per^us conform^ment 
aux lois du 12 d*cemT)re 1893 et du 3 dScembre 1904, ainsi qu'aux 
autres dispositions en vigueur. Cependant, les taux des droits appli- 
cables aux bois de teinture en vertu de T article 8 de la premidre des 
lois susmentionnSes seront modifies comme suit : 

Bois de teinture ou do camp6ch(' tonne do 1 ,000 kilos. . $0. 50 

Bois de mdrior id 25 

Dans le cas- oh il serait niat^riellement impossible de constal er le 
poids du bois, le rapport entre la tonne de jauge de^ navires et le 
poids du bois de teinture ou de campfichc embarquS sera celui c^ui, 
conformSnient aux dispositions administratives en vigueur, se *t de 
base pour Ic calcul en douane. 

III. Droits d*exportation sur les produits naturels suivants: 

A. Racine do zacaton 100 kilos bruts. . ^0. 60 

B. Gomme sapote (chicle) kilo not. . . 02 

r. Gimyule en herbe, h I'^tat naturol ou hToy6 tonne do 1 .000 kilos bnits. 15. 00 

IV. Droits d^exportation sur les produits agricoles suivants: 

A. Agave brute KK) kilos nots . . $0. 50 

B . Istle brut id 50 

C. Cuire et peaux non tann^s: 

Peaux de cerf et de chovrt»au 100 kilos bnits . . 2. 25 

Feaux de b6tail ou autres id 75 



[•• GacPta Oflcial " du 24 1900.] 

Article 1**. Un iinpot de 2 J halboas i)ar 50 kilogranunes sera 
perpu k I'entr^e dans la Republique de tout produit sucr^ ou substance 
importfis sous le nom de sucre nioscouade, de vesou ou sous toutt* 
Autre dfoomination^et susceptible d'etre employes k la distillation 
de Teau-dc-vie. 


Art. 2. Le Pouvoir Ex^cutif est autorisS k diminuer, en cas de 
n^cessit^, mais de 50 centimes de halhoa seulement, le droit applicar 
ble en vertu de la pr^sente loi k F importation des produits susmen- 

[" Gaceta Oficial " du 24 octobre 1906.] 

Est absolument prohib^e Texportation de toute espdce de mon- 
naie divisionnaire d' argent nationale. Quiconque aura contrevenu 
k la pr^sentc disposition encourra les p^nalit^s ^tablies par les lois 
en vigueur sur la matiere. 

Loi No. 88 de 1904, relative au regime fiscal** et abrogeant certaines 
dispositions de la loi No. 72 de la m6me ann6e. 

[" Gacota Oflcial " du 27 Janvier 1907.] 

Article l***". Les marchandises ci-apres d6nomm6es, dent Tiin- 
portation dans la R^publique est frappfie d'impdts sp6ciaux, acquit- 

1°. Opium, 8 lalhoas par kilogramme. 

Cet imp6t pourra faire Tobjet d'une adjudication pour des p^riodes 
ne dfipassant pas quatre ann6es: 

2^. Tabac brut ou press6 en tablettes pour 6tre fabriqu6, ainsi que 
tabac k fumer ou a macher, 50 centimes de halhoa par kilograinme. 

3°. Tabac fabriqu6 en cigares, tabac coup6 ou hach6, 1 halhoa et 
50 centimes de halhoa par kilogramme. 

4°. Cigarettes, 1 halhoa par kilogramme. 

Le Pouvoir Ex6cutif est autoris6, s*il le juge convenable, k rem- 
placer le mode actuel de perception des imp6ts sur le tabac fabriqu6 
en cigares, le tabac coup6 ou hach6 et les cigarettes au moyen de 
bandes ou timbres de la valeur correspondante k appliquer sur les 
caisses, paquets ou bottos. 

L'impot k percevoir sur le tabac, les cigares et les cigarettes s'ap- 
pliciue k la marchandise telle qu'elle est pr6sent6e pour la vente et non 
pas k son emballage ext^rieur. 

Art. 2. La bijouterie do toute sorte; les perles et les pierres pr6- 
cieuses ; les articles manufacture en or, argent, platine et cristal ; les 
objets d^ornament en bronze et les articles argontfe, tels que vaissellc, 
etc.; los soiorios do toute espdce; les porcelaines fines, telles que la 
porcelaine de Sevres, de Drosde, do la Chine, du Japon, etc.; la par- 

aLa loi No. 88 du 5 juillet 1904, reproduite en teti* du fasciculo 170, a^t^ modifi^ 
par le d^'oret No. 73 du 6 d{?cembrc de la m^me ann^e ("Gaceta Oficiar' du 10 d^*embre 
1904). En vertu de I'article 1*' dudit d^cret, et a partir du 10 d^<'embre, Timpdt com- 
mercial de 15 pour cent, dont il est question au deuxieme alin^a de Tarlicle 3 de la loi 
No. 88 suamentionn6e, est remplac6 par un impot de 10 pour cent, et Ic droit applicable 
k Tcxportation dc la monnaic d*or, aux termes de Tartii^le 02 de ladite loi, est abrog^. 

Conform^ment li I'article 2 du indmc d^cret, il ne F<*ra i>er9u que 60 pour CM»nt des 
droits consulaires (ftablis dans les tarifs en vigueur \y\\\x Texp^ition des navireset la 
dC'livrancc des documents relatifs aux importations dans 1(*8 ports de la R^publique. 

PANAMA. 247' 

'fuinerie et les savons de toilette acquitteront 15 pour cent de leur 
valeur d'apr&s facture. 

Les dispositions du present article ne seront applicables qu'apres - 
que le Pouvoir Ex6cutif aura proc6d6 aux n^gociations n^cessaires k - 
la sauvegarde des int6r6ts fiscaux de la R^publique. 

Art. 3. Le Pouvoir Ex^cutif est autoris6 h frapper Timportation^ 
des sucres blancs raffin6s et centrifuges d'un droit de 2 centimes de 
halboa par kilogramme, k partir du jour oil des usines produisant 
un total annuel d'au moins 2,500,000 kilogrammes seront mises en 

• Art. 5. L'impdt vis6 k Talinfia 1^ de I'article 3, du titre I de la 
loi No. 88 de 1904, s'applique aussi bien au b^tail siu* pied qu'aux 
animaux abattus. 

II est entendu que quatre quarts repr&entent une t^te de b^tail, et la 
fraction de Timpdt sera applicable k chaque quart. Si Tanimal est 
imports d6pec6 en morceaux de moins d'un quart, 400 livres equi- 
vaudront k un animal entier, et la taxe sera perdue in proportion. 

Art. 6. Le droit sur le caf^, rang^ sous Talin^a 4 de Particle 3 du 
lilre I de la loi susindiqu^e, s'appliquera 6galement au caf6 moulu. 

Art. 7. Est exempte de droits I'importation des livres imprimfe; 
de toute sorte. 

Art. 8. Dans le cas oil cela serait jug6 avantageux pour le Tr^sor,. 
la distillation des liqueurs pourra faire Tobjet d'un monopole. 

A Toccasion de cette adjudication, on se conformera aux r^les* 
£tablies par le paragraphe I*' de Tarticle 2 de la loi No. 19 de 1904. 

Art. 9. L'alcool m^thylique ne pourra pas etre employ^ dans la- 
irtiiiufctiuii des boissons spiritueuses. Le Pouvoir Executif adoptera 
Ite iliiuiUMu ^rfeessaires pour qu'^ son importation, Taloool m6thy- 
Ixqtie Mit Tendu impropre k cet usage. 

Art. 10. Tout n^gociant qui, k trois reprises diff6rentes, aura 6t6 
d^clar^ responsable d'importation clandestine de marchandises ou 
de declarations fausees pr^judiciablea au Tr^sor, sera condamn6 aux 
p£nalit63 p^cuniaires Stabiles par la loi 88 de 1904, et il sera, en 
eutre, atordit au d^linquant d'exercer le commerce| pendant une 
p^ode dejBX jnois. 

Art. 11. Dbbs les cas vis6s par Tarticle 10 de Tordonnance No. 30' 
de 1904, le contrevenant pourra 6tre condamn6 k faire abandon k 
I'Etat, au prix de revient, des marchandises d6clar6es au-dessous de- 

leor valeiir r^elle. 


Art. 13. Sont abrogfe I'article 1^ de la loi No. 72 de 1904, ainsi 
que les autres dispositions de ladite loi qui en d^rivent. 

Abt. 14. Sont ainsi complfit^es et modifi^es les dispositions l^gis- 
tatiTes contraires k la pr^sente loi. 
24181—Bu]l. 1—08 17 




Avoc rinauguration du nouveau service maritime entre New- York 
et Callao par la Compagnie Nationale de Vapeurs et de Docks Flot- 
tants (Compafiia Xacional de A'apores y Diques del Callao), via 
Panama, les relations commerciales des deiix pays auront fait un 
grand pas. On espere que cette compagnie sera en mesure d'ouvrir 
mi service r^gulier au commencement de Tannic 1908; elle poss^de un 
capital de $15,000,000 et doit recevoir un subside de $1,500,000 du 
Gouvcrnement p^ruvien. On construit actuellement en Angleterre* 
pour cette ligne des vapeurs k grande vitesse, et on compte faire le 
trajet de Panama a Callao eu cinq jours au lieu de douze jours conune 
cela se fait en ce moment. 

Callao est le plus grand port du Pacifique entre San-Francisco et 
Valparaiso, et son commerce recevra ime nouvelle impulsion par 
suite de la facility offerte par cette nouvelle ligne dans roxpMition 
des marchandises entre ce port et les ports d'Euroi>e et des Etats- 



[** Diario Ofloial " du 9 novombro 1906.] 

iVRT. VI. Les marchandises et articles de commerce de toute sorte 
de production du sol ou de Tindustrie des deux l^tats contractants 
ou de tout autre pays, dont Timportation est autoris6e par les lois, 
pourront egalement dtre importes par navires italiens ou salva^ 
doriens sans acc^uitter d'auires droits ou des droits plus ^levfe 
que ceux prelevcs sur les navires de la nation jouissant du traite- 
ment le plus favorise. 

Cc regime reciproque d'egalite sera indistinctement appliqu£ aux 
marchandises et articles arrivant direct ement des ports des l^tats 
contractants ou de toute autre localite, et sur les navires d*uno 
autre nationalite, pourvu qu'en pareil cas des documents 6tablissant 
la provenance soient present es. 

Le meme regime de r{?ciprocite sera observ6 h. rexportation et 
dans le transit, sans egard a la ]>rovenance ou a la destination, de 
mt^me pour ce (jui concerne les franchises, les remises et les rem- 
bours(»ments des droits que la legislation des deux pays aurait etabli 
ou etabhrait. 

En outre, il ne sera per^u en Italic, a I'importaiion ou & Texporta- 

tion des articles provenant du sol ou de I'industrie du Salvador, et 

rospoctivonwnt dans le Salvador, a Timyortation ou & rexportation 


des articles provenant du sol ou de Tindustrie de Tltalie, des droits 
plus 61ev& que ceux applicables aux mfeme articles provenant du sol 
ou de rindustrie des paya les plus favorisfis. 

II est ^aleinent entendu que les droits du tarif douanier du Salva- 
dor, ad valorem ou sp^cifiques, et, respectivement, les droits du tarif 
douanier it alien, ne pourront en aucun cas ct sous aucun pr^toxtc, 
pour ce qui concerne les marchandises et produits italiens et, respec- 
tivement, pour les marchandises et produits du Salvador, ^tre plus 
61ev6s que ceux qui frappent ou frapperaient les marchandises et pro- 
duits similaires de la nation la plus favoris6e, et seront consid6r6s 
comme tels les droits additionnels de I'fitat ou des mimicipalit6s, 
ou de toute autre sorte. 

Les dispositions du prfeent article ne s'appliquent pas au regime 
de faveur que te Salvador a reserve ou rfeerverait Jl d*autres fitats du 
Cent re- Am^rique . 

[••Diario Oftciiir* du 22 06ccm]»ro 190C.] 

Quelques doutes s'^tant 61ev6cs sur rinter[)r6tation que comporte 
Tordonnance du 10 octobre dernier, exemptant de tous droits et 
impots rimportation des macliines industrielles, y compris leurs pikjcs 
de rechange et accessoires, doutes r6sultant de ce qu'aucune d6rogation 
ni modification n'a 6te apport6e k Tarticle 592 du tarif aux temies 
duquel les accessoires de machines ou d'appareils quelconquos ne 
b^neficient de la franchise que jusqu'k concurrence de la quantilc 
jug^e n6cessaire pour la mise en marche de ces machines et appareils, 
et que s'ils sont introduitsdans la suite ou importes en trop, ils doivent 
suivre le regime qui leur est assign^ dans le tarif, le Pouvoir Ex6cutif , 
en Anie de pr6ciser le sens de la dispositi<m susmentionn6e, a 6dict/5 la 
prfeente ordonnance compl6mentaire : 

1**. L'article 592 du tarif est maintenu en vigueur et n'est applicable 
qii'aux accessoires de machines: 

2^. Les pidces de rechange de macliines qui sont des parties int6- 
grantes de machines, telles que grilles pour chaudidres, coussinets, 
poulies, roues dentees, arbres de transmission, manometres, injecteurs, 
chaudieres, ainsi que toutes autres pieces de m^me esp^ce, soront 
toujours exemptes, qu'elles soient introduites en jncme temps que la 
machine principale ou dans la suite, separ6irient ; 

.*i®. r^^s accessoires, c'est-a-dire les matoriaux et objets (jiii no 
ff>nt pas partie int^grante des machines, tels (^ue Ixuirrages en caout- 
chouc, en amiante et en cuir, courroies do touto ospeco, burettes k 
huile, huile pour machines, ordinaire ou impure, otoupe ])our n(»ttoyer, 
terre et briques refract aires, tuyaux en vorro ])our niveau x de chau- 
dieres, soupapes et autres objots similaires, sont soumis aux dis- 
positions de Tarticle 592 du tarif pour co ([ui conoorno los droits, les 
delais et les quantit^s stipul6s pour lour importation; 


4''. Tous les oiitils pour artisans, les tuyaux en g^n^ral et les 
nianches de toute espece ne pourront en aucun cas fetre consid^r^s 
comnie pieces de rechange ou accessoires de macliines. 

La prfeente ordonnance entrera en vigiieur le jour de sa publication. 

["Diario Oficial" dii 20 mars 1937.] 

Article unique. A partir du l*'"^ avi-il jn-ochain les impots appli- 
cables h. Timportation des marchandises, e'est-^-dire les 8 pesos 
argent par 100 kilogrammes, dont il est question k Tarticle 573 ilu 
tarif en vigueur, sont r^duits k 3.60 pesos en or amSricain et per^us 
en monnaie courante ou en traites n^gociables k vue sur les Etats- 

[••Diario Oficial" du 27 mars 1907.] 

Article unique. A partii^ du 1''^ avril prochain 22 pour cent ile la 
partie des droits d'importation actuellement per9us en argent seront 
r^duits k 10 pour cent en or am^ricain et pr61ev^s en monnaie courante 
ou en traites negociables a vue sur les Etats-Unis. 

l" Diario Oficial" dii !7 juiii 10 7.] 

En vertu de la presente ordonnance est prohib^e Texportation 
des gi-ainos de premiere n^cessit6. 

["Diario Oficial" du 10 mai !0:i7.] 

Les marchandises avarices et dont les commerfants font abandon 
au moment de la verification seront mises k la disposition des 
compagnies d'assurance, pourvu qu'il soit ^tabli qu'elles ont 6t6 
assurees. Les compagnies pourront les d^douaner moyennant paie- 
ment integral des droits et imp6ts pendant les huit mois de magasinage 
que la loi autorise et apres lesquels les marchandises appartiendront 
au Tresor. 

[••Diario Oficial" du 17 luai 19.J7.] 

Article premier. Est 6tablie une surtaxe de 1 J centavos par quintal 
sur les marchandises exportees par les ports de la Republique, sauf 
Tor et I'argent non monnay^s dont I'importation est spdcialement 
soumise k un droit de 3 pour cent sur la valeur intrins^que. 

[••Diario Oficial" du 8 juin 19J7.] 

La couleur en poudro, ordinaire ou fine, sera indistinctement et en 
regie g6n6rale soumise au droit de 8 centavos, Sont ainsi modifiies 
les taxes de 5 et 10 centavos (jue le tarif des douanes a Stabiles pour 
la couleur dont il s'agit. 

La presente ordonnance entrera en viirueur le jour de sa publication. 


Columbus Memorial Library 

(International Bureau of the American Republics) 



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rrespondiente al ano 1905. Tomo 2. Buenos Aires, Compaflla sudame- 
ricana de billetes de banco, 1908. 585 p. 4**. 

Same. 1906. Tomo 1. Buenos Aires, Compaiifa sudamericana de 

billetes de banco, 1907. xi, 490 p. 4*^. 

LawSf statutes, etc. Deuda argentina. Copilacion de leyes, decretos, resolu- 

ciones, notas y contra tos sobre la deuda publica nacional por Jos6 B. Pena, 
tesorero del cr^dito publico nacional. Buenos Aires, Imprenta de Juan A. 
Alsina, 1907. 2 v. (continuous paging). S°. 

Land law. Sanctioned by the Argentine Congress and promulgated on 

the 8th January, 1903. Buenos Aires, Printing establishment of the Argen- 
tine meteorological bureau, 1903. 15 p. 12°. 

Ley de aduana y decreto reglamento. Reorganizacion de la inspecci6n 

de aduanas y resguardos. Buenos Aires, Tall, de la Penitenciaria nacional, 
1906. 86 p. 12**. 

(At head of title: "Ministerio de liacienda.") 

. . . Ley de arancel consular. Ley No. 4712 de 29 de septiembre de 

1905 sobre organizacion del cuerpo consular argentino y decreto regla- 
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Ley de inmigracion y reglamento de desembarco de inmigrantes. Pu- 

blicaci6n oficial. Buenos Aires, Iinp. y enc. ^Vrcuri & cia. , 1907. 26 p. 12°. 
(At head, of title: "RajMAbUca Ai^ntina, Ministerio de agricultura.") 

Ley die patentes de invencion. Decretos que la reglamentan. Formu- 

larioe para la presentacion de solicitudes y clasificacion de las patentes de 
invencion para su archivo. Publicacion oficial. Buenos Aires, Tall, de la 
Oficina meteorologica argentina, 1907. 60 p. 12**. 

(.\t head of title: "Minisfferio de agrioultura, division de patentes y marcas, Repiiblica 

Ley de tierjas de 8 de enero de 1903 y decreto reglanientario de 8 de 

noviembre de 1006. Publicacion oficial. Buenos Aires, Imp. y. enc. Aj*- 
curiycfc-, 1906. 32 p. 12*>. 

(At head of title: "Repiiblica Argentioa, Ministerio de agricultura.") 

Ley No. 3975 sobre marcas de fabrica, comercio y agricultura y decreto 

reglani.en.tai:io de la misma. Buenos Aires, Imp. Martin Biedma e hijo, 
1900. 32 p. 12**. 

(-\t head of UtAe: "Ministerio de agricultura, Hepiiblica Argentina.") 

Ley No. 4711 de 29 septiembre de 1905, sobre organizacion del 

cuerpo diplomdtico argentino y decreto de 25 de enero de 1!)0G reglamen- 
taiiio dje la mi^ma. Buenos ^Vires, Tall. tip. de la Penitenciaria nacional, 
1906. 28 p. plates. 8°. 

(At head of title: " Departamento de Rela.Moues exteriores y cullo" . . . ) 

Recopilacion do las leyes y decretos proniulgados en Buenos Aires, 

desde el 25 de mayt) de 1810 hasta fin dc diciembre de 1835, con un indice 
genevat de materias. Primer parte. Buenos Aires, Imprentii del Estado, 
XV, 556 p. 8°. 



Argentine Republic. Laivs, statutes, etc.: Reglaraento 6 que deben cstar sujetas 
las iVibricas de embutidos. Ap^^ndice No. 3 del reglamento de policfa sani- 
taria de los aniinales No. 2. Resoluciun de enero 10 de 1907. Buenos 
Aires, Tall, de la Oficina meteorologica argentina, 1907. 10 p. 12®. 
(At head of title: "Ministerio de agricultura dela Repi^blica Argentina.") 

. . . Reglamento general de policfa sanitaria de los animales. Decreto de 

noviembre 8 de 1906. No imprint. 21 p. 12**. 

(At head of title: "Ministerio de agricultiira de la Kepiiblica Argentina. Policfa sani- 
taria de los animales, No. 1.") 

Reglamento para la inspeccion sanitaria-veterinaria del meroado de 

tablada. Ap^ndice No. 1 al reglamento de policfa sanitaria de los animales 
No. 2. Resolucion de diciembre 29 de 1906. Buenos Aires, Tall, de la 
Oficina meteorologica argentina, 1907. 7 p. 12°. 

(At heiid of title: **Ministerio de agricultura de la Repdblica Argentina.") 

Reglamento para frigorfficos, saladeros, graserfas y fabricas de cames 

ccmservadas. Ap^ndico No. 2 del reglamento de policfa sanitaria de 1<« 
animales No. 2. Resolucion de febrero 4 de li)07. Buenos Aires, Tall, de 
la Oficina meteorologica argentina, 1907. 11 p. 12®. 

(At head of title: "Ministerio de agricultura de la Reptiblica Argentina.") 

Reglamentacionea especial es de establecimientoa industriales. De<reto 

de octubre 4 de 1906. No imprint. 8 p. 12®. 

(At head of title: " Ministerio de agricultura de la Republica Argentina. Felicia sani- 
taria de los animales No. 2.") 

Ministerio deA(;ricultuka: Estadistica agrf cola. Ano 1906. Buenos Aires, 

Tall, de publicaciones de la Oficina meteorologica argentina, [1906]. 59 p. 

Ministerio DE Ac. RicuLTURA, Division de Inmicrackkn: . . . IiimigraciiSn 

en el ailo 1906. [BuencKS Aires, 1906.] 18 p. 4®. 

. . . Description sommaire de la R6publique Argentine comnie pays 

d' immigration. 2°*" edition corrig^c et aumentee d'apr^s les informations 
les plus recentes. Buenos Aires, J. II. Kidd et cie., 1904. 136 (2) p. illus., 
maps. 8®. 

Same. Cierman Ira. 147, (2) p. 

Same. Italian trs. 138, [\) p. 

Arnold, Sarah Louise: . . . Gufas para maesti-os con la demostracion de los princi- 
pios, m^^odos y lines de la enacnanza comun. Por Sarah Louise Arnold 
. . . Traducido ix^r Isabel K. MacDermott. Buenos Aires, Est. tip. **E1 
Comercio," 1007. 257 p. 12®. 

(At head of title: " Libros para el maestro. Kdici<5n hei^ha por el * Monitor de la E^u- 
cacidncoiufln.' v. viii.") 

Banco de la Nacion Arcjentina: Yearly rei)ort and general balance sheet corres- 
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BtTEXOH Aires, (Ieneral Direition op Municipal Statistics: Statistic^ annuary 
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Same. In Span i.**!!. 

Intendencia Minicii'al: . . . Ccmdititms for the public (»all for tenders f<»r 

the constructi(m of two of the lines that comprise the metn^politan under- 
groimd system of electric railways. Buenos Ain?s, Imp., lit. <& imp. de 
(J. Kraft, 1907. 2:5 p. 8®. 

-Same. In Spanish. 16 p. 8®. 

— . . . Ferrocarriles metn){)olitanos .subterraneos. Ordenanza. Basest de 

liciiacion. Ano 1907. | Buenos Aires], Imp. I^jpez, Quesada y iSirondo, 
[1907]. 30 p. J2°. 


Buenos Aires. Laws, statutes^ etc.: indire general de la recopilaciun de leyes y 
decretos promulgados en Buenos Aires. 1810-1835. Buenos Aires, Im- 
prenta del Estado, 1836. ccxvi, viii p. 8^. 

Camera Italiana di Commercio ed Arti in Buenos Aires: Relazione del presidente 
e resoconto del teeoriere sulla gestione adrainistrativa della Camera per 
r anno 1906-1907. Buenos Aires, Stabilimenlo tip. "Roma," 1907. 39 
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Carrasco, Gabriel: El crecimiento de la poblacion dc la Republica Argentina 
1895-1906. Trabajo presentado al Tercer Congreso MMico Latino-Ameri- 
cano de Montevideo por Gabriel Carrasco . . . Buenos Aires, Companfa 
sud-americana de billetes de banco, 1907. 14 p. 8°. 

Los progresos demogrdficos y sanitarios de la ciudad del Rosario de Santa Fe 

1887-1906. Ben^fica influencia de las obras de salubridad. Trabajo pre- 
sentado al tercer Congreso Medico Latino-Americano de Montevideo por 
Gabriel Carrasco . . , Buenos Aires, Companfa sud-americana de billetes 
de banco, 1907. 27 p. diagr. 8°. 

El valor monetario de la higiene piiblica. Los millones ahorrados en una gran 

ciudad por el perfeccionamiento de sus obras sanitarias. Buenos Aires en 
1905. Trabajo presentado al Tercer Congreso Medico Latino-Americano de 
Montevideo por Gabriel Can-aeco . . . Buenos Aires, Companfa sud- 
americana de l)illetes de banco, 1907. 26 p. diagr. 8®. 

< orduba. Dire€Ci6n General de Estadistica y Agricultura: (^amparia agi'fcola. 
1906-1907. C6rdoba, Estab. tip. "La Italia,'' 1907. xxxiii, 173 p. tables. 

Faleni, Lorenzo: La Repubblica Argentina; arte, industria e commercio . . . 
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Gonzalez, JoAQufx V.: . . . The National University of La Plata. Report relative 
to its foundation ])y Dr. Joaqufn V. Gonzalez . . . Translated by George 
Wilaon-Rae, sworn public translator. Buenos Aires, Graphic works of the 
national penitentiary, 1906. iv, 237 p. maps, plates, plans. 8®. 

(At head of title: ** Argentine Republic. Technical library of the Department of Justice 
and public education ... v. 1.") 

Great Brit.un. Emigrants' Information Office: Argentine Republic. General 

infonnation for intending settlei*s. Issued by the Emigrants' information 

office. London, Darling & Son, 1907. 40 p. 8°. 
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independencia. Buenos Aires, Companfa sud-americana de billetes de 

banco, 1907. 291, (1) p. illus. 8°. 
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over untrodden ground from the straits of Magellan to the Rio Xegro. By 

George Chaworth Musters . . . London, J. Murray, 1871. XX, 322 p. 

illus., maps. 8°. 
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Ateneo, celebrada el 25 de mayo de 1895. Buenos Aires, Arnoldo Moen, 

1895. 15 p. V2^. 
I^ l)atalla de Ituzaingo. (Febrero 20 de 1827.) Artfculo publicado en la 

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de billetes de banco, 1893. 121 p. 8°. 
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1902. 131 p. 8«. 


QiESADA. Ernesto: La crisis universitaria. Disourso pronimciado en la solemDe 

culacion de grados, en la Facultud de derecho y ciencias sociales releUrada 

el 17 de agosto de 1906. Buenos Aires, J. Menemlez, 1906. 53 (2 ) p. 8°. 
La cueslion obrera y su estudio universitario. (Del Boletin del Departaiuento 

nacional de trabajo, 1.) Buenos Aires, J. Mem'ndez, 1907. 45 p. S°. 
El derecho de gracia. NeceaLdad de reforinar la justicia criuiLnal y ct>rrec- 

cional. Buenos Aires, Libreria Brcdahl, 1890. 63 p. 12®. 
La deuda Argentina. »Su unificacion. Buenos Aires, Amoldi* M<»en, 1S95. 

112 p. 12?. 
Disciu-so pronunciado en el banqueie dado a los i>eriodisLas brasilefius el sabadd 

27 de octubre de 1900. Buenos Aires, Librerfa Bredahl, 1900. 40 p. 12°. 
Las doctrinae prer^jciologicas. De la revisla ''Estudios," Buenos Aires, 1905, 

tomo 9. Buenos Aires, J. Menendez, 1905. 95 p. 8®. 
La iglesia cal6lica y la cueslion social. Conl'erencia dada en los salnnes del 

Atenet) el 4 de (jctubre de 1895. Buenos Aires. Amoldo Mueu, 1895. 101. 

(l)p. 12°. 
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del curso de economia politica.) La Plata. Aixhivos de pedagogia y 

ci<mcias afines, 1907. 23, (1) p. 8°. 
La reforma judicial. Deiiciencias del procediniieuin e independcncia del 

Ministcrio fiscal. Buenos Aires, Librerfa Bredahl, 1899. 80 p. 12®. 
Las reliquias de San Martfn. Estudio de las colecciones del Musi-o histurico 

na( ional. Tercera edicion, corregida y aumentada. Buenos Aires. Imp. 

curopca de M. A. Rosas, 1901. 139 p. 12®. 
La sociologia. Caracter cientffico de su euseuanza. De la **Revista de la 

Universidad de Buenos Aires,*' 1905. tomo 3. Buenos Aires. J. Menendez, 

1905. 43, (2) p. 8®. 
Tristozas y esperanzas. La luclia ix»r la vida y el descanso. (De lt>s *• Anales 

de la Facultad de derecho y ciencias socialcs." Buenos Aires, If^. tomo 

3.) Buenos Aires, J. Menendez, 1903. 100 p. 8®. 
Nuestra raza. Discurso pronunciado en el teatro OdcHju el 12 <le octubre de 

1900. Buenos Aires, Lil)roria Bredahl, 1900. 85 p. 12®. 
. . . D()s novelas sociologicas. Buenos Aires. Jacobo Peuser. 1S92. 223 p. 

... La epoca de Bot-as. Su verdadero canictcr hL^iorico. Buenos Aires. 

A rnoldo Moen, 1898. 392 p. 12®. 
. . . La polilica argent ino-paraguayo. Pur Ernest* » Quesada . . . IWn-nos 

Aires. Librerfa Bredalil, 1902. xxi, 302 p. 4®. 
(.\t hc:ul of title: "Historia dlploinfiiica niicUnml.' 

... La polftica argeniina respecto de Chile (1895-1^98i. Buenos Ains, 

Arn..l(lo Moren, liSOS. 239 p. 8®. 

... La p<»liiira chilena en el Plata. Las ncgociaciones diploniuii<as entre 

Cliih* y la Ucpiiblica Argentina . . . Con un apendice que contiene la 
exiHisicion y refutacion del Dr. Bernardo de Irigin*en y \-arios niajxis y 
pianos. Buenos Aires, Amoldo Moen. 1S95. 382 p. maps, plans. 8®. 

. . . Los pri\ilegios parlamentarios y la liberiad de la prcnsa. Recursii de 

"habeas corpus" en el cast> de la prison del dirtntor de **E1 Tiempo." pi»r 
orden de la Caniara de Diputados. Buenos Aires. Arnoldu M«»<*n, Ls!*«i. 
113. (1; p. 8®. ^ 

. . . La propie<la<i intelectual en el dereih'» argi-niinn. Buenos Aires. Libr**- 

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. . . Kesefias y rrilicas. Buenos Aires, Felix Lajduani*, 18113. 52S. ^l» p. 



SiLVAXo GoDOi. Ji'Ax: Vllimus opomcioncs do gucrra del joncTal Josi'* Ediivigis 

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i'uE.**p(), Liis B.: .• . . Indicaciimes i?umarias para el inmigrante a Bolivia. Por 
Luitf S. Cre?iv> . . . La Paz, J. M. Gamarra, 19()7. 1(10 p. diagrs., 
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I'.oMviA. Octog^*sim(> scgundo aniversario do la indopendoncia do i^olivia. Pro- 
grama al que so sujetanm la.s fu^stas. Gloria al (> do agosto do 1825. La 
Paz, J. M. Gamarra, 6 do agosto de 1907. 12, (I) p. 8°. 

Laws, statutes, etc.: . . . Ley do servicio militar. La Paz, Intondoncia de 

guerra, 1907. 95, ii p. 12®. 

(At the head of title: " Ministcrio do piuTru .' ) 

Ley org^inica de presupuostos. La Paz, Imp. y lit. boliviana, 1907. 

13 p. 'l2?. 

(At head of title: ''lOngreso nati<)n:il.'") 

Leyes dictada.s por el Congrew) de 1900. ICdicion camand. La Paz, 

Imprenta de 'El Diario," 1(K)7. 200, viii p. 8°. 
Leoislatira OiiDiXARiA DE 1900-1907: ProyectOvS o infnrmos del IL Senado 

naeional. 1-a Paz. Imprenta de **E1 Diari«)," 1907. J^39, vii p. 8®. 
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MiN'isTERio DE CoLOMZAcioN" Y Agricultuua: Mcuioria . . . dc 1007. La 

Paz, Imprenta de "El Comercio de Bolivia,'' VM)7. 44, Ixxiii p. 8°. 

MiNisTERio DE GoBiERXo V FoMEXTo: Momoria . . . UK)7. La Paz, Im- 
prenta art it^tica, 1907. 71 p. 8°. 

MixiSTERjo DE Guerra: Momoria . . . do MK)7. I.a Paz. Imprenta d«' "El 

Comercio do Bolivia," 1007. xxiv. 140 p. 8^. 

MixiSTEiuo DE IIaciexda e Ixdustkia: Momoria . . . dc liM)7. La Paz, 

Tip. artfi^tifa, 1907. 52 p. 8°. 

MixiSTERio DE JusTiciA E IxsTRLccioN Pi HLK A: 1 nlomiacionos d<' lo^ preyi- 

dente? de corte. fii?calea de tlisU'ito y roctore.^ de la.s univi'rsidado.s do la 
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Imprenta y lit. boliviana, 1007. 411 p. 8^. 

MiNiSTERio DE JusTiciA E IxsTRUCcioN PiBLicA: Mouioria . . . do 1!M)7. 

La Paz, Imprenta <le "El Comercio dc Bolivar," 1007. Ixx, 412 \). 12''. 

Mixi.*4TERi() DE Kelaciones Exteriore.s V CiLTo: Momoria [con ancxo.-] 

. . . de 1900. La Paz, "La'' 1007. 3 v. in 2. 8°. 

Klne-Morexo, Gabriel: Bolivia y Peru. Nuovas nota-s hi^toricas y ])ibli(»,u:r:Ui(a-. 
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Saavkdra, Battista: Defon.<a dc Ins d«'rcch(>s dc Uolivia ante <4 Gol>icrno argcntino 
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[Ayres de C'asal, Manuel]: Corogralia brazilioa; oil, Rela(;ao liLstorico-googralica do 
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Laws, statutes J etc.: Regulations regarding immigration and colonization in 

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MiNiSTERio DA Industria, Via^ao e Obras Pubucas: Relatorio . . . anno 

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Great Britain. Foreign Office: Report for the years 1904-1906 on the trade of 
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Rej)ort fnr the y<*ar 1900 on the trade and commence of Brazil. Edited 

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■ J^*p(.rt for the y(»ars HK;.> liKXJ on th<» trade uf Pani. EdittMl at the 

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Great Britain. Foreign Offick: Report for ilu* year 190G on the trade and ( om- 
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Laemmert, Eduardo vox: Almanak administrative, 'inereantil e industrial do Rio 
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Para. Bibuotheca e Archivo Publico do Para: Annaes . . . tomo 1. Para, 
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Same. Tomo 2. Belem, Imprcnsa ofHcial, 1903. xlv, 33G, (1) p. 


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408, 0) P- ^°' 

PoiRiER, Eduardo: Salve, uh Brazil! Discursos pronunciados en la solemne .'^esion 
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Janeiro el dfa de agosto d<* 1905; y en el gran ]>anquete de clausura de 
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Sao Paulo. Commissao GEocRArmcA k Geoloc.ica dh Sao Pai lo: Expluravao 
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Lau8, statutes, dr.: Decrcto no. 1458 de 10 de Abril dc 1907. Da rogulamcnto 

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do *'Diario oflicial," 1907. 90 p. 8°. 

(At head of title: "Serretaria da agrit.ultiira, coiiuncr.^ io e ohras j)ubli(as do Kstu 'o de 
S. Paulo.') 

Secretaria DA Ac.RicuLTUKA, CoMMKurio E Obuah PunLicAs: Rilatorio . . . 

1895. Sao Paulo, Siqucira & (\mip., 1890. 240, 159 p. illus. 4°. 

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SouTO, Vieira: Notes sur le commerce international, la navigation ct les finances 
du Bresil par le Dr. Vieira Souto . . . Extrait dc Tintroduction de 
TouvTage, "O Brazil. .«uas riquczas naturaes. .«^uas industrias'' . , . Rio 
de Janeiro, M. tt (., 1907. 92 p. diagrs. &''. 


The United States of Brazil. London. Office of the "Sphen'' [1907]. 64 p. 
illus., maps, 4®. 


U. S. IsTiuiiAN Canal Commi8S10n: Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commii^ 
sion for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1907. Washington, Government 
Printing Office, 1907. 239 p. plates, map, tables. 8**. 


Albert, Federico: Plan jeneral para el cultivo de bosques. Con preferencia para 
las rejiones desda La Serena hasta Concepcion, pero que puede ser apli- 
cado aun m^s al norte y mas al sur. Por Federico Albert . . . Santiago 
de Chile, Imprenta Cervantes, 1907. 22 p. 8°. 

Amicis, Edmundo de: . . . Corazon (diario de un nino). Traducido al wpafiol de 
la 44* edicion italiana por H. Giner de los Rios. Vei-sion revisada por un 
profesor. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Gutenberg, 1906. 231 p. illus. 8®. 

Casa de Orates de Santiacjo: Movimiento de la Casa de Orates de Santiag«> en el 
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Catalogo de los E('lesi.\sticos de Amiu)S Gleros, casas religiosas, iglesias y capi- 
llas del Arzo])ispado de Santiago de Chile a principios del afio 190C. San- 
tiago de Chile, Imprenta de la "Revista catolica." 1906. 136 p. 8*. 

[Chile. Commission to the Exposition of Milan, 190t>]: II Chile. All' esposizione 
di Milano, 1906. Milano, Bassi & Vaccari, 1906. x. 29, (1) p. 8**. 

[CoMisiON enc'ar<;ada del Estudio de Sanatorio para Tvberculosos: 

Sanatorio para tuberculosos. Informe que la comision encaigada de su 
estudio, eleva al Supremo Gobierno. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Cer- 
vantes, 1902. 148 p. 4°. 

Laws, statutes, etc.: Disp(>sici<mes relativas a los ferrocarriles partieulares. 

Santiago de Chile, Imp., lit. i enc. Barcelona. 1906. 40 p. 8**. 
(At head of title: "Ministerio de iiidustria i obra.s publicas."; 

Inspeccion de los ferrocarriles particulares. Disposici<mes relativas 

d los fern)carriles particulares. Santiago de Chile, Imp., lit. i enc. Bar- 
celona, 1005. 15 p. 8°. 

(At hejtd of title: "Miiiisterio de indnslria i ohras pilblioas." i 

. . . Lei de patentes (h' invencion i disposiciones supremas relativas 

.d la tramilacion i concesitmes de los privilejios exclusivos. Santago dv 
Chile, Imp. i enc. '* El (ilobo." 1906. 17 p. 4°. 

(At head of title: " Kei>ilblic'a de Chile. Miiiisterio de indiistria 1 o]»ras pilblieas.") 

Lejislacion de aduanas. Disposici(mes vijente-* arreglada por Wen- 

ceslao Orellana Vilchrs . . . Santiagi> i\v Chile, Imprenta nacional, 
1903. xvi, 170-1 p. 4°. 

Proyecto de codigo organico de tribunales revisado pi»r la C'omisiou 

mixta de s(»nadore.s i diputailos. Segunda edicion correjida. Santiago do 
(Idle. ImiM-cnia Cervantes, UKXI. 257 p. 8°. 

Recopilacion de h»yes, decretos i dema.-^ «li>posi('iones de caracter jene- 
ral relativas al Ministerio de imlu-^^trias i obras publicas . . . Santiag:i 
de Chile, Imp. Hanelona, liKXi. 009 p. 4°. 

- Reco])ih\cion de h'yc> i decretns rolativos al retinj del papel-nn minla i 
de los r(4a<'ionados con lo.- bancos i si.>tema monetario. Pi»r Jou^ Vicente 
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(Al head of title: " Ministerio de h.i ienda."> 


Chile. LoMm, staiuteSy etc.: . . . Reglamento do inmi^racion libre. Santiago de 
Chile, Impreata nactonal, 19Q7. 14. p. 8®. 
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Reglamento de inmigracion libre dictado en 24 de jiinio de 1905 . . . 

Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Cersantes, 1905. 31 p. 8®. 
(Tttxt in English, Spanish, German, yrench, and Italian.) 

Reglamento para los eontratos de obras piiblicas. Santiago de Chile, 

Casilla No. 1953, 1900. 16 p. 8^. 

(At head of title: "Minieteno de in<Justria i obras ptiblicas," 18D8, No. 1.) 

Mensaje del Presidexte . . . 1° de juuio de 1907. Santiago de Chile, 

Imprenta nacional, 1907. 47 p. 8®. 

MiNiSTERio DE Hacienda: Memorijf. . . de 1905 y 1906. Santiago de Chile, 

Imp. i ene. universitaria, 1907. 2 v. 8°. 

MiNiSTERio DE Hacxexda: Memorias i proyeotos presentados al Supremo 

Gobiereno en coniormidad al decreto supremo de 25 de noviembre de 1901 
para el establecimiento de un impuesto sobre el tabaeo i recomendadoH 
por la comision nombrada para revisarhxs. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta 
Cervantes, 1902. 390, (1) p. 12^. 

MiNiSTERio DE Ikdustria I Obras Publicas: Memoria . . . de 1906. Santi- 
ago de Chile, Imprenta Barcelona, 1906. 225 p. table. 8°. 

Same. 1907. Santiago de Chile» Imprenta Barcelona, 1907. 93 p. 

tables. 8°. 

MixiSTERio DE Justicia: Estadistica criminal correspond iente al ano de lfK)4. 

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OFiasA Central de EsxADisxicA: Sinopsis estadistica i jcogr^fica de la 

Republica de Chile en 1905. Santiago de Chile. Imp. i enc. universitaria, 
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X6MINA DE L.\8 SociEDADEs AxoNiMAS: CuvoH cstatutos ban sido aprobadcs 

por el Supremo Gobierno i que se han organizado d(»sde el 1" de enero de 
1905 ha8ta el 28 de setiembre de 1906. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta na- 
cional, 1906. 32 p. 8^. 

MixiSTERio DE IIaciexda: Propuesta^s para la const ruccion de las obras del 

puerto de Valparaiso. Santiago de Chile, Imp. y lit. y enc. Barcelona, 
1906. 104, (2) p. diagrs. 8°. 

CoLECcidx DE HiSTORiADORES I DE DOCUMENTOR relativos a la independencia d<* 
Chile. Tomos 8. 9, 10, 11 & 12. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Cervantes, 
1902-1904. 5 v. 8°. 

(TonKM 11 Ai 12 hare imprint "G. K. Miranda.') 

CoRDEMOY, Camilo J.: Estudio relativo al puerto de Iquique por Camilo J. de Corde- 
moy . . . Santiago de Chile. Imprenta Cervantes, 1902. 32 p. plans. 

CoRRESPOXDEXciA Cambiada cutrc cl administrador j(»neral del fernKarril do Ant(»- 
fagajiita d Bolivia i la comision nom])rada por el directorio de la Asr)ciaciun 
aalitrera de pn){>aganda. pam conocer las causas que restrinjcn la esportuc'un 
del salitre en la zona servida por el ferrorarril inMuionado. Santiaj^o de 
Chile, Imprenta Barcelona, 1006. 23 p. 8°. 

Davila L.. Benjamix: Al alcoholismo i la n*glamentaciun (b* las bebidas alcolu'ilicas 
por Benjamin Davila L. Siintiap:r> de Chile. Imprenta naci(»iial. 1S09. 
135, (1) p. 8^ 

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GonzAlez de Agueros, Pedro: Descripcion historial de la provincia y archipielago 
de Chiloe, en el re>Tio de Chile, y obispado de la Concepci6n dedicada & 
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Grossi, Jose: Servicio medico de un teiTeraoto. (Valparaiso, 16 de agosto de 1906.) 
Valparaiso, Lit. ^ imp. modema, 1907. 85 p. map, diagr. 8°. 

GuzMAX C., Arturo: Contribuoi6n i\l estudio de las.bradicardis i del sindroma de 
Stokes-Adams, por Arturo Guzman C, . . . Santiago de Chile, Imprenta 
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Hall, Basilio: Estmoto de un diario de viaje d, Chile, Peru i M6jico en los ailos de 
1820, 1821, 1822. Por el Capi^dn Basilio Hall. Tradueido del inglds por 
Federico Gana G. Tomo 1. Santiago de Chile, Imp. y enc. universitaria, 

1906. 293 p. 12°. 

Herrera a., Pedro Xolasco: Magallanes. Un emporio de riqueza nacional. Con- 
ferencia dada en la Asociaciun de la prensa bajo eu patrocinio en setiembre 
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Lautaro Ferrer, Pedro: Uistoria geneml de la medicina en Chile. (Documentos 
in^ditos, biograflas y l)ibliograffa). Desde el descubrimiento y conquista 
de Chile en 1535 hasta nuestros dias. Por Pedro Lautaro Ferrer. Tomo 
1, desde 1535 hasta . . . 1843. Talca, Imp. de J. Martin Garrido C, 1904. 
485 p. 4°. 

Lem^tayer, Paul: Informe stjbre los estudios practicados en los guaneros de Punta 
Pic halo, Punta Gniesa, Chipana, Punta de Ix)bo8 i Pabellon de Pica. 
(Por orden del s-efior Ministro de hacienda.) Por Paul Lem^tayer i Da\'id 
Vasquez S. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Cervantes, 1902. 68, (1) p. 8*. 

Medina, Jose Toribio {cd.): . . . Actas del cabildo de Santiago. Tomo 14. Pu- 
blicadas por Jos^ Toribio Medina. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta elzeviriana, 

1907. 533 p. 4*». 

(Tomo 34; '*Colewri(5n de historia<lores de Chile y de documentos relativos & U histoiiji 

MoLTKE, Carlos von: . . . Memoria esplicativa del proyecto de mejoramiento del 
puerto de Antofagasta. [Por] Carlos von Moltke, injeniero. Santiago de 
Chile, Imp., lit. i enc. Barcelona, 1905. 52 p. tables, map. 8®. 

(At head of title: " Ministerio de hacienda,") 

NoRDENFLYCHT, R. de: . . . ludustria salitrera. Procedimiento Xortlenflyoht. 

D(»scripci6n funcionamiento, informes. Valparaiso, Sociwlad "Imprenta 

y lit. univei-so," 1905. 86 p. diagr. 4°. 
OrttJzar, Adolfo: Chile of to-day. Its commerce, its production and its resources. 

National yearly publication of reference 1^1907-1908^. By Adolfo Ortii- 

zar. Consul general of Chile in the United States, . . . Subventioned 

by the Chilean Government. New York, The Tribune asBociation. 1907. 

525 p. plates, Ubles. 4^. 
Salmon , D. : El arte de eusenar por D. Salmon. . . . (Traduccion dc Fanor Velasco.) 

Santiagt^ Sociedad "Imprenta i lit. universo," 1906. (3), 313 p. 12**. 
Subercaseaux, (ilillermo: Cuestiones fundamentales de economfa polftioa tcorica. 

Por Guillermo SulKjrcaseaux . . . Santiago de Chile, Imp. y lit. i enc. 

Barcelona, 1907. 238 p. 4^. 
I^ idea de capital ante la economfa jxJftica. Conferencia dada en la Vniver- 

sidad catolica ix)r Guillermo Sul)en'aseaux. Santiago de Chile, Imp. lit. y 

enc. Barcelona, 1900. 26 p. 8®. 
El papel moneda en (^hile desde 1898. Estudio presentado por Don Guillermo 

Subercaseaux . . . Santiago de (.'hile, Imprenta Cer\ante«, 1906. 49, 


TJNiTxsaiDAD Ds Ghilb: Discunos pronimciadoB en la rece]>ci6n del Dr. L. R. Rowe 
oomo miemfaro honcnnurio de la Facultad de leyes i cLencias polfticas de la 
TJnivereidad de Chfle. Santiago de Ghfle, Imprenta Cervantes, 1907. 
58 p. 9*. 

(Test in BngUsh and Spaniah.) 

Views of the Chiliak Nitrate Works ant> Ports. The Nitrate association of 
propaganda of Chili, South America. New York, William S. Meyers, 
representative for the U. S. and Colonies, n. d. Album of 59 views, obi. 


ABABfA, Hermesia G6mez Jaime de: Leyendas y notas hist^ricas por Herminia 

G^nez Jaime deAbadla. Bogota, Imprenta nacional, 1907. 202,(1) p. 8°. 
Arhbnta, Antonio L.: La mina de sal gema de Zipaquird. Estudio relativo 4 la 

exploracidn cientifica y econ6mica de este dep68ito mineral, con apunta- 

ciones sobre la pdUrtica en los pafses extranjeros y algunas anotaciones 

interesantes. Por Antonio L. Armenta . . . Bogota, Imp. Colombia, 

1907. 65 p. 8^. 
Bogota. LawSy statute$, etc.: Colecci6n de todos los decretos de interns jeneral 

espedidos por la honorable Cdmara de la Provincia de Bogotd, desde 1832 

en que principio sus funciones lasta 1843. Formada por el gobernador de 

la provincia, Alfonso Acevedo Tejada. Bogota, Imp. de Nicolas G6mez, 

afiodel844. various paging. 8^. 
Colombia. Lows^ statutes, etc.: Actos lejislativos del Congreso de los Estados Unidos 

de Colombia en sus sesiones de 1864. Bogotd, Imprenta de *'La Xaci6n," 

[1864]. 155, iv p. 8^. 
Actos legislativos del Congreso de los Estados Unidos de Colombia en 

sus sesiones de 1865, 1866 & 1867. Bogotd, Imprenta de ''La Naci6n.'' 

3 V. in 1. 12*. 
(Lei 84) C^digo civil nacional, expedido por el Congreso de los Estados 

Unidos de Colombia en sus sesiones de 1873. Bogotd, Imprenta de Gaitdn, 

1873. 331, (72) p. 8*». 
C6digo de comercio de la Repliblica de Colombia. Anotado y seguido 

de tres ap^ndices . . . Por Luis A. Robles . . . Bogotd, Imprenta de 

•'LaLuz," 1899. 477 p. 8°. 
C6digo fiscal de los Estados Unidos de Colombia. Parte segunda. 

Comprende las leyes que lo han modificado expedidas hasta 1881 y las del 

ap^ndice hata 1884. Edici6n oficial. Bogotd, ImprentA de vapor de 

Zalamea hermanos, 1884. 484, cliv p. 8*. 
C6digo judicial nacional y leyes adicionales y reformatorias concordadas 

y comentadas por Manuel J. Angarita. BogoUl, Imprenta de vapor de 

Zalamea, 1887. iv, 16, xli, 231 p. 8*». 

■ Colecci6n de las leyes dadas por el Congreso constitucional de la Repli- 

blica de Colombia en las sesiones de los anos 1825 i 1826. Bogotd, Imp. 
de P. Cubides, n. d. 539, Ixxxvii, (1) p. 8°. 

Constituci6n i leyes de los Estados Unidos de Colombia, espedidas en 

los afios de 1863 & 1875. Tomo primero contiene las leyes de 1863 d 1870. 
Bogotd, Imprenta de Medardo Rivas, ii, (5), 724 p. 8®. 

• Same. Tomo segundo contiene las leyes de 1871 d 1875. Bogota, 

Imprenta de Medardo Rivas, 1875. (1), 725-1294 p. 8*. 

• Recopilaci6n de las leyes y disposiciones vigentes sobre tierras baldfas. 

Bogotd, Imp. de vapor, 1899. 54 p. 8*». 
24181— BuU. 1-08 18 


Colombia. Laws, statutes j etc.: Relaci6n final correspondiente al C6digo judicial 

nacional (edici6n de 1887), per Manuel J. Angarita. BogoU, Camacho 

Rolddn & Tamayo, 1887. xv, 154, (2) t. p., 31 p. 8^. 
MiNisTERio DB FoMBNTo I Infomie . . . al Congreso de 1888. . . . BogotA, 

Imprenta de A. M. Silvestre, 1888. x, 208, (1) p. 4®. 
Memoria . . . [1884]. Bogotd, Imprenta de Zalamea hermanos, 18S4, 

139, 282, 14, iv p. 4*». 

MiNiSTERio DE GoBiBRNo: Memoria . . . 1883 y 1884. Bogota. 2 v. 4®. 

MiNiSTERio DE GuERRA Y Marina: Memoria . . . 1876, 1881, 1882 y 1883. 

Bogotd. 4 V. 4**. 
MINISTERIO DE Hacibnda: Infomie . . . 1870, 1875, 1883, 1884, 1885 y 1890. 

Bogotd. 6 V. 4**. 

MiNiSTERio DE Hacienda y Fombnto: Memoria . . . 1873 y 1880. 2 v. 4®. 

MINISTERIO DE In8Trucci6n PtJblica: Memoria . . . 1880, 1881, 1882, 1884 y 

1888. 5v. 8^. 

Infonne . . . 1890. Bogotd, Imprenta de ''La Luz," [1890]. dxx. 

213 p. 4«» 
[ MiNiSTERio DE Relaciones Exteriorbs]: £1 excmo. Sefior Preeidente de la 

Repdblica de Colombia, Sefior General D. Rafael Reyes y el honorable, 

Cuerpo diplomdtico en Bogotd. Bogotd, Escuela tip. salesiana, 1907. 

[58] p. plates. 4«». 
fndice de las piezas referentes al ramo de relaciones exterioreB. Pabli- 

cadas en el peri6dico oficial. £dici6n oficial. Bogotd, Imprenta nanonal, 

1907. 138 p. Sf". 

■ Memoria . . . 1882, 1884, 1888, 1890 y 1894. Bogotd. 6 v. 4». 

* Ministeriodbl Tesoro: Memoria . . . 1875, 1884 y 1885. Bogoti. 3 v. ^. 

Oficina de EstadIstica Nacional: Anuario estadlstica de Colombia. 1875. 

Bogotd, Imprenta de Medardo Rivas, [1875]. 208 p. 4®. 

Solicitudes sobre aplazamiento de las elecciones dirigidas & la Aaamblea 

nacional constituyente y legislativa al Poder ejecutivo, etc. [Bogoti], 
Imprenta de "El Correo nacional," 1907. 642 p. 8**. 

Cueryo, Antonio B. {comp,): Colecci6n de documentos in^ditos sobre la geognlia y 
la historia de Colombia, recopilados por Antonio B. Cuervo . . . Seccidn 
1*. Geograffa y viajes. Tomo 1. Costa AtUntica. (Impresidn dirigida y 
revisada por Francisco Javier Vergara V.) Bogotd, Imprenta de vapor de 
Zalamea hermanos, 1891. 555, (2) p. 8®. 


informe anual del Director de iiistrucci6n ptiblica del Estado soberano de 
Cundinamarca [1877]. Bogotd, Imprenta de Echeverrla hermanos, 1878. 
(3), 223 p. 4«». 

Secretario DB GoBiERNo: Mcmoria que el Secretario de Gobiemo dirige al 

gobcmador del Estado para la Asamblea legislativa de 1882. Bogolfty 
Imprenta de Medardo Rivas, 1882. 129, 232, (1) p. ^. 

FoRBRo, G.: . . . Notas Guajiras. Junio & octubre de 1906. (Edidones de "B 
Promoter.") Barranquilla, Imprenta de "Los Andes," 1907. 85, (6) p. 
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Great Britain. Foreign Office: Report for the year 1906 on the tiade and oooii> 
merce of Barranquilla and Cartagena. Edited at the Foreign oflice and 
the Board of trade . . . London, Harrison & Sons, 1907. 20 p. 8P. 
(Dip. & cons, rapts., No. 3884.) 

NARif^o (Dbpartakento db). Administrador Gknbsaji dkl TisoRo: Informe 
del Administrador General del Tesoro de Nariik> al Gobeniador del Departs 
.'ammto. F^sto, Imprenta del departamento, 1906.. 68 p. 4P« 


NabiI^o (Depabtambnto be). Memoria que el gobernador del Departamento de 
Narifk) preeenta al Sefior Minifltro de hacienda y tesoro de Colombia sobre 
las oportunidades para la invcr8i6n de capitales extranjeros en esta 8ecci6n 
de la Reptiblica. Pasto, Imprenta del departamento, 1907. 32 p. 8®. 

New Granada. Laws, statuteSj etc., Golecci6n de las leyes y decretos expedidos por 
el Gongreso constitucional de la Nueva Granada en el afio de 1840. Bogotd, 
Imp. por J. A. Cualla. 128 p. 8®. 

Leyes, decretos y actos leyislativos expedidos por el Congreso constitu- 
cional de la Nueva Granada en el afio de 1851. Bogotd, Imprenta del neo- 
granadino, [1851]. 215^p. 12*». 

PolanIa, Juuo Paboe: Gula del comercio de Bogotd . . . por Julio Paige Polonla. 
Afio 30, para 1906. Bogota, Escuela tip. Salesiana, 1905. 112, (1), 422 p. 

Randolph, John C. F.: . . . Informes sobre las minas de metales preciosos ^n el 
Departamento del Tolima. Por John C. F. Randolph . . . Bogotd, 
Imprenta de Antonio Maria Silvestre, 1889. xviii, 99, (1) p. maps. 8°. 
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Uribe Uribe, Rafael: Colombia. Conferencia cuyo resumen fu6 lefdo ante la 
Sociedad de geografla de Rio de Janeiro por el General Rafael Uribe Uribe, 
Ministro de la Reptiblica. El 20 de julio de 1907, aniversario 87<> de la 
independencia. Rfo de Janeiro, Typ. de Jomal do Commercio, 1907 . 92 p. 
illus. 8^. 

Uricoechea, Ezequiel: Memoria sobre las antigliedades neo-granadinas. Berlfn, 
F. Schneider y cla., 1854, vii, 79, [1] p. 8®. 


C08TA Rica. Departamento nacional de estadfstica: Secci6n demogrdfica. Pobla- 
ci6n de la Reptiblica al 31 de diciembre de 1906. San Jos^, Tip. nacional, 
1907. 8 p. 4*. 

Laws, stattUes, etc.: . . . C6digo civil. San Jos^, Imprenta nacional, 1887. 

(2), 192, (10) p. 40. 

MiNiSTBRio DE FoMENTo: Memoria de . . . 1907. San Jos^, Tip. nacional, 

1907. xxxviii, 329 p. 4*». 

MiNiSTBRio DE Hactenda y Comercio: Memoria . . . de 1907. San Jos^, 

Tip. nacional, 1907. xxviii, 352 p. 4®. 

M1NI8TER10 DE In8trucci6n Pi^BucA : Memoria de . . . 1907. San Jos^, Tip. 

Narcional. xxxv, 283 p. 4**. 

M1NI8TER10 DE Relaciones Exteriores: Notas cruzadas entre las canci- 

Uerlas de Costa Rica y Nicaragua relativas d la abrogaci6n del pacto de 
Corinto de 20 de enero de 1902. San Jos6, Tip. nacional, 1907. 41 p. 8**. 

Molina, Felipe: Costa Rica y Nueva Granada; examen de la cuc8ti6n de lfmit(*8, 
que hay pendiente entre las dos Reptiblicas mencionadaa: con un mapa 
y testimonios de los tltulos antiguos de C-osta Rica. Por Felipe Molina 
. . . Washington, Impr. de R. A. Waters, 1852. 50 p. fold. map. 8®. 

Memoir on the boundry question pending between the Republic of (bsta Rica 

, and the State of Nicaragua; byF. Milina . . . Washington, Gideon and co., 
printers, 1851. 40 p. map. 8**. 


HuBKBT H. S.: A history of slavery in Cuba 1511 to 1868. By Hubert H. S. 
Aimes . . . New York and London, G. P. Putnam's sons, 1907. xi, 
298 p. 8». 


Cuba. Departamento Nacional de Sanidad: Informe anual sanitario y demo- 
grdfico de la Reptiblica de Cuba (bajo la admini8traci6n provisioiial de los 
Estados Unidos) . . . Habana, 1907. xvi, 162 p. 4*». 

Laws J statutes J etc.: Legislaci6n industrial. — Patentea de invenci6n. — ^BCarcas 

de ttbrica. — Marcas de comercio. — Tftidos industrialee. — Legislaci6n in- 
ternacionales, convenios y txatados. Por Francisco Grarcla (jar6^o, abo- 
gado y notario. Segunda edici6n. Habana, Imprenta de Rambla y Bouza, 
1907. 226 p. 8°. 

MiNiSTERio DE Hacienda: . . . Consumo 6 importaci6n de ganado. Quin- 

quenio de 1902-1906. Riqueza pecuaria, 1906. Habana, Imp. **La Ha- 
banera," 1907. 66 p. diagr. 4''. 

Estadfstica general. Comercio exterior. Segunda semestre de 1905 y 

ano de 1905. Habana, Imp. *'La Habanera," 1907. 177 p. diagr. 4**. 

: . . . Inmigraci6n y movimiento de pasajeros en 1906-1907. Preparado 

por la Secci6n de estadfstica general. Habana, Imprenta de Rambla y 
Bouza, 1907. 15 p. 4°. 

Lista oficial de los buques mercantes cubanos. Mayores de 15 toneladas, 

correspondientes k las listas 1', 2*, 3* y de los buques guarda-costas de la 
Repilblica de Cuba. Publicada por la Secretarfa de hacienda, seccidn de 
aduanas. Ano de 1907. Habana, Imprenta '' La Habanera," 1907. [23] p. 

Produccidn de aziicar en la zafra de 1906-1907 comparada con la 

de 1905-1906. Preparado por la Secci6n de estadfstica general. Habana, 
Imprenta de Rambla y Bouza, 1907. 5 p. 4°. 
Treaties, etc.: . . . Accession of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Hayti and Para- 
guay to the convention signed at Geneva, August 22, 1864, for the amelio- 
ration of the condition of the wounded in armies in the field. July 6, 1907. 
London, Harrison <fe Sons, 1907. 2 p. 8*>. 

Text In French and English. 

Treaty series No. 20. 

DiHiGO, Juan M. : Jos6 Ignacio Rodriguez. (Contribucion a su biograffa. ) Por el Dr. 

Juan M. Dihigo . . . Publicado en la Revista de la Facultad de letras y 

ciencias. Habana, Imprenta avisador comercial, 1907. 72 p. front. 

(port.) 8^. 
Garrig5, Roque E.: La convulsi6n cubana. Habana, Imprenta *'La Raz6n," 1906. 

194, (1) p. 12*». 
GiFFORD, John: Silvicultural prospects of the island of Cuba. By John Gifford. 

Cover-title, pp. 177-183. front. 8®. (Reprinted from "The Forester," 

vol. 6, no. 8, August, 1906.) 
Mart!, [Jose]: Cuba. Washington, Gonzalo de Quesada, editor, 1900. 261 p. 12®. 
Same, [vol.2.] Habana, Gonzalo de Quesada, editor, 1901. viii, 313 

p. 12^. 
La edad de oro. Gonzalo de Quesada, editor. Roma-Torino, Caaa editrice 

nazionale, 1905. 261 p. illus. 12*». 
Matthews, Franklin: The new- bom Cuba . . . New York and London, Harper 

and brothers, 1899. xii, 1 I., 388 p. 11. illus. 8**. 
O'Hagan, A[nnie]: Cuba at a glance by A. O'Hagan and E. B. Kaufman; with an 

introduction by President T. Estrada Palma of the Cuban junta. New 

York, R. H. Russell, 1898. 107 (1) p. map. 12*^. 
P^REZ Marino, Luis: Guide to the materials for American history in Cul>an ar- 
chives. By Luis Marino P^rez. Washington, Published by the Carnegie 

Institution of Washington, July, 1907. viii, (2), 142 p. 8**. 



Gharlbvoiz, Pibrrb Francois Xavier de: Histoire de Tisle espagnole, ou de S. 
Domingue. £crite particuli^rement eur des m^moires manuscrlts du P. 
Jean-Baptiste le Pen, J^suite, mifisionnaire k Saint Domingue, et sur lea 
pi^es originales, qui se conservent au D^pdt de la marine. Par le P. 
Pierre Franyois Xavier de Charlevoix . . . Paris, Francois Didot, 1731. 
2v. plates, maps. 4°. 

OouRTNBT, W. S.: The gold fields of St. Domingo; with a description of the agricul- 
tural, commercial, and other advantages of Dominica. And containing 
some account of its climate, seasons, soil, mountains, and its principal 
cities, rivers, bays, and harbors. By W. S. Courtney, esq. New York, 
A. P. Norton, 1860. 144 p. map. 12<>. 

Dominican Republic. [Commission to the Jamestown Exposition]: Government 
of the Dominican Republic. Catalogue of its exhibits at the Dominican 
building, Jamestown Exposition grounds, arranged by groups, departments, 
and classes according to the official classification, 1907. [Washington, 
W. F. Roberts Company, 1907.] 12 p. 8°. 

Informe sobre el laudo presentado al Congreso Nacional en su sesi6n del 15 de 

mayo de 1905, por la Comision mixta, compuesta de la de Relaciones ex- 
teriores y la de Hacienda. Santo Domingo, Imp. la Cuna de America, 
1907. 250 p. 8°. 

Law8, statiUes, etc.: Translation of commercial laws in force in Santo Domingo. 

Compiled from the Official Gazette. Washington, Press of W. F. Roberts 
company, 1906. 63 p. 8®. 
(Port & customs laws.) 

MiNiSTERio DE Hacienda y Comercio: Memoria con bus correspondientes 

anexos . . . de hacienda y comercio. Santo Domingo, Imp. I.a Cuna de 
America, 1907. various paging. 1 vol. 4°. 

[Ministerio de Obras Publicas]: The Dominican Republic. Published by 

the direction of the Department of promotion and public works for the 
Jamestown Ter-Centennial exposition, 1907. [Washington, Byron S. 
Adams.] Half-title. 98 p. 8°. 

TreaiieSy etc.: . . . Accession of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Hayti, and Para- 
guay to the convention signed at Geneva, August 22, 1864, for the ameliora- 
tion of the condition of the wounded in armies in the field. July 6, 1907. 
London, Harrison & sons, 1907. 2 p. 8°. 
(Text in French & English.) (Treaty series no. 20.) 

Inbtituto Profesional de Santo Domingo: Anales del Institute . . . Afio 
acad6mico de 1904 & 1905. Santo Domingo, Imprenta *'Flor de Ozama,'* 

1906. 61 p. 8°. 

Planas SuArez, Simon: Derecho internacional privado . . . por Doctor Sim6n 
Planas Sudrez . . . Santo Domingo. Imprenta de Garcfa hermanos, 1907. 
58 p. 8**. 


Camara db Comercio, Aoricultura t Industrias de Quito: Memoria . . . de 

1907. Quito, Imp. de **E1 Comercio,*' 1907. 53 p. 8°. 

Campos, Francisco: Compendio hist<5rico de Guayaquil desde su fundacidn basta 
el afio de 1820, por Francisco Campos. Guayaquil, Imp. de la Escuela de 
artes y oficioe de la S. Filantropica, 1894. 252 p. 8°. 

Campos, Josi Antonio: Rayos cat61icos y fuegos fatuos por Jos^ Antonio Campos. 
Guayaquil, Imprenta mercantil, 1906. iv, 315 p. 8". 


Destruge, Gamilo: Album biogr&fico ecuatoriano. For Gamilo Destnige. Tomos 
4<fe5. Guayaquil, "El Vigilante/U904-6. 2 v. 8^. 

La expedici6n Flores. Proyecto de Monarqufa americana, 1846-47. Guaya- 
quil, Imp. de "El Tiempo,*' 1906. iv, 55 p. 8®. 

Ecuador : Contxatos del ferrocarril de Guayaquil d Quito. Quito, Lnprenta nacional, 
1906. cover title Sip. 8®. 

Dirbcci5n General de Obras PiJblicas: Informe . . . Quito, Imprenta 

nacional, 1906. cover title. 32 p. 4®. 

Laws, statutes, etc.: Indice de un ensayo de recopilaci6n de la legifllaci6n 

ecuatoriana por A. B. Serrano. Guayaquil, Tip. "Guayaquil," 1899. 
152, (3) p. 8*». 

. . . Decreto supremo de 31 de octubre de 1907 ordenando una gran 

expo6ici6n nacional en Quito para el 10 de agoeto de 1909. Quito, Imp. 
nacional, 1907. 14 p. 8*». 

( At head of title: * * Primer oentenario del primer grito de la independencU de la America 
dado en Quito el 10 de agosto de 1809.'') 

Mensaje del Presidente . . . junio 10 de 1892. Quito, Imprenta del 

gobiemo. [1892]. 52 p. 4°. 

Same. Quito, Imprenta del gobiemo, [1894]. 58, (1) p. 4**. 

Ministerio de Guerra y Marina: Memorias de 1894, 1896, 1899, & 1906. 

Quito. 4 V. 4**. 
Ministerio de Hacienda: Informee . . . de 1894, 1899, & 1906. Quito, 

Imprenta nacional. 4 v. 4®. 
Ministerio de Instrucci6n PiJblica, Correos t Tel^orafos, etc.: Memoria 

. . . de 1906. Quito, Tip. de la Escuela de artes y oficios. various 

paging. 1 vol. 4°. 
Ministerio de lo Interior y PoLicfA, Obras Publicas, Ac: Informe . . . 

de 1906. Quito, Imprenta nacional. xxvii, 74 p. 4**. 

Same. Anexoe. 1906. Quito, Imprenta nacional. 77-209 p. 4®. 

Ministerio de lo Interior y Relaciones Exteriorbs: Informe . . . de 

1894. Quito, Imprenta del gobiemo [1884]. n. p. [1 vol.]. 4°. 
Ministerio DE Obras Y Cr^dito PiJblico: Informe del Ministro . . . alCon- 

groflo constitucional de 1894. Quito, Imprentas del clero [1894]. various 

paging. [1 vol.] 4°. 
Khtkvks, Juan Horacio: . . . Discurso del Doctor Juan Horacio Beeves, delegado 

del Ecuador [d la Tercera convenci6n sanitaria intemacional de las Reptib- 

licaa Americanas]. M6xico, Imp. y enc. de Jcsds Rico, 1907. 3 p. 8®. 
Informe del Doctor Juan Horacio Esteves, delegado del Ecuador d la Tercera 

convenci6n sanitaria intemacional de las Reptiblicas Americanas. Mexico, 

Imp. y enc. de Jesds Rico, 1907. 6 p. 4**. 
Guayaquil. Junta de Beneficencia: Memoria presentada por el director . . . 

d la Junta general. Correspond iente al ano de 1905 & 1906. Guayaquil, 

Tip. y lit. de la Sociedad filantnSpica del Guayas, 1906-7. 2 pamps. 4*. 
Laws, statutes, etc. : Cart ilia y reglamento para los agentes de policfa municipal. 

Aprobado por el 1° Concejo en se8i6n del 18 de agosto de 1906. Guayaquil, 

Imp. de **E1 Tiempo," 1907. 61 p. nar. 12^. 
(Municipaudad): Collecci6n de leyes, decretos, ordenanzas, resoluciones y 

contratoe . . . 1904 & 1905. Guayaquil, 1904-5. 2 v. 8*. 
Guayas. Intbndencia General de PoucIa: Boletfn de informacidn . . . dri 

Guayas. [A directory.] Guayaquil, Tall, de policfa, 1906. 159 (5) p. 

table. 8^. 
HoMENAJE AL CuERPO DE BoMBEROs por 8U henSico comportamiento en el incoMiio 

del 19 de enero de 1906. Guayaquil, Imprenta mercantile 1906. xvi p. 8^. 


MABTiNEZ, Luis A: La agriciiltura ecuatoriana. Ambato. Imprenta comercial de 
S. R. Porras, 1903. 376, (2) p. 8°. 
(At head of title: " Lab A. Martinez.") 

Savillb, Marshall H.: . . . The antiquities of Manabi, Ecuador. A preliminary 
report. By Marshall H. Saville . . . New York, Irving Press, 1907. 
(2), 135 p. Lv plates. 4«>. 

(At head of title: "Contributions to South American archaeology, the George O. 
Heye expedition.") 

SiMSON, Alfred: Travels in the wilds of Ecuador, and the exploration of the Putu- 
mayo River. By Alfred Simson. London, S. Low, Marston, Searle and 
Rivington, 1886? v. 270 p. map. 12*». 


Chambrb de Commerce de Paris: Compte-rendu des travaux de la Chambre de com- 
merce de Paris. Ann^e 1906. Paris, Imprimerie Motteroz et Martinet, 
1907. 652 p. 4^ 


Great Brttaik. Annual statement of the navigation and shipping of the United 

Kingdom for the year 1906. London, Wyman and sons, 1907. viii, 364 p. 

Statistical abstract for the United Kingdom in each of the last fifteen years 

from 1892 to 1906. London, Wyman and sons, 1907. vii, 383 p. 8°. 
Statistical abstract for the principal and other foreign countries in each year 

from 1895 to 1904-5 (as far as particulars can be stated). 33rd number. 

London, Wyman and sons, 1907. 379 p. 8**. 


Brinoham, WnjJAM T.: Guatemala: the land of the quetzal; a sketch by William 
T. Bringham, A. M. New York, C. Scribner's Sons, 1887. xv, 453 p. 
illus., maps. 8®. 

Fuentbs t GuzmAn, Francisco Antonio de: . . . Historia de Guatemala; 6, 
Recordaci6n florida; escrita el siglo xvu por el Capitdn D. Francisco 
Antonio de Fuentes y GuzmAn . . . que publica por primera vez con 
notas 6 ilustraciones D. Justo Zaragoza . . . Madrid, L. Navarro, 1882-83. 
2 V. map. 8®. 

Great Britain. Foreign Office: Report for the year 1906 on the trade of the 
consular district of Quezaltenango. Edited at the Foreign office and the 
Board of trade . . . London, Harrison & sons, 1907. 7 p. 8°. 
(Dip. & cons, repts., ann. ser. 3890.) 

Guatemala. Album de Minerva. Alio 7, 1907. Guatemala, Tip. naoional, [1907]. 
110 p. illus., front, (port). 4*». 

MiNiSTERio DE Fomento: Mcmoria . . . de 1907. Guatemala, Tip. nacional, 

[1907]. 136 p. 

QuESADA, Ernesto: Un escritor guatemaltecx): Antonio Batres Jduregui. De la 
revista "Ideas" de octubre 1904. Buenos Aires, J. Men^ndez, 1904. 
48 p. 8^. 

PoiRiER, Eduardo: Actuaci6n de la Republica de Guatemala en la America Central. 
Trabajo presentado al Tercer Congreso Cientffico Latino-Americano de 
Rio de Janeiro por Eduardo Poirier. . . . Rio de Janeiro, agosto 6 de 
1905. Valparaiso, Imp. y lit. Gustavo Weidman, 1905. 33 p. 8®. 

Higiene y salubridad. Trabajo presentado al Tercer Congreso Medico Latino- 
Americano de Montevideo por Eduardo Poirier . . . Montevideo ^ \fiAru^ 
17 de 1907. Santiago, Imprenta y encuaderaac\6ii CViVVe, \Wi . 7& ^ . ^ . 


PoiRiER, Eduardo: Informe presentado & S. E. el sefior .... Ministro de Relft- 
ciones Exteriores de la Reptiblica de Guatemala acerca de lo6 trabajos del 
Segundo Congreso Medico Latino- Americano de Buenos Aires, per Eduardo 
Poirier . . . Valparaiso, mayo 5 de 1904. Santiago, Imprenta y encuader- 
naci6n Chile, 1906. 84 p. 8**. 

Stoll, Otto: Zur Ethnographie der Republik Guatemala. Von Otto Stoll. ZQrich, 
Druck von Orell Fttssli & Cx)., 1884. ix, 175, (1) p. table, map. 8®. 


Brown, J.: The history and present condition of St. Domingo. By J. Brown . . . 
Philadelphia, W. Marshall and Co., 1837. 2 v. 12*». 

GuiLLERMiN, Gilbert: Journal historique de la revolution de la partie de Test de 
Saint Domingue, commence le 10 aoAt 1808, avec des notes statistiques sur 
cette partie. Par Gilbert Guillermin . . . Philadelphia, P. M. Lafour- 
cade, 1810. 3 p. 1., xii, 314 [2J p. front, (port.), tables. 8<». 

Treaties^ etc.: . . . Accession of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Hayti and Para- 
guay to the convention signed at Geneva, August 22, 1864, for the ameliora- 
tion of the condition of the wounded in armies in the field. July 6, 1907. 
London, Harrison & sons, 1907. 2 p. 8®. 
(Text in French «k English.) 
(Treaty series no. 20.) 

Leger, J. N.: Haiti: her history and her detractors. By J. N. L^er, Envoy extraor- 
dinary and minister plenipotentiary of Haiti in the United States. New York 
and Washington, The Neale Publishing Company, 1907. 372 p. front., 
iUus. 8^ 

Same. [French trs.] 411 p. front., illus. 8**. 

Life and Military Achievements op Toussaint Loverture, late general in chief 
of the armies of St. Domingo from the year 1792 until the arrival of General 
Le Clerc, with an impartial account of his political conduct ... to which 
is added a . . . description ... of General Le Clerc . . . alao his suc- 
cessor . . . [to] 1803. Second ed. Printed for the author, 1806. 64 p. 

MossELL, C. W.: Toussaint I'Ouverture, the hero of Saint Domingo, soldier, statesman, 
martyr; or, Hayti's struggle, triumph, independence, and achievements 
. . . Lockport, N. Y., Ward and Cobb, 1896. xxx, [31]-485 p. fn»nt., 
illus., map. 8°. 

Redpath, James: A guide to Hayti. Ed. by James Red path. 10th thousand. Bos- 
ton, Haytian bureau of emigration, 1861. 180 p. front, (port.), illus., 
map. 12*». 

St. John, Spenser: Hayti or the Black Republic. By Sir Spenser St. John . . . 
2nd ed. New York, Scribner & Welford, 1889. xxiv, 389 p. map. 8**. 

WiMPPFEN, Francois A. S.: A voyage to Saint Domingo, in the years 1788, 1789, and 
1790. By Francis Alexander Stanislaus, baron de Wimpffen. Translated 
from the original manuscript, which has never been published, by J. 
Wright . . . Ix)ndon, Printed for T. Cadell, junior, and W. Davies [etc.] 
1797. 1 p. 1., xviii, 371 p. map. S°. 


Honduras. Laudo pronunciado por S. M. el Rey de Espafia en la cuestion de If mites 
entre las Repdblicas de Honduras y Nicaragua, precedido de una reftefia 
del acto de su entrega oficial, de las alocuciones pronunciadas en ^1 y del 
decreto no. 18 expedido por el Poder Ejecutivo. Tegucigalpa, Tip. ta- 
ciooal, 1907. 31 p. 8*. 


Lbmus, M[anuel}: Breve noticia sobre Honduras; datos geogrdficoe, estadfsticoe 6 
informaciones prdcticas. [Por] M. Lemus y H. G. Bourgeois . . . Tegu- 
cigalpa, Tip. nacional, 1897. 46 p. 8^. 

Squier, E. G: Honduras interoceanic railway. Preliminary report by E. G. Squier. 
. . . New York, Rubbs, Nesmith & Teall, 1854. 63 p. maps. S^. 

Yallejo, Antonio R.: Gompendio de la historia social y polftica de Honduras, 
aumentada con los principales acontecimientos de Centro-Am^rica para 
uflo de los colegios de 2* ensefianza de la Repdblica de Honduras. Por 
Antonio R. Vallejo. Tomo 1. Tegucigalpa, Tip. nacional, 1882. 444, 
(l)p. 4«. 


Caballero, Manuel: Primer almanaque hi8t6rico, artfstico y monumental de la 
Reptiblica Mexicana [1883-1884], publicado por Manuel Caballero . . . 
con la colaboraci6n de los Sefiores Ignacio M. Altamirano, Mariano Barcena 
. . . y otroe distinguidos literates. Datos estadlsticos de fuentes oficiales 
. . . [Mexico, Nueva York, The CM. Green printing co., 1883.] vi, 
[2], 377 p. iUus.., port., tables, diagrs., map. 4°. 

Carvajal, E. Lav alls: . . . Tabaco, tabacomania, tabaquismo. (Revista com- 
pendiada.) Con una carta-pr61ogo del Sr. Dr. D. Eduardo Liceaga . . . 
Mexico, Imp. de la Secretarfa de fomento, 1907. 188 p. 8®. 

[Cextro AoRicoLA i Industrial Potosino]: Rules for the admission of articles to be 
exhibited, the ground which the exhibitors may occupy, the installation 
and care of the exhibition and concourses of cattle. San Luis Potosf, Tip. 
de la E. I. militar dirigida por Aurelio B. Cortes, 1907. 21 p. 12^. 

Clausbret, G.: Mexico and the solidarity of nations. By General G. Clusert. 
New York, Blackwell, printer, 1866. 109 p. 8**. 

Cortes, Hernando: Historia de M^jico, escrita por . . . Hernan Cortes, aumentada 
con otroe documentos y notas, por D. Francisco Antonio Lorenzana. 
Revisada y adaptada d la ortograffa moderna por D. Manuel del Mar. 
Nueva [?] York, White, Gallaher y White, 1828. 110, vi, [7]-614 p. front. 
plates. 8**. 

Butterfield, Carlos: United States and Mexican mail steamship line, and statis- 
tics of Mexico. By Carlos Butterfield . . . New York, J. A. H. Has- 
brouck & CO., printers, 1860. 109,159 p. plan, map. 8°. 

EchevbrrIa y YeytiAj Mariano Fernandez de: Los calendarios mexicanos por 
Mariano Fernandez de Echeverrfa y Veytia. Edicion del Museo nacional 
de Mexico. Mexico, Tip. y tal. de fotograbado del Museo nacional, 1907. 
xi, 62, (1) p. plates, f*. 

[FoLSOM, George]: Mexico in 1842; a description of the country, its natural and 
political features; with a sketch of its history brought down to the present 
year. To which is added an account of Texas and Yucatan, and of the 
Santa F^ expedition . . . [anon.]. New York, C. J. Folsom [eUr.], 1842. 
256 p. front, (map). 16°. 

G., S. M.: Relaci6n de las ceremonias y ritos y poblacion ygobernaci6n de los indios 
de la provincia de Mechuacan, hecha al Senor Don Antonio de Mendoza, 
virrey y gobemador de esta Nueva Espana por S. M. G. Morelia, Tip. de 
Alfonso Arag6n, 1903. 299 p. illus. 8°. 

[Galindo y Villa, Jesi^s]: Ciudad de Mexico. Mexico, Imp. de la Secretarfa de 
fomento, 1906. 149 p. 22 plates, obi. 8<». 
(Text in English and Spanish.) 

GabcIa, Gbnabo (ed,): ... El clero de Mexico durante la dominacion espailola 
0eg6n el archivo indeito archiepiscopal metropolitano. Mexico, Librerfa 
de la Vda. de Ch. Bouret, 1907. viii, 269 p. 12°. 
(Tomo 15: '^DoeammtoB pan ia, historia de Mexico.") 


GarcIa, Genaro (ed,): . . . Correspondoncia secreta de loe principales iuterven- 
cionistas mexicanos. Tercera y dltima parte. Historia del proyecto del 
concordato mexicano y documentos sobre la reforma 6 inva8i6ii franoesa. 
Mexico, Ch. Bouret, 1907. 316, (4) p. 12*». 
(Tomo 13: " Dooumentos para la hlstoria de Mexico.") 

... La intervencidn francesa en Mexico segdn el archivo del MariBcal Bazaine. 

Mexico, Librerfa de la Vda. de Ch. Bouret, 1907. 283 p. 12®. 
(Tomo 14: " Documentos indditos 6 muy raros para la hlstoria de lC6zioo.") 

Great Britain. Foreign office: . . . Memorandum on Mexican imports from United 
Kingdom and Germany. Edited at the Foreign office and Board of trade 
. . . London, Harrison & eons, 1907. 38 p. 8**. 
(Dip. & cons, repts., misc. ser. no. 602.) 

Report for the year 1906 on the trade and commerce of Mexico. Ekiited 

at the Foreign office and the Board of trade . . . London, Harrison A sons, 
1907. 68 p. 8^. 

(Dip. & cons, repts., ann. ser. no. 3888.) 

HoLHS, Percy G. {comp.): The directory of agencies, mines and haciendas, 1905-1906. 
Published by P. G. Holms. . . . Compiled by Percy G. Holms. Mex- 
ico, American book and printing oo. , 1905. 368, [4] p. 8*. 

Kendall, John S.: Seven Mexican cities. By John S. Kendall. New Orleans, 
Picayune job print, 1906. 63 p. illus. 8*». 

[Lafbagua, Josi^ MarIa]: Memorandum des n^gociations pendantes entre le Mexique 
et TEspagne, pr^sent^ k S. Ex. M. le Ministre d'Etat par le repr^aentant 
de la R^publique le 28 juillet 1857. Poissy, Typ. de J. Arbieu, 1857. 
2 p. 1., 365 p. 8*». 

Lb6n y Gama, Antonio d£: Descripci6n hist6rica y cronol6gica de las dos piedras 
que con ocasi6n del nueva empedrado que estd formando en la plaza prin- 
cipal de Mexico, se hallaron en ella en aflo de 1790 . . . Por Don Antonio 
de Le6n y Gama . . . Segunda edici6n. Mexico, Imprenta del ciuda- 
dano Alejandro Vald^s, 1832. viii, 148 p. 8**. 

LiCEAOA, Eduardo: Excitativa para combatir la tuberculosis por el Dr. Eduardo 
Liceaga. Mexico, A. Oarranza y comp., 1907. 20 p. 8®. 

Logan, Walter S.: The siege of Cuautla, the Bunker Hill of Mexico. An address 
before the New York historical society, April 4th, 1893 . . . New York, 
Knickerbocker press, 1893. 27 p. 8**. 

L6pez-Portillo y Rojas, Jos^: La raza indigena. Breves reflexiones. Mexico. 
Imprenta Mariano Viamonte, 1904. 59 p. 8**. 

Mariscal, Ionacio: Don Nicolds Bravo, 6 Clemencia Mexicana. Drama en tree 
actos y en verso. Fundado en un hecho hist6rico, por Ignacio Mariscal 
. . . M6xico, Oficina tip. de la Secretaria de fomento, 1895. 82 p. 8*. 

MEXICO. CoNSEJo Superior de Salubridad: Boletfn del Consejo superior de salu- 
bridad. Mexico, A. Carranza y comp.. julio 31 de 1906 k junio 30 de 
1907. vol. 12. Bound in 1 v. 8**. 

Memoria dv los trabajos ejecutados por el Consejo superior de salubridad 

en el aflo de 1906. Mexico, Imprenta de A. Carranca y comp., 1906. 
187 p. 4°. 

Delegation to the Third International Sanitary Convention: Bubonic 

plague. Report presented ... in compliance with the piovifltons of 
article 1 (paragraph A) of the provisional programme. Mexico, A. Canmnaa 
y comp. 1907. 8 p. 8®. 

" International sanitary police. Report . . . Mexico, A. Carrania y 

comp., 1907. 6 p. 8®. 

Malaria. Report . . . Mexico, A. Carranza y comp., 1907. 6 p. 8*. 


Mexico. Dbleoatiok to the Third International Sanitary Convention: 
Typhus fever. Report . . . Mexico, A. Carranzaycomp., 1907. 5 p. 8°. 

Yellow fever. Report . . . Mexico, Imp. de A. Carranza y comp., 

1907. 6 p. 8*. 

(Library also baa each of these pamphlets in Spanish.) 

Direcci6n General de Correos: La primera piedra de la nueva casa de 

correoe de la Ciudad de Mexico fu6 colocada el 14 de septiembro de 1902 
... La inauguraci6n solemne del edificio y de los servicios en ^1 insta- 
lados se efectu6 el 17 de febrero de 1907 ... No imprint. 28 p. 17 
plates. 8®. 

DiREca6N General de Estadistica: Censo y divisi6n territorial del Estado 

de Oaxaca verificados en 1900. Mexico, Imp. y. fot. de la Secretarfa de 
fomento, 1906. 2 v. 4**. 

'- — . . . Estado de Guerrero verificado en 1900. Mexico, Imp. y fot. de 

la Secretarfa de fomento, 1905. 214, 47 p. 4°. 

Law9, statutes, etc.: Boletfn de las leyes del Imperio Mexicano, 6 sea Codigo 

de la reBtauraci6n. Colecci6n completa do las leyes y demds disposiciones 
dictadas por la intervencion francesa, por el Supremo podor ojucutivo 
provisional y por el Imperio Mexicano; con un ap6ndice de los docum(»ntos 
oficiales m^ notables y curiosos de la ^poca, publicado por Jos^ Sol)astian 
Segura. Mexico, Imp. literaria, 1863. 2 v. 8**. 
(Years: May, 1863, to May. 1864.) 

El impuesto del timbre. Compilaci6n de las leyes, providenciavS y r(»so- 

lucionesadministrativas vigentes hasta el 31 de marzo de 1900. Conformo a 
las cuales se causa dicho en actos, documentos, contra tos y operaciones. 
Formada por Manuel Necoechea y revisada por la Secretarfa de hacienda. 
Mexico, Tip. de la Oficina impresora del timbre, 1900. 92, (2) p. 8°. 
Recopilaci6n de leyes, decretos, bandos, reglamentos, circulares y pro- 

videncias de ... los Estados Unidos Mexicanos . . . Comprende este 
tomo los meses de agosto & diciembre de 1833. Mexico, J. M. Fernandez 
de Lara, 1835. 629, [31] p. 8^ 

Ministerio de Fomento. Colonizaci6n, Industria y(Jomercia: Memoria . . . 

correspondiente i, los afios de diciembre de 1877 d diciembre de 1882. 
Mexico, Oficina tip. de la Secretarfa de fomento, 1885. 3 v. 4°. 

Nun6, Jaime: Mexico's national hymn. By Jaime Nuno. Mexico, Publi.shed l>y 
Sonera News co. 2 p. 

Obtboa. jESiis Gonzales: The Presidency of Mexico. Protest of General Jesiis (Jon- 
zales Ortega, president of the supreme court of justice, against the decrees 
of Seftor Benito Juarez, ex-President of thc^ Mexican Republic, issued 
November 8th, 1865, and his address to the Mexican nation, to which are 
appended letters in ratification of his position. New York, RuFiseirs 
American steam printing house presses, 1866. 88 p. 8°. 

Qter^aro. Laws, statutes, etc.: Leyde instrucci6n en el Colegio Civil del Estado. 
Enero 15 de 1899. caption-title. 14 p. 8°. 

Ley de instrucci6n preparatoria y profesional. Queretaro. Imp. de 

Luciano Frias y Soto. 1896. 12 p. 8°. 

Robinson, William Davis: Memoirs of the Mexican revolution, including a narrative 
of the expedition of General Xavier Mina. With some observationn on the 
practicability of opening a commerce between the Pacific and .Vtlantic 
oceans, through the Mexican isthmus in the province of Oaxaca, and at 
the Lake of Nicaragua; and the future importance of such commerce . . . 
eBpecially to the United States. By William Davis Robinson. Philadel- 
phia, [Printed for] The author, 1820. xxxvi, 396 p. 8^. 


Romero, Josi^: Alocuci6n pronunciada con motivo de la moci6n presentada & efecto 
de nombrar socio honorario de la Sociedad mexicana de geografia y esta- 
dfstica al Hon. Elihu Root, Secretario de Estado de loe Estados Unidos de 
America, en la sesi6n que tuvo lugar el 5 de septiembre de 1907 por el 
socio Jos^ Romero y el acuerdo que recayo. M6xico, Tip. de la Viuda 
de F. Dfaz de Le6n, 1907. 15 p. 8<>. 

Romero, [Matias]: The situation of Mexico. Speech delivered by Sefior Romero 
... at a dinner in the city of New York, on the 16th of December, 1863. 
New York, Wm. C. Bryant & co., 1864. 12 p. 8**. , 

ScHROEDER, Seaton: The fall of Maximilian^s empire as seen from a United States 
gunboat. By Seaton Schroeder, lieut. U. S. N. New York & London, 
G. P. Putnam's sons, 1887. iv, (1) 130 p. front, (port.). S^, 

Seler, Eduard: Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur Amerikanischen Sprach-und Alter- 
thumskunde von Eduard Seler. Zweiter Band: Zur Gescltichte und 
Volkskunde Mexico's. Reisewege und Ruinen. Archaologisches auB 
Mexiko. Die religiosen Gesange der alten Mexikaner. . . . Berlin, A. 
Asher & co., 1904. xxxvi, 1107 p. 8°. 

SoNNESCHMiD, Federico: Tratado de la amalgamaci6n de Nueva Espafia. Esciito 
por Don Federico Sonneschmid y sacado i luz por D. J. M. F. Paris, 
Galerfa de Bossange, 1825. viii, (4), 160 p. 12*». 

Stephan, Charles H.: Le Mexique 6conomique. Renseignements pratiques et 
utiles k I'usage des industriels, capitalistes, agriculteurs, n^gociants, im- 
portateurs, exportateurs et des travailleurs. Par Charles H. Stephan . . . 
3- Edition. Paris, Chevalier & Riviere, 1905. 270 p. 8**. 

Stone, Charles P. : Notes on the state of Sonora. By Charles P. Stone, 1860. Wash- 
ington, Henry Polkinhorn, printer, 1861. 28 p. 8^. 

Tellez Pizarro, Mariano: Estudio sobre cimientos para los edificioe de la ciudad 
de Mexico. Por el ingeniero civil y arquitecto Mariano Tellez Pizarro 
. . . Mexico, Tip. de la Direcci6n de telegr&fos federales, 1907. 29 
p. 8o. 

La ''Union Ibero- Americana " en Mexico. 12 de octubre de 1887 . . . Mexico, 
Tip. de la ''Revista Latino-Americana," 1887. 258, (1) p. 8®. 


Alfaro, Prudencio: Maniliesto. Prudencio Alfaro. A los Salvadorefios. Managua, 
Companfa tip. internacional, 1907. 18 p. cover-title. 8®. 

[Altamirano, Adolfo]: Por Nicaragua. Por el partido liberal. Por el Gral. Zelaya. 
11 de Julio de 1904. Managua, Tip. nacional, [1904]. 76 p. cover-title. 

Bermudez, Alejandro: Conclusion 6 inauguraci6n del Ferrocarril Central. 11 de 
Julio de 1902. Publicacion oficial del Ministerio de fomento. Managua, 
Tip. nacional, [1902]. 166 p. 4**. 
Kendall, John 6.: A midsummer trip to Nicaragua. By John S. Kendall. New 

Orleans, Picayune job print, 1905. 22 p. illus. 8®. 
[Matamoros J.,T.]: La Republica de Nicaragua, 1906. Managua, Tip. internacional, 
[1906]. viii, 146 p. illus., map. 4*». 
(Preface signed " T. Matamoro« J.") 
(Descriptive volume intended for immigrants.) 

Matus, Manuel Coronel: Laudo dado por los doctores Dn. Manuel Goronel Matus 
y Dn. Jestis Hernandez Somoza en el juicio arbitral entre el Gobiemo y 
Samuel Weil y Ca. 12 de enero, 1906. Managua, ^p. y enc. nacioiial. 
136 p. ^. 

Mel^ndez, Daniel S. (ed,): Gufa general de Nicaragua. Daniel S. Md^ndeSy editor. 
San Salvador, Tip, *'La Uni6n," n. d. 175 p. platee. 8». 


Mbbk, Sbth Eugene: . . . S3mop8i8 of the fishes of the great lakes of Nicaragua. 
By Seth Eugene Meek . . . Chicago, July, 1907. 97-132 p. 8*. 
("Vol. 7, no. 4, 2k)<(logical series, Field Columbian Museum publications.") 

Merobr, G. B.: Nuevo manual del jurado. Conteuiendo la historia de esta institu- 
ci6n; todo lo que hace referencia & las funciones de los jurados, d sub derechos 
y obligaciones; la legislaci6n criminal y la jurisprudencia completa de la 
Corte de casacidn y de las Cortes de assisses en lo concemiente al jurado, 
y una tabla analftica de la materia. Escrita en francos por C. B. Merger 
. . . Vertido al castellano por Agustfn Duarte . . . [Managua], Tip. 
Calles de Zavala Venecia, Num. 70, 1887. xvi, 252 p. 8^. 

Nicaragua. Ministerio de Hacienda y Cr^dito Pubuco: Estadisticas econ6- 
micas de Nicaragua. Publicaciones peri6dicas del Ministerio de hacienda 
y cr^dito publico. Opiisculo ntimero 2°: Importacidn detallada de 1904. 
Noviembre de 1905. Managua, Tip. nacional. ix, 333 p. 4°. 

Memoria . . . de 1905 . . . Managua, Tip. nacional, 1905. 236, (2), 

56, 48, 44, 64, 14 p. 4*>. 

Ministerio de Relaciones Extbriores: Memoria . . . agosto 1904-noviem- 

bre 1905. Managua, Tip. nacional, 1905. xv, 783 p. 4**. 

Treaties J etc,: . . . Accession of Nicaragua to the convention signed at Geneva, 

July 6, 1906, for the amelioration of the condition of the wounded and sick 
in armies in the field. June 17, 1907. London, Harrison & sons, 1907. 
2 p. 8«». 

(Treaty series no. 22.) 

- Accession of Nicaragua to the declarations signed at the Hague, July 29, 

1899, respecting, 1: expanding bullets, 2: asphyxiating gases. October 11, 

1907. London, Harrison & sons, 1907. 4 p. 8**. 
Sfillmakn, Joseph: The trip to Nicaragua. A trip of the days of the Conquistadores. 

By Rev. Joseph Spillmann, S. J. Translated from the German by Mary 

Richards Gray. St. Louis, Published by B. Herder, 1907. 148 p. 12*». 
Walker, William: La guerra de Nicaragua. Escrita por General William Walker en 

1860. Traducida por Fabio Camevalini. Managua, Tip. de "El Por- 

venir," 1884. (2), 158 p. 8*». 
The war in Nicaragua. Written by Genl. William Walker . . . Mobile, New 

York, S. H. Goetzel & Co., 1860. xii, [13]--431 p. front, (port.), map. 12?. 


Byxoe, E. Clifford: Guide and business directory of Colon and Cristobal for the 
year 1907. Compiled and edited by E. Clifford Bynoe . . . Colon, **The 
Independent," [1907]. 35, (3) p. 8^. 

Meinhold C, Alberto: La Reptiblica de Panamd. Por Alberto Meinhold C. . . . 
Santiago, Imprenta Lourdes, 1906. 43 p. front, (port.). 12®. 

Panama. The political review and outlook. Caption title. 4 p. 8**. 
(Text in Engliah and Spanish.) 

LawSj statutes^ etc.: Instrucciones sobre minas para uso exclusive de los alcaldes 

municipales y gobemadores de las provincias. Panamd, Tip. "Santa 
Ana,'' 1905. 41 p. 12*». 

Treaties y etc,: Treaty between the United Kingdom and Panama for the mutual 

surrender of fugitive criminals. Signed at Panama, Aug. 25, 1906. (Rati- 
fications exchanged at Panama, April 15, 1907.) London, Harrison & 
80118,1907. 12 p. ^. 

(Tart in English and Spanish.) 

(At head of title: "Treaty series no. 25.") 

Panama at a olancb: Pocket guide of Panama City. Helpful hints for strangers and 
visiton . . . Published by the Panama Real Estate co., [1907]. 48 y« 
luur. 8^. 


RiESBNBERO, Hbnrt: LectuTe on PaDama. Delivered by Henry Rieaenbein^ at 
Caleb Millfl Hall, May 23, 1907. (Under the auspices of the Commercial 
Club, Indianapolis.) Caption title. 28 p. 8°. 


Asuncion. Poucia db la capital: Memoria correspondiente al ejercicio 1906-1907 
de la policfa de la capital, presentada al Ministeiio del interior. Con 
anexos: Informe de la contadurla y balances generates. Asanci6n, H. 
Kraufl. 1907. 97, (2) p. illus. 4*». " 

Treaties, etc.: . . . Accession of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Hayti, and Para- 
guay to the convention signed at Oeneva, August 22, 1864, for the am^iora- 
tion of the condition of the wounded in armies in the field. July 6, 1907. 
London, Harrison & sons, 1907. 2 p. 8^. 
(Text in French and English.) 
(Treaty series no. 20.) 

Paraguay and the alliance against the tyrant Francisco Solano L6pes. Crenerml 
remarks, reliable documents. New York, Hallet & Breen, 1869. 40 p. 8^. 

Paraguayan (The) question : The alliance between Brazil, the Argentine Confedera- 
tion , and Uruguay versus the dictator of Paraguay. Claims of the Republics 
of Peru and Bolivia in regard to this alliance. New York, Hallet A Breen, 
printers, 1866. 56 p. 8**. 


Dah, Christian: Breve reseiia sobre la historia de los Jesuitas desde su fundaci6n 
hasta el afio de 1907. por Christian Dam. Lima, Imp. liberal, 1907. d4 p. 

Enock, C. Reginald: The Andes and the Amazon. Life and travel in Peru. By 
C. Reginald Enock. With a map, four colored plates, and fifty-eight other 
illustrations. New York, Charles Schribner's sons, 1907. xvi, 379 p. 8^. 

Farina, Francisco: Almanaque de "Mercurio,'* 1907. Quincenario gratuito que 
publica la casa comercial Francisco Farifia . . . Trujillo, Imp. "Luz," 
[1907.] cover-title. 296 p. 8*. 

Garcilabo de la Vega: Primera parte de los commentarios reales, que tratan, de el 
origen de los Incas, reies, qve fveron del Peril, de sv idolatria, leies, y 
guviemo, en paz, y en guerra de svs vidas, y conquistas; y de todo lo que 
fu6 aquel imperio, y su Rcpdblica antes que los Espafioles pasar&n & ^1. 
Escritos por el Incas Oarcilaso de la Vega . . . Segvnda impre8i6n enmen- 
dada, y anadida la vida de Inti Cusi Titulupanqui, pentUtimo Inca . . . 
En Madrid, En la Oficina real y d costa de Nicolas Rodriguez Franco, 1723. 
16 p. Ih,, 351 [33] p. 4<>. 

Garland, Alexander: Peru in 1906. With a brief historical and geographical 
sketch. By Alexander Garland . . . Originally written in Spanish, and 
translated into English by George R. Gcpp. Lima, "La Industria,*' 1907. 
(2), 303 p. front, (port.), maps, plates. 4**. 


History, geography, political oi^ganization, national defence, Lima and Iti «iTlroiia» 
agriculture, mining, manufactures, trade, navigation, means of eommonioatioo, cur- 
rency and financial Institution. 

Great Britain. Foreign Office: Report for the year 1906 on the trade of Iquitoa. 
Edited at the Foreign office and Board of trade . . . London, Haniatm A 
sons, 1907. 5 p. 8®. 

(Dip. & cons, repts., ann. ser. no. 3872.) 


HuRD, H. C: . . . Aumento de las aguas del valle de Lambayeque por H. C. Hurd. 
Lima, Imprenta'' La InduBtria/' 1907. 63, (1) p. plans. 8^. 
(** Boletfn d«l Cimpo de ingenieros de minas del PerA, no. 47.") 

. . . Estudio de dos proyectos para dividir las aguas del Rio de Lambayeque, 

por H. C. Hurd. Lima, Lit. tip. Carlos ^abbri, 1907. 18 p. maps. 8**. 
("Boletfn del Cuerpo de ingenieros de minas del Perd, no. 52.") 

JocHAMowrrz, Alberto: . . . Informe relativo & las pertenencias ubicadas sobre el 
yacimiento de borax de la laguna de Salinas. Por Alberto Jochamowitz 
... Lima, Imprentade* 'El Lucero/' 1907. 24, (6) p. illu8.,map8. 8®. 
('* Boletln del Cuerpo de ingenieros de minas del PeiH, no. 49.") 

KuNOB, German : . . . Estadlstica minera del Peru en 1906, por German Klinge . . . 
Lima, Imprenta "La Industria," 1907. 39 p. 8^. 
("Boletfn del CHierpo de ingenieros de minas del PerA, no. 54.") 

Malaga Santolla, FsRMiN : . . . Monograf fa minera de la provincia de Huamachuco 
por Fermln M^aga Santolla. Lima, Imprenta de ''El Lucero," 1907. 66 p. 
iUus;, maps. 8^. 

('* Boletfn del Cuerpo de ingenieros de minas del Pert!, no..51.") 

T*R<J. Direcci6n General de Aduanas: Estadlstica general de aduanas de 1901. 

Importaci6n, tomo 3. ... Lima, Imprenta del E^tado, 1906. 599 p. 

[double paging.] 4^. 
Mbnbaje DEL PRESIDBNTE . . . de 1907. Lima, Imprenta del Estado, [1907]. 

Ixxiip.. 4®. 
MiNiSTBRio DE ^ELACiONES ExTERiORES. Lista del cuerpo consular del Peru 

en el extranjero. Julio de 1907. Lima, Imprenta ''La Industria," 1907. 

53 p. obLl2». 
SuPBRiNTBNDBNCL/i GENERAL DE Aduanas: . . . Comercio especial del Perti 

en el alio 1904. Leyenda de la nomenclatura comercial de la estadlstica. 

Lima, Imprenta del Estado, 1907. 153 p. 4''. 
Estadlstica del comercio interior del Peni en el afio 1903. Cabotaje. 

Lima, Imprenta del Estado, 1907. 169 p. 4^. 
Estadistica del Comercio especial del Perd en el afio 1904. Lima, 

Imprenta del Estado, 1907. xv, 132 p. 4''. 

— - Treatiet, etc.: Agreement between the post-office of the United Kingdom and 

Ireland and the post-office of Peru for the exchange of postal parcels. Lon- 
don, Eyre A Spottiswoode, 1907. 18 p. 4*>. 
(Text in English and Spanish.) 

[Skinner, J.]: The present state of Peru . . . London, Printed for Richard Philips, 

1806. xiv, 487 p. col. plates. 4*». 
Tt^RNER, W. : . . . Informes sobre el Rfo Chill6n, por W. Turner y J. J. Bravo. Lima, 

Imprenta de **El Lucero," 1907. 30 p. illus., maps. 8®. 
(" Boletfn del Cuerpo de ingenieros de minas del Perd. no. 48.") 


Blair, E. H.: The PhUippine Islands. 1493-1898 ... By E. H. Blair & J. A. 

Robertson. Vols. 50 & 51. 1764-1840. Cleveland, The Arthur H. Clark 

company, 1907. 2 v. 8*». 
Wright, Hamilton M.: A handbook of the Philippines by Hamilton M. Wright . . . 

Chicago, A. C. McClurgA CO., 1907. xvii, 431 p. illus., maps. 8** 


Salvador. Lawi, $tatutesy etc.: Arancel judicial y sus reformas decretadas el 26 de 
abril de 1907 . . . San Salvador, Imprenta nacional, 1907. 16 p. 8^. 
(Bcptinted trom"Diario Ofldal" de 16 de mayo de 1906 y 14 de mayo d« VWd ."^ 


Salvador. Dblbgation to thb Third International SanitabtConvbntion: . . . 
Report presented [to the convention] by the delegation of El Salvador. 
Mexico, 1907. Nb imprint. 30 p. 8°. 
(Text in English and Spanish.) 

[MiNisTERio DE Guerra]: Proyectos que han eido designados & loe actuales 

cursantes de ingenieria y proposiciones que soetendr&n en el acto de su 
respectivo examen previo d la opci6n del tftulo de ingeniero civil. [San 
Salvador, Imprenta nacional, 1907.] Cover-title. 26 p. 8®. 


Spain. Lawsy statutes, etc,: C<5digo de comercio, decretado, sancionado y promulgado 
en 30 de mayo de 1829. Edici6n enteramente conforme & la oficial, 
imprensa en Madrid. Paris, Librerfa de Rosa, 1830. 384 p. 12P. 


Allen, Franklin: . . . Silk manufactures, 1905. Washington, Crovemment print- 
ing office, 1907. 117-194 p. 4*». 

(At head of title: "U. 8. Bureau of the Census."} 

American Political Science Association: Proceedings of the . . . aasociation at 
its third annual meeting held at Providence, R. I., December 26 to 29, 1906. 
Lancaster, Pa., Wickersham press, 1907. 258 p. 8*. 

Boston Public Library: Fifty-fifth annual report of the trustees of the . . . Li- 
brary . . . 1906-1907. Boston, Municipal printing. office, 1907. (5), 114, 
(1) p. front., plates, map. 8°. 

Chicago Public Library: Thirty-fifth annual report of the Board of directors. June, 
1907. Chicago, The Library, 1907. 61 p. front. 8*. 

Accessions from January 1 to April 1, 1907. 16 p. 8®. 

Accessions from April 1 to July 1 , 1907. 16 p. 8°. 

Accessions from July 1 to Sept. 1, 1907. 16 p. 8°. 

Books in foreign languages added during the years 1905-1906. 15 p. 8®. 

Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce: Fifty-eighth annual report of the Cincinnati 
Chamber of commerce and Merchants' exchange for the year ending Decem- 
ber 31, 1906. Cincinnati, Ohio Valley company, printers, 1907. 222 p. 8®. 

GooDE, Rhett: . . . Report on sanitary improvements, city of Mobile, and recent 
health laws of State of Alabama, by Dr. Rhett Croode ... no imprint, 
cover-title. 11 p. 8**. 

(Text in English and Spanish.) 

(At head of title: ** Third International sanitary convention.") 

Grand Rapids Pubuc Library: Annual report. April, 1906-March, 1907. Gnnd 

Rapids, Mich., Cargill company, 1907. 128 p. 8®. 
White, Charles A.: The archaic monetary terms of the United States. By Cbaries 
A. White. Washington, Published by the Smithsonian Institution, June 
27, 1907. Cover-title. 98-104 p. 8°. 

Reprinted from Smithsonian miscellaneous collections (Quarterly issue), TohmM 90, 
part 1.) 

Great Britain, Foreign Office: Report for the year 1906 on the trade and finances 
of the Republic of Uruguay. London, Harrison & sons, 1907. 31 p. 8P. 

(Dip. & cons, repta., ann. ser. no. 3856.) 

Hay, John: . . . Memorial address on the life and character of William McKinley. 
By Hon. John Hay. Delivered before the two houses of Coiigre0B, Fel^ 
ruary 27, 1902. W^ashington, Grovemment printing office, 1903. 70 p. 
front, (port.). 4®. 

(Atlmdof tttlK ''Slth Omm^ ad imIv Hau— at ■igri— Ulliw^ d>B. aa. 4Str} 


CoRNSLL XJniversitt Library: Librarian's report 1906-1907. No imprint. Half- 
title. 66 p. 12*>. 

NrrzscHE, Gboroe E.: Official guide to University of Pennsylvania. Edited by 
George E. Nitzsche. Philadelphia, The John C. Winston company, 1906. 
139 p. map, illus. 12**. 

International Correspondence School: Reference library. A series of text- 
books prepared for the students of the International correspondence schools 
and containing in permanent form the instruction papers, examination 
questions, and keys used in their various courses. Conversational series. 
Scranton, International text-book co., [1905]. various paging. 1 v. 8®. 

-^ — Same. Spanish reader. Scranton. International text-book company, 

[1906]. various paging. 8®. 

Same. Spanish grammar. Scranton, International text-book company, 

[1906]. various paging. 8®. 

Same. Spanish conversational lessons. Scranton, International text- 
book company, [1906]. various paging. 8®. 

Same. Spanish-English lexicon & English-Spanish lexicon. Scran* 

ton, International text-book company, [1906]. 275, 308 p. 8®. 

Same. English grammar. Scranton, International text-book company, 

[1906]. various paging. 1 v. 8®. 

■ Sapie. Carthcart's literary reader by George R. Carthcart. Scranton, 

International text-book company, [1901]. 541 p. 8®. 

(Complete sets of books necess&ry for the study of the Spanish and English languages.) 

Ladi>, Horatio O.: History of the war with Mexico. By Horatio O. Ladd. New 

York, Dodd, Mead & co., [1883]. 4, xii, [13]-328 p. plates, map. 8**. 
LouiSLANA. Geological Survey: . . . Geology and underground water resources 

of northern Ix)uisiana, with notes on adjoining districts. By A. C. Veatch. 

Made under the direction of the State experiment stations, 1906. 209 p. 

illus., maps. 8°. 

(Bulletin no. 4, report of 1905.) 

MAHTi, [Jos A]: En los Estados Unidos . . . Habana, Gonzalo de Quesada, editor, 

1902-1905. 2v. 12^. 
Matthbws, Washington: Navaho myths, prayers, and songs with texts and transla- 
tions. By Washington Matthews. Edited by P. E. Goddard. Berkeley, 
The University press, September, 1907. Cover-title. 21-^3 p. 8**. 

(University of California publications on American archaeology & ethnology, vol. 5, 
no. 2.) 

Nbwabk Board op Trade: Yearbook, 1907. Board of trade of the city of Newark. 

Reports of officers and committees. List of members. [Newark, Baker 

printing co., 1907]. 143, [52] p. 8°. 
New York Produce Exchange: Report of the . . . exchange . . . from July 1, 

1906, to July 1, 1907. [New York, 1907]. 441 p. 8°. 
New York State Library: 88th Annual report, including home education and the 

Library school, 1905. Transmitted to the legislature, January 22, lOOO. 

Albany, New York State t»ducation department, 1907. 2 v. 8°. 
Law Association op Philadelphia: Addresses delivered March 13, 1902, and papers 

prepared or republishe<l to commemorate the centennial celebration of the 

law association of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1802-1902. Philadelphia, 

The Sign of the Ivy Leaf, [1902]. xii, 402 p. illus. 8**. 
Krokbkr, a. L.: . . . The religion of the Indians of California. By A. L. Kn)eber. 

Berkeley, The Universitv pres.-^, September, 1907. Cover-title. 315-355 p. 


(UnWenity of California, Publications on American archaeology and ethnology, vol. 4, 
no. 6.) 

24181— Bull. 1—OS J9 


Krobbeb, a. L.: . . . The washo language of east central Galifomia and Nevada.* 
By A. L. Kroeber. Berkeley, The University press, September, 1907. 
Cover-title. 251-317 p. 8*». 

(University of California, Publications on American archaeology and ethnology, vol. 4, 
no. 5.) 

Moore, Charles: . . . The improvement of the park system of the District of Colum- 
bai . . . Edited by Charles Moore . . . Washington, Crovemment print- 
ing office, 1902. 171 p. plates, maps. 8®. 

(At head of title: "57th Cong., 1st sees. Senate rept. no. 166.") 

National Association op Manufacturers: American trade index. Descriptive 
and classified membership directory of the National association of manu- 
facturers of the U. S., arranged for the convenience of foreign buyers. 
Ninth annual issue. 1907. New York, The Association, 1907. 508, 52 p. 

Oregon Journal: Supplement to the fifth anniversary edition of the "Oregon 
Journal," Sunday, September 8, 1907. 1vol. illus. f». 
(lUustrated description of Oregon: its industries and cities.) 

Pennsylvania Military College. 46th session, 1907-8. Philadelphia, Press of 
McLaughlin printing co., [1907]. 80, (1) p. plates. 8**. 

Prentiss, George L.: Eulogy on the life and chsuracter of Gen. Zachary Taylor, 
late President of the U. S., delivered at the request of the city government * 
of New Bedford, August 6, 1850. By George L. Prentiss. New Bedford, 
Benjamin Lindsay, 1850. 47 p. 8°. 

Providence Board op Trade : Providence [R. I .] of to-day. 1907. illus. 

(Special issue of the " Board of trade Journal," Providflnce, July, 1907, toL 19, no. 7.) 

Public Library of the City of Boston: Fifty-fifth annual report of the trustees. 

. . . 190^1907. Boston, Municipal printing office, 1907. 114 p. plates, 

map, tables. 8**. 
St. Louis Public Library: Annual report of the St. Louis public library, 190&-6and 

1906-7. St. Louis, Samuel F. Myerson printing company, 1907. 92 p. 12^ 
Salas, Dario: Memoria prcsentada al Ministerio de instrucci6n ptiblica [de Giile]. 

Estudios pedag6gico8 hechos en Estados Unidos de Norte America, por 

Dario Salas D. Santiago dc Chile, Imp., lit. i enc. Barcelona, 1907. 35 p. 

Stone, N. I.: . . . Promotion of foreign commerce in Europe and the United States. 
ByN. I. Stone . . . Washington, Government printing office, 1907. 24 p. 

( At head of title: ** Department of Commerce and Labor, Bureau of manofaotures.") 

Taylor. Hannis: A memorial [to the Congress of the United States] in behalf of the 

architect of our Federal Constitution, Pelatiah Webster . . . presented by 

Hannis Taylor. No imprint, cover-title. 48 p. 8**. 
U. S. Bureau of American Ethnology. Twenty-fifth annual report of the Bureau 

of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 

190a-4. Washington, Government printing office, 1907. xxix, 296 p. 129 

plates. 4**. 
Bureau of the Census, Census of manufactures: 1905. Iron and steel and 

tin and teme plate. Washington, Government printing office, 1907. 105 p. 



Same. Lumber and timber products. Washington, Govemmeni 

printing office, 1907. 69 p. 4**. 
Same. Textiles. Washington, Government printing office, 1907. 211, 

(l)p. 40 


U. 8. BuBBAU OF THE CENSUS. Same. Part 1, United States by industries. 
Washington, Government printing office, 1907. ccclxix, 660 p. 4°. 

Prisoners and juvenile delinquents in institutions, 1904. Washington, 

Government printing office, 1907. 295 p. 4^. 

(At head of title: " Department of Commerce and Labor, Bureau of the Census, Special 

Report of the Director [of the Census] to the Secretary of Commerce 

and Labor concerning the operations of the Bureau for the year 1906-7. 
Washington, [Government printing office], 1907. 26 p. 8**. 
Statistics of cities having a population of over 30,000: 1906, Washing- 
ton, Government printing office, 1907. 372 p. 4®. 

(At head of title: " Department of Commerce and Labor, Bureau of the CenAis, Special 

Statistics of women at work: Based on unpublished information derived 

from the schedules of the Twelfth Census: 1900. Washington, Government 

printing office, 1907. 399 p. 4^. 
BuBEAU OP Education: Report of the Commissioner of education for the year 

ending June 30, 1905. vol. 2. Washington, Government printing office^ 

1907. iv, 664-1400 p. 8**. 
Bureau op Ihhigration and Naturalization : An act to establish a Bureau 

of immigration and naturalization and to provide for a imiform rule for the 

naturalization of aliens throughout the United States. Jime 26, 1906. 

caption-title. 13 p. 8°. 
(Public act no. 338.) 

. Organization of the Bureau . . . Washington, Government 


printing office, 1907. 12 p. 8**. 

Bureau op Insular Appairs, War Department: Negotiations for the settle- 
ment of title to certain lands in the Philippine Islands claimed by the 
Philippine government and by the Roman Catholic Church and in the 
matter of the charter of the Spanish-Filipino Bank. Bureau of Insular 
a£fairs. War Department, Government printing office. 26, (1) p. diagr. 8**. 

Bureau OP Manup ACT ures: Annual report ... for the fiscal year ended 

June 30, 1907. Washington, Government printing office, 1907. 19 p. 8®. 

[U. 8. Commission on citizenship, expatriation, and protection abroad]: . . . 

Letter from the Secretary of State, submitting report on the subject of 

citizenship, expatriation, and protection abroad. December 20, 1906. 

[Washington, Government printing office, 1906]. Caption title. 538 p. 8**. 

(House document no. 326, 59th Cong., 2d sess.) 

• Congress: . . . Official congressional directory ... Ist ed. Corrections 

to Dec. 4, 1907. Washington, Government printing office, 1907. 
(60th Cong., let sess.) 

Department op Justice: Annual report of the Attorney-General of the United 

States for the year 1907 . . . Washington, Government printing office, 
1907. 47 p. 8**. 

• Department op State, Register of the Department of State. Corrected to 

July 1, 1907. Washington, Government printing office, 1907. 152 p. 8**. 

LawSy statutes, etc.: Acts of Congress, treaties, proclamations, and decisions of 

the Supreme court of the United States relating to noncontiguous territory 
and Cuba and to military affairs. 58th Cong., March 4, 1903, to March 3, 
1905, [and] Supreme court cases, Jan. 1, 1898, to Dec. 3, 1906. Compiled 
in the Bureau of Insular affairs. War Department. Washington, Govern- 
ment printing office, 1907. xxvii, 380 p. 8^. 


[U. S. Laws, statutes, etc.: . . . Immigration laws and r^:ulation8 of July 1, 1907. 
2nd t»d., revised. Washington, Grovemment printing office, 1907. 79 p. 

(At head of titl&-page: "Dept. of Commerce and labor, Bureau of immigration and 

■ The statutes at large of the United States of America . . . Concurrent 

resolutions of the two houses of Congress and recent treaties, conventions, 
and executive proclamations. Edited, printed, and published by author- 
ity of Congress, under the direction of the Secretary of State. Vol. 33, 
parts 1 & 2, and vol. 34, parts 1 & 2. Washington, Government printing 
office, 1905 & 1907. 4 v. 4**. 

President: General regulations for the government of the Dominican customs 

receivership, under and in pursuance of the convention of February 8th, 
1907, between the United States of America and the Dominican Republic 
. . . Washington, July 25, 1907. Caption title. 3 p. 4^. . 

■ Message of the President of the U. S. communicated to the two 

houses of Congress at the beginning of the first session of the Sixtieth Con- 
gress. Washington, Government printing office, 1907. 63 p. 8*. 

Superintendent of Documents: A comprehensive list of U. S. public docu- 
ments now offered to organized public libraries free of all cost by the Super- 
intendent of documents at Washington. July, 1907. Washington, Govern- 
ment printing office, 1907. 152 p. 8**. 

Treasury Department: Annual report of the Secretary of the Treasury on 
the state of the finances for the fiscal year ended Jime 30, 1907. Washing- 
ton, Government printing office, 1907. 116 p. 8°. 

Decisions of the comptroller of the Treasury. Vol. 13, July 1, 1906, 

to June 30, 1907 . . . Washington, Government printing office, 1907. 
xviii, 1022 p. 8®. 

Treasury decisions under customs and other laws. Vol. 13, January- 

June, 1907. Washington, Government printing office, 1907. 1026 p. 8®. 

Treaties, etc.: Convention between the United States of America and the 
Dominican Republic providing for the assistance of the U. S. in the collec- 
tion and application of the customs revenues of the Dominican Republic. 
Proclaimed July 25, 1907. Caption title. 8 p. 8®. 

C<mvention between the U. S. and Guatemala for the reciprocal pro- 
tection of patents. Proclaimed July 9, 1907. Washington, Government 
printing office, [1907]. 3 p. 8**. 
(Text in Spanish and English.) 

Convention l)etween the United States of America and the Dominican 

Republic providing for the assistance of the United States in the collection 
and application of the customs revenues of the Dominican Republic . . . 
Proclaimed July 25, 1907. Caption title. 8 p. 8*. 
(Text in Spanish and English.) 

Parcels-post convention between the United States of America and the 

Republic of Nicaragua. Ratified March 28, 1900. No imprint. Half- 
title. 13 p 8**. 
University op Pennsylvania: Annual report of the provost to the board of 
trustees from Sept. 1, 1905, to Sept. 1, 1906. Philadelphia, printed for the 
Univereity, 100(5. 298 p. 8**. 

Catalogue of the University . . . 190(>-7. Philadelphia, printed for 

the University, Februar>% 1907. 712 p. map, tables. 12**. 

Illustrated [description]. Publinhed for the University . . . 1906. 

Press of John C. Winston Co., Philadelphia, 1906. [16 p.] 60 pb. 4**. 


Wtman. WAi;rER: The march of sanitation. By Walter Wyman, M. D., surgeon- 
general of the U. S. public health and marine-hospital service. Chicago, 
Press of the American medical association, 1907. Cover-title. 14 p. 8®. 


Uruguay. CXmara de Sen adores: Diario de sesiones de la H. Cdmam de senadores 

de la Reptiblica O. del Uruguay. Tomo 85, afio 1905. Montevideo, Im- 

prenta y librerfa de Viuda 6 hijos de Zen6n Tolosa, 1906. 622, [13] p. 4^. 
Comisidn central de exten8i6n de la langosta: Memoria elevada al Superior 

gobiemo por la comisi6n . . . Inva8i6n de 1906-1907. Montevideo, Im- 

pienta*' La Rural,*' 1907. 8 p. table. 8^ 
Marion, H.: John Paul Jones' last cruise and final resting place, the United States 

Naval Academy. By H. Marion. Washington, Greo. E. Howard, 1906. 

87 p. iUuB. 8*>. 
National Association op Cotton Manufacturers: Transactions . . . annual 

meeting . . . April 24 and 25, 1907. [Boston, 1907.] 409 p. illus. 8®. 
DiRECCidN General de Aduanas: . . . Comercio exterior especial . . . y 

otros datos correspondientes d los trimestres primero y segundo del afio 

1906. Montevideo, Tip. y lit. oriental, 1907. 31 p. 4<». 

DiREccidN General de In8trucci6n Primaria: Memoria correspondiente al 

afios 1904-1905 y 1906 presentada i la Direcci6n general de In8trucci6n 
general y al Ministerio de fomento . . . por el Inspector nacional. Monte- 
video, Talleres A. Barreiro y Ramos, 1907. 2 v. 4°. 

Ministerio de Gobierno: Memoria . . . correspondente al ejercicio 1906- 

1907. Con algunos documentos anteriores. Montevideo, Tip. Escuela 
nacional de artes y oficios, 1907. xiv, 525 p. 8®. 


[Bioos, James]: The history of Don Francisco de Miranda's attempt to effect a revo- 
lution in South America, in a series of letters. By a gentleman who was 
an officer imder that general ... to which are annexed sketches of the 
life of Miranda, and geographical notices of Caraccas. 2d ed. Boston, 
E. Oliver, 1810. xi, 312 p. 12^, 

Dance, Charles Daniel: Recollections of four years in Venezuela. By Charles 
Daniel King. London, Henry S. King & Co., 1876. xii, 303 p. illus., 
map. 8**. 

[Dauxion-]Lavays8E, [Jean Francois]: A statistical, commercial, and political 
description of Venezuela, Trinidad, Margarita, and Tobago; containing 
various anecdotes and observations illustrative of the past and present 
state of these interesting countries from the French of M. Lavaysse; with 
an introduction and explanatory notes by the editor [Edward Blaqui^re] 
. . . London, G. and W. B. Whittaker, 1820. [iii]-xxxix, 479 p. map. 

Eastwick, Edward B.: Venezuela; or, Sketches of life in a South-American republic; 
with the history of the loan of 1864. By Edward B. Eastwick ... 2d 
ed. London, Chapman and Hall, 1868. viii, xi, 418 p. map. 8°. 

FoMBONA Palacio, Manueli Obras literarias del Doctor Don Manuel Fombona 
Palacio. Caracas, Tip. universal, 1904. (2), 539 p. 8°. 
(Preface signed: ** Ramon Tello Mendoza.") 

Hifpislet, G.: A narrative of the expedition to the rivers Orinoco and Apure in 
South America; which sailed from England in November, 1817, and joined 
the patriotic forces in Venezuela and Caracas. By G. Hippisley . . . 
London, J. Murray, 1819. xix, [1] 653, [1] p. 8^. 


HoRTENSio: Literatuia venezolana. Revistas bibliogrificas expresamente escritas 
para "La Opiiii6n nacional'' por HortetnBio. Homenaje & Bolivar en su 
centenario 24 de julio de 1883. Caracas, Imprenta de '^ La Opiiii6n nacional/' 
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(Extract from tomo 8, no. 2, "Annies de la Universidad central de VeneEuela.") 
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[MiCHELENA, ToMAs]: Resumen de la vida militar y poHtica del ciudadano esdare- 

cido General Jos^ Antonio P^z. Escrito por encargo de la Junta directiva 

de la sociedad que celebr6 el centenario del heroe el 13 de junio de 1890. 

Caracas, Tip. de "El Cojo," 1890. 219 p. 8**. 
OviEDO T Bai^os. Jose de: HLstoria de la conquesta y pobla6i6n de la provincia de 

Venezuela escrita por J. de Oviedo y Bafios; illustrada con notas y docu- 

mentos por . . . C. Fernandez Duro . . . Madrid, L. Navarro, 1885. 

Tomo 2. 411, (3) p. 
RoJAS, Jose M.: Biblioteca de escritores venezolanos contempohineos. Ordenada 

con noticias biogrdficas. Por Joe^ M. Rojas . . . Caracas, Rojas her* 

manos, 1875. xix, 808 p. 4**. 
Venezuela. Laws, statutes, etc.: Recopilaci6n de leyes y decretoe de Venezuela. 

Tomos 1-15, 1830-1890. Caracas. 1874-1891. 15 v. 4*>. 
Same. Indice. [Tomos 1-6, 1830-1873.] Caracas, "La Concordia," 

1874. 196 p. 4°. 
Mens.ue del Presidente . . . de 1907. Caracas, Tip. Herrera Irigoyen 

&ca.,1907. xix. (l)p. 4**. 
MiNiSTERio DE FoMENTo: Memoria . . . de 1907. Caracas, Empresa Gut- 

tenberg, 1907. 2 v. 4**. 
MiNisTERio DE GuERRA Y Marina: Mcmoria . . . de 1907. Caracas, 

Imprenta Bolfvar, 1907. 2 v. 4*». 
MiNisTERio DE Hacienda: MemoHa . . . de 1907. Caracas, Empresa "El 

Cojo," 1907. 739, xxvii p. 4*».' 
MINISTERIO DE Hacienda y Credito Publico: Estadistica mercantil y 

marina. Prinior somestre del aiio econ6mico de 1906-1907. Caracas, 

Imprenta Bolivar. 1907. 149, (2) p. 4**. 
MINISTERIO DK In«trucci6n Pubuca: Memoria . . . de 1907. Caracas, 

Imprenta Holfvar, 1907. 3 v. 4°. 
MiNiSTERio DE Obrah Publicasi Mcmoria . . . de 1907. Caracas, Lit. del 

comercio, 1907. 125, v. p. ill us., plans. 4**. 

Memoria ... do 1907. Caracas, Lit. y tip. del comercio, 1907. 

125, v. p. maps, illus. 4°. 
- Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores: El libro amarillo de los Estadoe 

Unidos (!(» Venezuela . . . de 1907 . . . Caracas. Imprenta nacional, 

1907. lix, 803 p. 4*». 
Memoria . . . de 1907. Caracas, Tip. universal, 1907. xxxii, 616 p. 

^'Resumen general del lercer censo de la Republica decretado el 26 de agosto 

de 1890 por el . . . Presidente const it ucional de los Estadoe Unidos de 
Venezuela, y verificado en loe dias 15, 16 y 17 de enero de 1901. Caracas, 
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Alais, R. J. (romp.): "La Rural." Guia general [de la] Republica Argentina, 1907. 
Propietario R. J. Alais. Buenos Aires, Calle San Jos^ 239, 1907. Cover- 
title. 634 p. 8^. 


Almanach db Gotha. Annuaire g6n6alogique, diplomatique et statistique. 1908. 
Gotha, Justus Perthes, xxiv, 1194 p. 12**. 

Almanach Popular Brazileiro para o anno de 1908 . . . Decimo quinto anno. 
Pelotas, Echenique Irmaos Cia., 1907. 288, xlvii p. 12**. 

Bakbr, Arthur (ed.): The American Esperanto book. A compendium of the inter- 
national language — Esperanto. Compiled and edited by Arthur Baker 
.... Chicago, Charles H. Kerr and company, 1907. 186, 130, (1) p. 12**. 

Basch, Pablo {comp.): . . . Gufa nacional de la Repdblica Argentina. 1907. 
[Buenos Aires, 1907.] 1192 p. 8*». 
(At head of title: " Pablo Basch.") 

BoROBS DOB Reis, Antonio ALEXANDRE (ed.): Almanak do estado da Bahia. 1904- 

1905. Organisado por Antonio Alexandre Borges dos Reis. Setimo anno. 

Bahia, Litho-typ. e encademay^ de Reis & C, 1904. viii, 621 p. tables. 

Ghayeb, Manuel W.: Gufa general del Paraguay. Editor-proprietario, Manuel W. 

Chaves. Aflo 1907. Asuncion, '*E1 Pais," [1907]. 366 p. 8*». 
Collver Tours of all South America. A travel novelty . . . Boston, The Collver 

Tours company, n. d. 25, (2) p. illus. 12®. 
CoMPAfSiA DEL DiRBCTORio GENERAL : DirectoHo general de la Repdblica de Cuba. 

(Antes directorio mercantil.) 1907-08. Publicado en julio de 1907. 

Editores-proprietarios: Compailfa del Directorio General. Habana, Ram- 

bla y Bouza, 1907. xxxii, 1728 p. 8*>. 
CoNGRBSo Intern AciONAL de Estudla-Ntes Americanos: . . . Invitacidn, r^a- 

mento y programa. Montevideo, Tall. "El Arte," 1907. 12 p. 12^. 
Gonfbrbncia de Paz Centroamericano [comp.]: . . . Recopilaci6n de los tratados 

de Corinto y anexos, arbitraje obligatorio de Mexico, el *'Marblehead," y 

San Jos6 de Costa Rica. Washington, Government printing office, 1907. 

26 p. 8*». 
Washington, noviembre, 1907. Reglamento. [Washington, Government 

printing office, 1907.] 5 p. 12^. 
Corthbll, Elmer. : . . . Results of investigation into the cost of ports and of their 

operation by Elmer L. Corthell. Brussels, Printing office of the public 

works CO., 1907. 58 p. fold, tables. 8°. 

(At head of title: ** Permanent international association of navigation congresses. ") 

Costa Rica. Delegation to the Central American Peace Conference: Notes 
on a railway through Central America presented by the delegation of Costa 
Rica Ux the Central American Peace Conference. Washington, [W. F. 
Roberts company], November, 1907. 21 p. 8**. 

(Articles on the Pan-American Railroad by J. B. Calvo and Theodore Paschke, with 
introduction signed by Luis Anderson and J. B. Calvo.) 

Coudbrt, Frederic R.: Addresses: historical— political — sociological. By Frederic 
R. Coudert. New York and London, G. P. Putnam's sons, 1905. xviii, 
452 p. front, (port.) S*'. 

Edwards, Bryan: The history, civil and commercial, of the British colonies in the 
West Indies. By Bryan Edwards . . . Illustrated by an atlas ... to 
which is added a general description of the Bahama islands, by Daniel 
M'Kinnen . . . Philadelphia, Printed and sold by J. Humphreys, 1806. 
4v. 8*». (With atlas.) 

FiALLOS, E. C. : La doctrina de Monroe juzgada por un centroamericano. Tegucigalpa, 
Tip. nacional, 1907. 19 p. 12<*. 

Flbtbb BolaS^ob, Anselmo: . . . Ajiaco. Barcelona, Tip. de la casa editorial 
Maucci, 1903. 260 p. front, (port.) 12**. 


Gaoe, Thomas : A new survey of the West- Indies. Being a journal of three thousand 
and three hundred miles within the main land of America . . . The 
fourth edition enl. by the author, with an acciurate map. London, F. 
Nicholson, [etc.], 1699. 4 p. 1., 477, [18] p. map. 12*>. 

GiPPORD, John: Practical forestry for beginners in forestry, agricultural students, 
woodland owners, and others desiring a general knowledge of the nature of 
the art. By John Gifford . . . New York, D. Appleton & company, 
1907. xiv, 284 p. illus. 8*^. 

Grant and Co., Robert (comp.): . . . English address book of residents in the 
Argentine and Uruguayan republics of British and North American nation- 
ality or descent. Fourth issue, 1907-8. Published annually by Robert 
Grant and Co. Buenos Aires, Cangallo, 542, 1907. Ixxxviii, 411 p. 8**. 

Great Britain. Emigrants' Information Office: Summary of Consular reports, 
1906-7. North and South America. London, Darling & son, 1907. 218 p. 

GufA Kraft. Segundo tomo de 1907, afio 23. Buenos Aires, Estab. de impresiones 
de G. Kraft, 1907. 1689, (2) p. 8*». 

GuMiLLA, Joseph: Historia natural, civil y geogrdfica de las naciones situadas en las 
riveras del rfo Orinoco. Su autor el padre Joseph Gumilla . . . Nueva 
impresion . . . Barcelona, Impr. de C. Gibert y Tut6, 1791. 2 v. front. 
(port.), plate, map. 8°. 

Hague Conference, 1907: Deuxitoe Conference de la paix. La Ha ye, 1907. Liste 
des pays repr^sent^s k la conference et de leurs d^l^gu^. 19 juillet, 1907. 
No imprint. [20] p. 4°. 

Hale, Albert: The South Americans: The story of the South American Republics, 
their characteristics, progress, and tendencies; with special reference to 
their commercial relations with the United States. By Albert Hale . . . 
Indianapolis, The Bobbs-Merrill company, 1907. (6), 361 p. illus., 
maps. 8®. 

(Argentine on pp. 87-147; Brazil on pp. 1&-46 and 181-241; Colombia oo pp. S7-70; 
Ecuador on p. 70; Uruguay on pp. 47-58 and 148-179; VeDezuela on pp. 58-67 and 

Inoalls, Walter Renton (ed.): The mineral industry, its statistics, technology, 
and trade during 1906. Founded by Richard P. Rothwell. Edited by 
Walter Renton Ingalls . . . Vol. 15 supplementing vols. 1-14. New 
York & London, Hull publishing company, 1907. xxii, (2), 954 p. 8*. 

International American Conference, 1906: Actas, resoluciones, documentos. 
Rfo de Janeiro, Imprensa nacional. 1907. 675 p. 4®. • 

. . . Minutes, resolutions, document* Rio de Janeiro, Imprensa nacional, 

1907. 664 p. 4^. 

International Conciress of Tuberculosis, 1908: Preliminary announcement of 
the International congress . . . Washington, September 21 to October 12, 

1908. No imprint. 42 p. 8**. 

International Sanitary Convention, 1907: Convocation of the* Third Interna- 
tional Banitar>' convention, 1907. Caption title. 4 p. 8**. * 

Same. In Spanish. 

Jefferson, Mark: The distribution of people in South America. [By] Ptofenor 
Mark Jefferson . . . (Reprinted from the "Bulletin of the Geographical 
society of Philadelphia," July, 1907. lip. maps. 8°. 

Lacayo, J()86 M. (('</.): Gufa del Salvador . . . (Aflo 2, no. 2, 1907. Jo0^ M. 
liacayo, editor. San Salvador, Tip. "La Uni6n,*' [1907]. 98, 6 p. nar. 


Lake Mohonk Ck)NFERBNCE on International Arbitration: Report of the 13th 
annual meeting of the . . . conference . . . 1907. Reported by Miss 
Lilian D. Powers. Published by the Lake Mohonk Conference on Inter- 
national Arbitration, 1907. No imprint. 209 p. 8®. 

Lassub Oordeville, J. F.: Guia comercial por orden de gremios. Con infinidad de 
direccioneSy datos y detalles'de gran utilidad para el comercio, viajeros, y 
para el ptiblico en general. Edici6n de 1906, por J. F. Lassus Cordeville, 
propietario. Quito, Imprenta y enc. salesiana, [1906]. 150 p. 12°. 

Leonard, John W. («</.): Men of America. A biographical dictionary of contem- 
poraries. Edited by John W. Leonard. New York, L. R. Hamersly & 
CO., 1908. 2188 p. 8*». 

MacDonald, Arthur: Marcas morales de degeneraci6n por Arthur MacDonald. 
Mexico, Imprenta del Gobiemo federal, 1907. 477-488 p. 8**. 
(Reprinted from " Socl^t^ sclGntiflque Antonio AUate." Memorias, tomo 24.) 

MAiNEZ, Ram6n Lb6n: . . . Cervantes y su ^poca. Por D. Ram6n Le6n Mdinez 
. . . Con un pr61ogo del excmo. sr. D. Eduardo Benot, de la Real Aca- 
demia cspaiiola. Tomo 1. Jerez de la Frontera, Tall. tip. de la '*Lito- 
grafla jerezana,*' 1901. xxiv, 572, xxii, (1) p. 4®. 

Manual of Statistics. Stock exchange hand-book, 1904, 26th annual issue. Rail- 
road securities; Industrial securities; Government securities; Stock ex- 
change quotations, [etc., etc.]. New York, The Manual of statistics co., 
[1904]. 1040 p. maps. 8*». 

I^URT, M. F.: The Amazon, and the Atlantic slopes of South America. A series of 
letters published in the "National Intelligencer" and "Union." news- 
papere, under the signature of "Inca," by M. F. Maury . . . Rev. & 
cor. by the author. Washington, F. Taylor, 1853. 63 p. map. 8®. 

El rio Amazonas y las comarcas que forman su hoya vertientes hacia el AtUn- 

tico. Lima, J. M. Monterola, 1853. 68 p. 8°. 

Maxet, Edwin: International law with illustrative cases. By Edwin Maxey . . . 
St. Louis, The F. H. Thomas Law book co., 1906. xxii, 797 p. 8**. 

Mbza, D. Ram6n: Estudio hi8t6rico-critico de la Iliad y la Odisea y su influencia 
en los dem&B generos porticos de Grecia. T6sis elegida para sus ejercicios 
del grado de doctor en la Facultad de filosoffa y letras, por D. Ram6n 
Meza y Suirez Inclan. Habana, Imprenta "La Universal," 1894. 112 
p. 12*». 

MoNCADA, J. MarIa: . . . Centre America y los Yanquis . . . San Salvador, Tip. 
Salvadorefla, Junio de 1907. Cover-title. 13 p. nar. 8**. 

Moscoso PuELLO, F. EujENio: ... La reforma especffica. Santo Domingo, Imp. 
Ia Cuna de America, 1907. 41, (1) p. 8*». 
(At head of title: '* F. Eujenio Moscoso Puello.") 

MuRF-iLO Velarde, Pedro: Geographia historia. Libro IX. De la America, y de 
las islas adyacentes, y de las tierras drcticas, y antdrcticas, y islas de los 
mares del norte y sur, la escribfa el P. Pedro Murillo Velarde ... En 
Madrid, Impr. de A. de Gordejuela y Sierra, 1752. 391 p. 8°. 

Outeira Lima: Vida diplomdtica. Segunda conferencia realisada no Instituto ar- 
cheologico do Recife por iniciatlva da Officina litteraria Martins Jimior, aos 
22 de Dezembro de 1904. Recife, Typ. do Jornal do Recife. 1904. 32 p. 

0*RouRKE, Charles A.: Congreso Internacional Americano. Paseo de los dolop:ado8. 
Objeto del congreso. Por Charles A. O'Rourke. New York. The New 
York City press association, 1890. 131 p. front. (jK)rt.), ill us. 8°. 

Pnuss FsRRXiRA, Juno («/.): Almanach de Pcmamy)uco para o anno de 1907 com 
a biographia do Dr. Antonio de Moraes Rilva. Director: Julio Pires Fe- 
iieiia . . . 9^ anno. Recife, Imprenta industrial, \^1^T\. viYvm, 1\^> \^ 
p. 13f>. 


PoiRiER, Edi'ardo: La Mejor diplomacia. Conferencia dada en el Ateneo de San- 
tiago de Chile la noche del 26 de octubre de 1906. Por Eduardo Poirier 
. . . Santiago de Chile, Imprenta moderna, 1906. 39 p. front, (port.) 

QuESADA, Ernesto: Bismarck y su ^poca. Conferencia lefda en los salones del 
Ateneo el 16 de agosto de 1898. Buenos Aires, Jacobo Peuser, 1898. 46 p. 

HerV)ert Spencer y sus doctrinas sociol6gicas. De la **Revista de la Univera- 

dad de Buenos Aires," tomo 7. Buenos Aires, J. Men^ndez, 1907. 87 p. 

La palabra "Valija." Su ortografla. Informe presentado por Ernesto Que- 

sada . . . Buenos Aires, Tip. de **E1 Tiempo," 1900. 21 p. 12*. 

QuESADA, GoNZALo DEI Arbitration in Latin America. By Gonzalo de Queeada. 
Rotterdam, M. Wyt & Zonen, 1907. xii, (2), 126 p. 8*. 

Raynal, GuiLLAiME Thomas Fran^ois: a philosophical and political history of the 
settlements and trade of the Europeans in the East and West Indies. Rev., 
augm., and pub., in 10 volumes, by the Abb^ Raynal. Newly tr. from the 
French, by J. O. Justamond, F. R. S., with a new set of maps adapted to 
the work, and a copious index. In 8 volumes. London, A. Strahan, 
(etc., etc.], 1783. 8 v. fnmt. (port.), maps. 8°. 

[RoBLE, Angel'^dk]: La altemabilidad en el poder en las Repdblicas Americanas. 
I San Salvador, Tip. salvadoreiia], 1906. 14 p. 12*>. 

RuHLAND & Ahlschier (eds.): Directorio general de la ciudad de Mexico (incluyendo 
las municipalidades del Distrito Federal). 1906-7 . . . Mexico, Tip. 
MtiUer hnos., [1907]. xvi, 864 p. 4*^. 

Stevenson, W. B.: A historical and descriptive narrative of twenty years* residence 
in South America. Ix)ndon, Hurst, Robinson & co., 1825. 3 v. front. 

Stone, N. I.: . . . The double tariff syptem. By N. I. Stone . . . Reprinted from 
the ''Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science" for 
May, 1007. Philadelphia . . . The Academy . . . 1907. Cover-title. 
478-498 p. 8°. 

Ternaux-Compans, H.: Voyages, relations et memoires originaux pour 8er\'ir k 
histoire de la d6couverte de I'Am^rique, publics pour la premiere fois en 
franyais par 11. Ternaux-Compans. Commentaires D'Alvar Nuilez Cabev^ 
de Vaca, adelantade et gouverneur du Rio de La Plata. Paris, Arthus 
Bertrand, 1837. 507 p. 8°. 

(First published at Valladolid by Francisco Hernandez de Cordoue, 15S5.) 

Treaties, etc.: Pn)tocc>l for the accession of nonsignator\' powers to the convention of 
July 29, 1899. for the pacific nettlement of international disputes. June 14, 
1907. I/Mulon, Harrison ik wms, 1907. 4 p. 8°. 

(Text In English and French.) 

(At head of title: "Treaty series, no. 26.") 

Trow Directory, Printing axi> Hookbini>in(} Company: Trow^s general directory 
of the boroughs of Manhattan and Bronx, city of New York, for the year 
ending August 1, 1908. Published annually. New York, The Trow direc- 
tory . . . company, 11K)7. 1844 p. maps. 4**. 
(Has appendix of "Register of public institutions," A8 p.) 

IT. iS. Library of Conoress: ... A list of lK)oka (with references to periodicalfl) on 
immigration. Compiled under the dirction of A. P. (\ Griffin. 3rd iamie 
with additions. Washington, (lovemment printing office, 1907. 157 p. 

. . . List of b(K)k6 with references to i)eriodicals relating to trusts. 

Compiled under the direction of A. P. ('. Griffin. Third edition, with 
5(i/>piemcntar}' select I'st to 1906. Washington, Government printing 
office, 1907. vii, 93 p 8P. 


UrrutIa F., Carlos: . . . La educaci6n laico-social por Carlos Umitia F. . . . San 

Salvador, Tip. salvadorefia, 1907. 13 p. 12*^. 
Wagner, C: La vida eencilla por C. Wagner. Versi6n espanola de H. Giner de los 
Rfo8. Buenos Aires, Est. tip. '*E1 Comercio," 1907. 277 (1) p. 8**. 

(At head of title: " Libros para el maestro, edicidn hecha por el "Monitor de la Kduca- 

Weed, Walter Harvey: The copper mines of the World. By Walter Harvey Weed 

. . . New York and London, Hill publishing company, 1907. xiv, 375 p. 

ill us., diagrs., maps. 8®. 
WiKSOR, Justin: Christopher Columbus, and how he received and imparted the spirit 

of discovery; By Justin Winsor . . . Boston and New York, Houghton, 

Mifflin & CO., 1891. xi, 674 p. illus., maps, plans. 8°. 
WooDRUTF, Charles E.: The effects of tropical light on white men. By Major 

Chas. E. Woodruff . . . New York and London, Rebman company, 1905. 

vi, (1), 358 p. 8®. 
Wright, Herbert: Theobroma cacao or cocoa; its botany, cultivation, chemistry, 

and diseases. By Herbert Wright -. . . Colombo, A. M. & J. Ferguson, 

1907. xii, 249p. aius. 8®. 
Van ^8, Francisco J.: . . . El Bardo de Av6n. (Estudio de Shakespeare.) Prologo 

del Dr. Joe^ M. Garcia Sudrez. Manila, Imp. de "El Mercantil," 1903. 

161, (2) p. 8». 
YllAn, Ferrer & Ca. (eds.): Gufa y directorio de la ciudad de Cartagena, Republica 

de Colombia. 1907. Primera edici6n. Cartagena. Tip. M.a Patria," 

1907. Cover-title, various paging. 1 v. 8**. 


Argentine Repubuc. Municipalidad do la Capital Federal. Trazado general de 
los ferrocarriles metropolotanos. Buenos Aires, mayo de 1907. Escala de 
metroe, 1:20,000. Size, 17 x 19 inches. 
(Map to show underground tramway system.) 

Ministerio de agricultura. Division de estadfstica y economfa rural 1906. 

Superficie, poblaci6n, ferrocarriles, cultivos y ganados . . . Size, 18i x 
33 inches. 

Chile. Canal chiguao, entrada norte de Quellon por la Canonera Pilcomaya . . . 
Pufolicado por la Oficina hidrogrdfica, Valparaiso, febroro 1906. Size, 21 x 
22 inches. 

Magallanes bahfa Porvenir. Por el ewampavfa "Huemul," Comandaute 

Sefior Carlos Sierralta en 1904 . . . Publicado por la Oficina hidrografica, 
Valparaiso, mayo, 1907. Scale, 1:15,000. Size. 11 x 20J inches. 

Colombia. Nueva carta-geogrdfica de Colombia. Por F. J. Vorgara y Velasco, geo- 
grafo. 1906. Bogotd, Imprenta el^ctrica. Segunda edici6n. 14i x 18i 

Vergara y Velasco, Francisco Javier: Atlas complete) de geograffa coloin- 

biana. 60 planchas, texto explicative d Indicc* alfa))^'tir() general. Cartas 
generales, cartas departamentales, carta** Hoccionale.^ y l(K'ales, rartui* his- 
t6rica8 y cuadros estadfsticoa y geogrdficos. I^ogotii, Imprenta eK'ctrica, 
1906. 4^. 

Dominican Republic. Mapa de la isla de Santo Domingo y Haiti por el General 
Casimiro N. de Moya. Oficialmento adoptado por rosolucion del Con- 
greso nacional dominicana, fecha 18 mayo de 190G. Chicago, Rand, 
McNally & Co., 1906. Scale, 1:400.000. Size, 37i x 65 inches. 
(Containi a imall map of the city of Santo Domingo and Port au Prince.) 


Mexico. Carta hidrogrdfica del valle de Mexico, conteniendo el trazo del gran canal 
y tunel para el desagiie del mismo valle y de la ciudad de Mexico, confonne 
al proyecto en ejecuci6n. 1900. Scale, 1: 200,000. Size, 20) x 30 inches. 
(In Brief sketch of the drainage works of the valley of Mexico, 1901.) 

Carta geol6gica del istmo de Tehuantepec. Formada por la Comi{;i6n mexicana 

que explore el istmo el afio 1871. Escala, 1: 500,000. Size, 13J x 22 inches. 
(In Informe sobre el reconocimiento del istmo de Tehuantepec . . . por 
Manuel Femdndez.) 

Carta de reconocimiento del istmo de Tehuantepec. Formada para la aper- 

tura do un canal interocednico por la Comision mexicana nombrada al 
efecto, 1871. Escala de 1:500,000. Size, 16 x 21) inches. (In Informe 
sobre el reconocimiento del istmo de Tehuantepec . . . por Manuel Fer- 

Carta topogrdfica del EstaiK de Puebla. Size, Hi x 15) inches. {In Geo- 

grafla del Estado de Fuel. la por Ricardo Mendez Ponce.) 

General map of the City of Mexico, showing the position and distribution o." 

main sewers, lateral sewers, and flushing pipes. Constructed according 
to the project of Roberto Gayol . . . 1901. Scale, 1: 7,500. {In Brief" 
description of the works executed in the drainage and sanitation of the City 
ofMexico, 1901.) 

Map of the Mexican Centrar Railway and connections. May 1897. Chicago, 

Poole Bros. Size, 24 x 21 inches. (In Annual report of Mexican Central 
Railway, 1896.) 

Mexico City. Piano do la ciudad de Mexico. Fonnado y publicado por la Com- 
panfalit. y tip.,conlos ultimos datos oficiales de la Direcci6n general de 
obras ptiblicas. 1907. Scale, 1: 10,000. Size, 31 x 40 inches. 
(Accompanied by a 48-page street nomenclature.) 

Nicaragua. Mapa de la Republica de Nicaragua levantado por orden del Gobiemo, 
por Maxmilian V. Sonnenstem, 1859. Lith. G. Kraetzer, New York. 
Size, 23 X 294 inch(*s. 

Peru. Mapa (h* l<>s ferrocarriles del Perd, de sus principales vlas de comunicaci6n 
terr(>stres, fluviales y maritimos, y de la futura red ferroviaria segdn los 
pn)yecto8 llaniados varaderos. Trazado por Camilo Vallejofl Z. . . . 
Esc-ala de 1 mm. por 3 kilometroe, 1906. Size, 27i x 32 inches. (In Peru 
in 190G. By A. Garland. Faces p. 352.) 

Mapa politico y geogrdlico del Peru. Por Camilo Vallejos Z, cart^grafo de la 

Sociedad g(H>gnitica de Lima, 1906. Escala, 1 mm. = 3 kil6metro8. Size, 
27i x 31 inches. [In Peru in 1906. By A. CJarland. Faces p. 92.) 

Rand, McNally & Co.: Indextnl atlas of the World . . . Historical, descriptive, 
statistical. Chicago [etc.], Rand, McNally & Co., 1907. 2 vol. P. 
Vol. 1. TnitiHi States. 
Vol. 2. Foreign countries. 

South America, ('olombia prima or South America. Drawn from the laige map in 

<*ight nheets hy Louis Stanisla.s d'An y Delarochette. liondon, publiahed 

)>y JamcH Wyhl . . . 1S33. Size. 30 x 43 inches. 
[Indexinl jxH-ket map of South America) publishcnl by Rand-McNally «!c Co., 

Chicago & Nrw York. 1905. Scale ^*tatute miU«, 191 to 1 inch; kilomet4*ra, 

1^)3 to 1 inch. Size. 19 x 26 inch<»s. 
Kartc von Su(l-Am<*rikii. Hi»arbeit<*t von V. Handtke. Glogau, Cari Flem- 

ming. Maasstab, 1 :13,000,0(X). Size, 24} x 30 inches. 
(Carl Fieniniiiigs Genenilkarten. No. 41.) 

A new map ••( South America fn>m the lateHt authorities by R. Brooks, M. D. 

Ix^ndon, PublishcKi April 10th, 1819, by W. Darton . . . Sise, 20x31 




American Historical Review. New York. vols. 9, 10 & 11. October, 1903, to July, 

1905. 3v. 
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Vols. 28 & 29. 

July, 1906, to May, 1907. 
Board of Trade Journal. London. Vol. 55. October-December, 1906. 
Boletin de la Academia de Historia Nacional de Colombia. Bogotd. Tomos 1-3. 

Septiembre de 1902-mayo de 1906. 3 v. 
Boletfn de Estadistica Fiscal. Mexico. Julio de 1905-junio de 1906. 2 v. 
The Bookman. New York. Sept., 1906, to February, 1907. 

Bulletin of the American Geographical Society. Vol. 36, 1904, and vol. 38, 1906. 2 v. 
Bulletin of the Geographical Society of Philadelphia. Vol. 4, 1904-1906. 
^ulletin of the New York Public Library. New York. January-December, 1906. 
Century Magazine. New York. November, 1906, to April, 1907. Vol. 73. 1 v. 
Diario do Conin^sso Nacional. Setembro-dezembro 1906. 2 v. 
Diario Official. Rio de Janeiro. Outubro-dezembro 1906. 
Diario Oficial. Bogoti. Agosto-diciembre de 1892. 

Same. Enero-mayo de 1893. 

Same. Enero de 1894-diciembre de 1895. 2 v. 

Same. Febrero-diciembre de 1896. 

Same. Enero-diciembre de 1897. 

■ Same. Enero de 1901-diciembre de 1903. 3 v. 
- Same. Enero de 1905-diciembre de 1906. 2 v. 

Diario Oficial. Mexico. Tomo 89. Marzo-abril de 1907. 

Gaceta Oficial. Havana. Noviembre-diciembro de 1906. 

Geographical Journal. London. Vol. 29. January-June, 1907. 

Libimry Journal. New York. Vol.30. 1905. 

Litenuy Digest. New York. Vol. 33. Julio-diciembre 1906. 

Memorias y Revistas de la Sociedad Cientffica ''Antonio Alzate.'' Tomoe 22-23. 

Monthly Bulletin of the Public Library of the city of Boston. Vols. 8 to 11. 1903- 

1906. 2 v. 

National Geographic Magazine. Washington, D. C. Vol. 17. 1906. 

North American Review. New York. Vols. 180 to 184. January, 1905, to June, 

1907. 6v. 

Records of the Past. Washington, D. C. Vol. 5. 1906. 

Becadl consulaire. Brussels. Tomes 132-135. 1907. 

Refviflta de Instrucci6n Ptiblica. Bogotd. Tomos 17 & 18. Julio do 1905-Junio dc 

1906. 2v. 
Soottiflh Geographical Magazine. Edinburgh. Vol. 12. 1906. 
The Worid's Work. Vols. 12 & 13. May, 1906, to April, 1907. 2 v. 


Those publications marked with an asterisk have no recent numbers 
on file. 

Persons interested in the commercial and general news of foreign 
countries will find the following among the official and periodical 
publications on the permanent files in the Columbus Memorial 
Library, International Bureau of the American Republics: 


Boletfn de la Cdmara Mercantil. Barracas al Sud. Weekly. 

Boletfn Consular. (Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores.) Buenos Aires. Irregular. 

Boletin del Centro Naval. Buenos Aires. Monthly. 

Boletfn de la Uni6n Industrial Argentina. Buenos Aires. Monthly. 

*Boletfn del Institute Geogrdfico Argentine. Buenos Aires. 

*Boletfn Demogrdfico Argentine. Buenos Aires. Irregular. 

Boletfn Oficial de la Republica Argentina. Buenos Aires. Daily. 

Boletfn de Preoios Corrientes. [Buenos Aires.] Weekly. 

Bollettino Mensile della Camera Italiana di Commercio ed Arti in Buenos Aires. 

Buenos Aires. Monthly. 
Buenos Aires Ilandels-Zeitung. Buenos Aires. Weekly. 
Buenos Aires Herald. Buenos Aires. Daily and weekly. 
*E1 Comercio Exterior Argentine. Buenos Aires. Irregular. 
La Ilustracion Sud Americana. Buenos Aires. Semimonthly. 
El Monitor de la Educacion (-oinun. Buenos Aires. Monthly. 
Monthly Bulletin of Municipal Statistics of the City of Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires. 

La Nacion. Buenos Aires. Daily. 
Patentcs y Marcas. Revista Sud- Americana de la Propiedad Intelectual ^ Industrial. 

Buenos Aires. Monthly. 
La Prensa. Buenos Aires. Daily. 
La Raz6n. Buenos Aires. Daily. 
Review of the River Plate. Buenos Aires. Weekly. 
Revista de la Liga de Defensa Comercial. Buenos Aires. Semimonthly. 
Re\'ista Mensual de la Cdmara Mercantil. Avelleneda. Monthly. 
Revista de Derecho, nistoria y Letras. Buenos .Vires. Monthly. 
Revista Nacional. Buenos Aires. Monthly. 
Sanniento. Buenos Aires. Daily. 
The Standard. Buenos Aires. Mail supplement. 
Trihuna. Buenos Aires. Daily. 



Recueil consulaire. Bnixelles. Quarterly. 


*Boletfn de la Oficina Nacional de Imnigracidn, Estadfstica y Propaganda Geogrdfica. 

La Paz. Quarterly. 
Boletfn de la Sociedad Geogrdfica de la Paz. La Paz. Irregular. 
El Comercio. La Paz. Daily. 
£1 Estado. (Diario Oficial.) La Paz. Daily. 
El Progreeo de Bolivia. La Paz. Irregular. 
Reviflta del Mimsterio de Coloiiizaci6n y Agricultura. La Paz. Quarterly. 

Boletim da Agricultura. Secretario da Agricultura, Comercio e Obras Publicas do 

Estado de Sao Paulo. Sao Paulo. Monthly. 
Boletim do Museo Goeldi. Pard. Irregular. 
Boletim da Secretaria de Agricultura, Via^ao, Industria e Obras Publicas do Estado 

da Bahia. Bahia. Monthly. 
*Bol6tim do Servi^o da E^tatistica Commercial da Republica dos Estados Unidos do 

Biaail. Rio de Janeiro. Irregular. 
'Brazilian Mining Review. Oiu-o Preto. Monthly. 
Brazilian Review. Rio de Janeiro. Weekly. 
Diario da Bahia. Bahia. Daily. 
Diario do Congresso Nacional. Rio de Janeiro. Daily. 
Diario Oficial. Rio de Janeiro. Daily. 
♦Gazeta Commercial e Financeira. Rio de Janeiro. Weekly. 
Joraal do Recife. Pemambuco. Daily. 
Jomal dos Agricultores. Rio de Janeiro. Semimonthly. 
O Paiz. Rio de Janeiro. Daily. 
Provincia (A) do Par&. Belem. Daily. 
ReviBta Agricola. Sao Paulo. Monthly. 
Revista Maritima Brasileira. Rio de Janeiro. Monthly. 

Analee de la Universidad. Santiago. Monthly. 

Boletfn del Ministerio de Relaciones Esteriores. Santiago. Monthly. 

Boletfn de la Sociedad Agrfcola del Sur. Concepci6n. Semimonthly. 

Boletfn de la Sociedad de Fomento Fabril. Santiago. Monthly. 

Boletfn de la Sociedad Nacional de Agricultura. Santiago. Weekly. 

Boletfn de la Sociedad Nacional de Minerfa. Santiago. Monthly. 

♦Diario Oficial de la Repdblica de Chile. Santiago. Daily. 

El Mercurio. Valparaiso. Daily. 

El Noticiero Comercial. Santiago de Chile. Monthly. 

El Pensamiento. Santiago. Monthly. 

La Revista Comercial. Valparaiso. Weekly. 

•Revista Comercial 6 Industrial de Minaa. Santiago. Monthly. 

Revista de Marina. Valparaiso. Monthly. 


Diario Oficial. Bogoti. Daily. 

El Porvenir. Cartagena. Daily. 

Revista de la Instruccidn Pdblica de Colombia. Bogoti. Monthly. 

Revista del Ministerio de Obras Ptiblicas y Fomento. Bogota. MoT\l\i\^ . 



Boletfn Judicial. San Jos^. Daily. 

La Gaceta. [Diario Oficial.] San Jos^. Daily. 

La Prensa Libre. San Joe^. Daily. 


Boletfn Oficial de la Cdmara de Comercio, Indiistria y Navegaoi6n de la Isla de Culw. 

Habana. Monthly. 
Boletfn Oficial del Departamento del Estado. Habana. Monthly. 
Derecho y Sociologfa. Habana. Monthly. 
El Economista. Habana. Weekly. 
El Estudio. Boletfn de Derecho, Legi8laci6n. Jiiriflprudencia y Administraoion. 

Habana. Trimonthly. 
La Gaceta Econ6raica. Habana. Semimonthly. 
Gaceta Oficial de la Reptiblica de Cuba. Habana. Daily. 
Informe Mensual Sanitario y Demogrdfico de la Reptiblica de Cuba. Habana. 

Informe Mensual Sanitario y Domogrdfico de Cienfuegos. Oienfuegoe. Monthly. 
Informe Mensual Sanitario y Demogrdfiro de Matanzas. Matanzas. Monthly. 
La Lucha. Habana, Cuba. Daily. 
Revista Municipal y do Intereat^a Econ6micofl. Habana. Semimonthly. 


Gaceta Oficial. Santo Domingo. Weekly. 
Revista de Agric^ltura. Santo Domingo. Monthly. 


Anales de la Universidad Central del Ecuador. Quito. Monthly. 

Gaceta Municipal. Guayaquil. Weekly. 

Registro Oficial de la Reptiblica del Ecuador. Quito. Daily. 

El Telegrafo. Guayaquil. Daily. 

El Tiempo. Quito. Daily. 


Board of Trade Journal. liondon. Weekly. 

Commercial Intelligence. I^mdon. Weekly. 

Diplomatic and Conpular Rei)ort8. I^mdon. 

Geographical Journal, l-iondon. Monthly. 

Mining (The) Journal. Railway and Commercial Gazette. London. Weekly. 

The Scottish Geographic Magjvzine. Edinburgh. Monthly. 

South American Journal. I^)ndon. Weekly. 

Times (TheV I^mdon. Daily. (Filed for one year.) 

Tropical Life. I>ondon. Monthly. 

L*Am^rique I^tine. Paris. Daily. 

Les Annalcv Diplomatiques et Consulain***. Paris. Mcmthly. 
L(» Hr^'sil. Paris. Weekly. 

Bulletin American Chamber of Commerce. Paris. Monthly. 
Bulletin de la Cham))re d<» Commerce de Paris. Paris. Weekly. 
Bulletin de la S<H'i^'t^ de (V»ographie Commerciale de Paris. Paris. Irregular. 
La GA)graphie. Bulletin de la S<Ki^»te d<' ( li'^ographie. Paris. Semimonthly. 
Journal d AgriciiWuTi^ Tropicale. Paris. Monthly. 


Monheur Officiel du Ck>inmerce. Paris. Weekly. 

Le Nouveau Monde. Paris. Weekly. 

Rapports commerciaux des agents diplomatiques et consulaires de France. Paris. 

Irregular. [Sup. to "Moniteur Officiel du Commerce.**] 
La Revue. Paris. Semimonthly. 
•Revue du Commerce Ext^rieur. Paris. Semimonthly. 


Berichte iiber Handel und Industrie. Berlin. Weekly. 

Petermann's Mitteilungen. Gotha. Monthly. 

Sudamerikanidche Rundschau. Berlin. Monthly. 

Der Tropenpflanzer. Berlin. Monthly. 

Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fur Erdkulide zu Berlin. Berlin. Monthly. 


Boletfn de Agricultura. Guatemala. Irregular. 

El Guatemalteco. Guatemala. Daily. (Diario Oficial.) 

La Locomotora. Guatemala. Monthly. 

♦Bulletin Officiel de T Agriculture et de T Industrie. Port-au-Prince. Monthly. 

Le Matin. Port au Prince. Daily. 

*Le Moment. (Journal politique.) Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Weekly. 

Le Moniteur. (Journal officiel de la R^publique d' Haiti.) Port-au-Prince, Haiti. 

Revue de la Soci^t^ de Legislation. Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Monthly. 


Boletin Legislative. Tegucigalpa. Daily. 
El Estado. Tegucigalpa. (3 nos. per week.) 
La Gaceta. Tegucigalpa. (Official paper.) 
•Gaceta Judicial. Tegucigalpa. Semi weekly. 

Revista del Archive y Biblioteca Nacional de Honduras. Tegucigalpa, Honduras. 


Bollettino del Ministero degli Affari Esteri. Roma. Irregular. 

£1 Agricultor Mexicano. Ciudad Juarez. Monthly. 
Anales del Museo Nacional de Mexico. Mexico. Monthly. 
Boletin de Estadlstica. Merida. Semimonthly. 
Boletin del Institute Cientlfico y Literario. Toluca. Monthly. 
Boletin Oficial del Distrito sur de la Baja California. La Paz. Weekly. 
Boletin de la Secretaria de Fomento, Colonizaci6n 6 Industria. Mexico. Monthly. 
Boletin Oficial de la Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores. Mexico. Monthly. 
Diario Oficial. Mexico. Daily. 
El £kx>nomista Mexicano. Mexico. Weekly. 
El Hacendado Mexicano. Mexico. Monthly. 
Mexican Herald. Mexico. Daily. (Filed for one year.) 
Mexican Investor. Mexico. Weekly. 
Mexican Journal of Commerce. Mexico City. Monthly. 

Peri6dico Oficial del Gobiemo del Estado de Guerrero. Chilpancingo, Mexico. 

M18I— Bun. 1—08 20 


Pcriudico Oficial del Gobiemo del Estado de Michoacan de Ocampo. Morel ia, Mexico. 

*Peri6dico Oficial del Gobiemo del Estado de Oaxaca. Oaxaca de Juarez. Mexico. 

Peri6dico Oficial del Gobiemo del Estado de Tabasco. San Juan Bautista. Mexico. 

El Progreso Latino. Mexico. Weekly. 
El Republicano. Aguascalientes. Weekly. 
Semana Mercantil. Mexico. Weekly. 


The American. Bluefields. Weekly. 
El Gomercio. Managua. Daily. 
^Diario Oficial. Managua. Daily. 

Gaceta Oficial. Panamd. Daily. 

Star and Herald. Panamd. Weekly. 

Registro Judicial, Organo del Poder Judicial de la Repdblica. Panami. Irregular. 


*Boletln Quincenal de la Cdmara de Comercio de la Asuncion. Asuncion. Semi- 
Diario Oficial. A8unci6n. Daily. 
Paraguay Rundschau. Asunci6n. Weekly. 
*Revi8ta del Instituto Paraguayo. Asuncion. Monthly. 
Revue Commerciale. Assumption. Semimonthly. 

Auxiliar del Comercio. Callao. Biweekly. 

Boletfn de Minas, Industrias y Construcciones. Lima. Monthly. 

Boletfn del Ministerio de Fomento. Direcci6n de Fomento. Lima. Monthly. 

Direcci6n de Obras Piiblicas. Lima. Monthly. 

Boletfn de la Sociodad Geogrdfica de Lima. Lima. Quarterly. 

*Boletfn de la Sociedad Nacional de Agricultura. Lima. Monthly. 

Boletfn de la Sociedad Nacional do Minerfa. Lima. Monthly. 

*E1 Economista. Lima. Weekly. 

*E1 Peruano. (Diario Oficial.) Lima. Daily. 

Rcvista de (-iencias. Lima. Monthly. 

Revista Pan- Americana. Lima. Monthly. 


Boletfn de la Camara de Comercio Fillpina. Manila. Monthly. 

El Mercantil. Manila. Daliy. 

Official Gazette. Manila. W(H.'kly. (Also issued in Spanish.) 


T^ Correspondencia do Puerto Rico. San Juan. Daily. 


Anales del Museo Nacional. San Salva<lor. Monthly. 
Boletfn de Agri(!ultura. San Salvador. Semimonthly. 
Boletin de la Direccion General de EsUdfstica. San Salvador. Irregular. 


Dimrio del Salvador. San Salvador. Daily. 

Diario Oficial. San Salvador. Daily. 

*ReviBta de Derecho y Jurisprudencia. San Salvador. Monthly 

Boletin de las cimaras de comercio, industria y navegaci6n y de las cdmaras agrfcolas. 
Madrid. Monthly. 


American Banker. New York. Weekly. 

American Exporter. New York. Semimonthly. (Alternate Spanish and English 

American Historical Review. New York. Quarterly. 
American Made Goods. New York. Quarterly. 
American Mining Review. Los Angeles. Weekly. 
American Political Science Review. Baltimore, Md. Quarterly. 
American Review of Reviews. New York. Monthly. 
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Philadelphia. 

Bankers' Magazine. New York. Monthly. 
£1 Boletin Ck>mercial. St. Louis. Monthly. 
Bookman (The). New York. Monthly. 
BuUetin of the American Oeographical Society. New York. 
Bulletin of the Oeographical Society of Philadelphia. Philadelphia. Monthly. 
Buyer's Index. New York. Semimonthly. (Alternate Spanish and English 

Canal Record. Ancon, C. Z. Weekly. 
Century Magazine. New York. Monthly. 
El Comercio. New York. Monthly. 
The Cuba Review. New York. Monthly. 
Current Literature. New York. Monthly. • 

Dun's Review. New York. Weekly. 

Dun's Review. International edition. New York. Monthly. 
Elngineering Magazine. New York. Monthly. 
Engineering and Mining Journal. New York. Weekly. 
Engineering News. New York. Weekly. 
Export Implement Age. Philadelphia. Monthly. 
Exporters and Importers Journal. New York. Monthly. 
♦Forum (The). New York. Qharterly. 
Fruit Trade Journal. New York. Weekly. 
Independent (The). New York. Weekly. 
India Rubber World. New York. Monthly. 
Journal of American History. New Haven, Conn. Quarterly. 
Journal of Ceography. New York. Monthly. 
Library Journal. New York. Monthly. 
Literary Digest. New York. Weekly. 
Mines and Minerals. Scranton, Pa. Monthly. 
Mining World. Chicago. Weekly. 
Modem Mexico. St. Louis. Monthly. 
Monthly Consular and Trade Reports. (Department of Commerce and Labor.) 

Washington. Monthly. 
National Geographic Magazine. New York. Monthly. 
North American Review. New York. Monthly. 
Novedades (Us). New York. Weekly. 


Outlook (The). New York. Weekly. 

Pan-American Magazine. Mexico. Monthly. 

Pan-American Review. New York. Monthly. 

Patent and Trade Mark Review. New York. Monthly. 

Scientific American. New York. Weekly. 

Scientific American. Export Ekiition. New York. Monthly. 

Sister Republics. Denver, Colo. Monthly. 

Tea and Ck)ffee Trade Journal. New York. Monthly. 

United States Tobacco Journal. New York. Weekly. 

World To-Day (The). Chicago. Monthly. 

World's Work. New York. Monthly. 

• \:ruquay. 

Anales del Departamento de Ganaderla y Agricultiura. Montevideo. Monthly. 
Montevideo Times. Montevideo. Daily. 

Revista de la Asociacidn Rural del Uruguay. Montevideo. Monthly. 
Revista de la Uni6n Industrial Uruguaya. Montevideo. Semimonthly. 


Boletfn de Estadfstica. Caracas. Monthly. 
Kl Fon^grafo. Maracaibo. Daily. . 
El Horaldo Industrial. Caracas. Semimonthly. 
Ciaoeta Oficial. Caracas. Daily. 





Brazil Mr. Joaquim Nabuco, 

Office of Embassy, 1710 H street, Washington, D. C. 

Mexico Sefior Don Enrique C. Cbbbl, 



Argentine Republic Sefior Don Epipanio Portela, 

Office of Legation, 2108 Sixteenth street, Washington, D. C. 

Bolivia Sefior Don Ignacio Calder6n, 

Office of Legation, 1683 Sixteenth street, Washington, D. C. 

Chile Sefior Don Anibal Cruz, 

Office of Legation, 1629 New Hampshire avenue, Washington, D. C. 

Colombia Sefior Don Enrique Cortes, 

Office of Legation, 1728 N street. Washington, D. C. 

Coeta Rica .Sefior Don Joaquin Bernardo Calvo, 

Office of Legation, 1829 Eighteenth street, Washington, D. C. 

Caba SefXor Don Gonzaix) de Quesada, 

Office of Legation, "The Wyoming," Washington, D. C. 

Ecuador Sefior Don Luis Felipe Carbo, 

Office of Legation, 1302 Connecticut ayenue, Washington, D. C. 

Guatemala .Sefior Dr. Don Luis Toledo Hrrrabte, 


Haiti Mr. J. N. L6ger, 

Office of L^ation, 1429 Rhode Island avenue, Washington, D. C. 

HoDduras Dr. Anoel Uqarte, 

Office of Legation, "The New Willard," Washington, D. C. 

Nicaragua Sefior Don Luis F. Corea, 

Office of Legation, 2008 O street, Washington, D. C. 

Fanama Sefior Don J. Domingo de OBALDf a, 


Sefior Don Josife AgustIn Arango, 
Office of Legation, "The Highlands," Washington, D. C. 

Pera Sefior Don Felipe Pardo, 

Office of L^ation, 1601 Twenty-second street, Washington, D. C. 

Salvador Sefior Don Federico Me-iI a, 


Umgnay ' Sefior Dr. Don Luis Mklian Lafinur, 

Office of Legation, 1529 Rhode Island avenue, Wa.shIngton, D. C. 


Dominican Republic Sefior Don Emilio C. Joubert, 

Office of Legation, "The Shoreham," Washington, D. C. 

charges d'affaires. 

Mexico Sefior Don Jos6 F. Godoy, 

Office of Embassy, 1416 I street, Washington, D. C. 

Gnalemala ? Sefior Dr. Ramon Bengobchea, 

Office of L^ation, 2-4 Stone steeei, New York City. 

Venesoela Sefior Don Augusto F. Pulido, 

Office of Legation, 1737 U street, Washington, D. C. 



^>»M$;)k^^>^ ixn^AOROINARY AND PLE WWl T tW rTKUtY. 

Y^fi^vf ', Irving B. DrntiT. Rio de Janmro. 

Si^V^S^ David R Thoxfwx, Mexico. 


V NS*^^^' >Ur^^iic A. M. BsAUPEi, Boencw Aires. 

"t^ ^t\^ William B. Sorsby, La Pte. 

^\* \ John Hicks, Santiago. 

^v,s ,^. vjk Thomas C. Dawson, Bogota 

^ V vvv^ ^b\'* William L. Mbrry, San JO06. 

^ ^ N(^ Edwin V. Morgan, Havana. 

V v^i\vr Williams C. Fox, Quito. 

vxv^U'iMUa Joseph W. J. Lke, Guatemala City. 

Hi^vU Henry W. Fitrniss, Port au Prinoa, 

Ux^ulums (See Salvador. ) 

Xu'Mra^cua (See Costa Rica. ) 

INiOMuaa Herbert G. Squiers, Panama. 

INyraguay (See Uruguay.) 

IVru Leslie Combs, Lima. 

^Ivador H. Percival Dodge, San SaU-ador. 

Vmguay Edward C. O'Brien, Montevideo. 

V«neiuela W. W. Russell, Caracas. 


Dominican Republic Kenton R. MoCrbbry, Santo Domingo. 




The following table shows the value, in United States gold, of coins representiiijif 
the monetary units of the Central and South American Republics and Mexico, esti- 
mated quarterly by the Director of the United States Mint, in pursuance of act of 




Silver ... 











In U. 3. 





AbobntinsRbpublic . 
Bolivia ........ 

Peso .... 

Colon . . . 

Peso .... 






Libra ... 


$0,965 1 




.487 1 
.965 1 



1.034 1 


Gold— Argentine ($4,824) and 

} Argentine. 
Silver— Peso and divisions. 

f;iily^r — Boliviano and divi- 



Gold— 5. 10, and 20 mih^is. 
Silver— J, 1, and 2 milreis. 

Gold— 2, 5, 10, and 20 colons 

Silver— 5, 10, 25, and 50 cen- 


Silver — Peso and divisions. 

Gold-Escudo ($1,825), doub- 
loon ($3,650), and condor 


Costa Rica 






Colombia ........... 

Silver— Peso and divisions. 

Gold— Condor ($9,647) and 
double condor. 


Silver— Peso. 

Gold— lOsucres ($4.8665) . 


Silver — Sucre and divisions. 
Gold— 1, 2, 5, and 10 gourdes. 


Silver— Gourde and divisions. 

Gold— 5 and 10 pesos. 
Silver— Dollar ft (or peso) and 

Gold— 1, 2}, 5, 10, and 20 



Silver— Peso and divisions. 
Gold— i and 1 libra. 


Silver— Sol and divisions. 
Gold— Peso. 


Silver— Peso and divisions. 

Gold^, 10, 20, 50, and 100 

Silver — 5 bolivars. 

«76 centigrams fine gold. 

b Value in Mexico. 0.496. 


International Union of American Republics 

Monthly Bulletin 

or THE.. 

International Bureau 

or THE. 

American Republics 

Vol. 26. No. 2 


Whole No. 173 




Director of the International Bureau of the American Republics. 




Chief Clerk. 



Tables of contents: 

English section iv 

Spani^ section « vi 

Portuguese section viii 

French section ix 

El fndice de la seccion castellana se halla en la piigina vi 

La secci6n castellana comienza en la pdgina 379 

O indice da sec^fto portugueza encontra-se a pagina viii 

A sec^ao portugueza encontra-se li pagina 445 

On trouvera la Table des Matieres il la page ix 

On trouvera la section fran^aise il la jmge 471 




I.— Editorial Section 251 

The Fourth Pan- American Conference— Conventions and rcsolations of the Third 
Pan-American Conference— Special report of Prof. William R. Shepherd-— Study 
of South American history and politics— The Central American Fraternity- 
First Pan-American Scientific Congress— Addresses on Latin America by the 
Director— South American travel routes and conditions— Railways of the Ai^en- 
tine Republic— Bolivian tin in the world's market— Legislative measures of 
the Brazilian Qovernment— Chile's census returns and legislative enactments- 
Cuban trade in 1906-7— Mexico's commercial progress— The new agricnltural 
law and nibber concessions in Nicaragua— Financial status of Panama— The 
Paraguay Central Railway— Peruvian trade with the United States— Commer- 
cial conditions in Salvador— Customs receipts and trade of Uruguay in 1907— 
Government regulation of telegraphs and telephones in Venezuela. 

n.— Book Notes 200 

Mexico and her people of to-day— The wealth of Central America— Through 
South America— Pictorial guide of the Argentine Republic— Gold mining In 
Colombia— Plan of the Amazon River— New Colombian guide. 

IIL— Important Meeting of the Governing Board 26S 

IV.— Death of Mr. Arthur W. Fergvsson 268 

v.— Commercial Relations of the United States and South America 209 

Article of Prof. William R. Shepherd. 

VI.— South American History and Politk-s as a Field for Research 28S 

Article of Dr. Hiram i.ingham. 

VII.— Constitutional Act of the Central American Fraternity 0oi 

VIII.— First Pan-American Scientific Congress SIO 

IX.— The United States Fleet from Rio to Callao S14 

X.— Travel Routes and Conditions in South America sn 

XI.— Address on the Development of South America 324 

XII.— Sugar Production of Latin America 326 

XIII.— Argentine Republic 838 

Internal revenue in 1907— Postal and telegraph service in 1907— Railroad exploita- 
tion in 1907-Contract for the pale of the Andine Railway— Exporti", fir^t eleven 
months of 1907— Municipal budget of Buenos Ayres for 1908. 

XIV.— Bolivia 339 

Tin .supply during 1907— Rubber in the Province of Larccaja. 

XV.— Brazil 330 

Budget law for 1908— Continuance of tariff concewions for United Stat(?s products— 
Cu.Mtoms receipts at Rio de Janeiro, 1907— Railway con.struction in 1907— Issue 
of new silver money— Foreign commerce, ten months of 1907— Trade move- 
ment at the port of Santos, first nine months of 1907— Boundary treaty with 
Colombia— A modus vivendi agreement between Brazil and Colombia relating 
to the Putamayo— Protocol supplementary to the modus vivendi— Propaganda 
for native prcxluct**— Ratification of the convention for the creation of an inter- 
national commission of Jurists— Regulations governing fcx)d and beverage pre- 
servatives—Diamond mining in Minas Gerae»— State of SAo Paulo. 

XVI.-CHlLE 345 

(Uistoms revenues, first eleven months of 1907— Contract for the Arica-La Paz 

XVII.— i\>LOMBIA 34t 

Exploitation of vegetable ivory— Regulations for parcels-post- Restriction of pre- 
sen'ed meat imports. 



XVIII.— C08TA Rica 847 

Appraiflement of percussion caps and shotgun cartridges. 

XIX.— Cuba 347 

Report of the Provisional Governor for 1907— Regulation of the practice of phar- 

XX.— Honduras 360 

Operation of the Ceiba Railroad. 

XXL— Mexico 851 

Foreign commerce, first four months of 1907-8— Customs revenues, first half of 
1907-8— Registry of business transactions, 1907— Patents and trade marks in 1907— 
Sisal hemp shipments in 1907— Tehuantepec transit for United States merchan- 
dise in 1907— Appropriations for public works— Cotton growing and manufac- 
ture—Silver basis of the customs and stamp taxes— Consular reports. 

XXII.— Nicaragua 866 

New agricultural law— Blnefields wharf tax— Rubber concession and industry. 

XXIII.— Panama 858 

Fiscal revenues in 1907— Panama transit for United States merchandise in 1907. 

XXIV.— Paraguay 350 

Operation of the Paraguay Central Railroad— Rubber growing in the Republic. 

XXV.— Peru 862 

The Cerro de Pasco mines in 1907— Shipments of vicufia hides and wool— The 
Peruvian Corporation in 1906-7. 

XXVI.— Salvador 865 

Exports during the first half of 1907— Port movement, first half of 1907— Customs 
revenues, first half of 1907. 

XXVII.— United States 366 

Trade with Latin America in 1907— Foreign commerce in 1907— The status of 
naturalized citizens— Relative distances between Atlantic and Pacific ports by 
land and sea— The wool production of 1907. 

XXVIIL— Uruguay 876 

Customs receipts, first eleven months of 1907— Reduction of light-house dues— 
The cereal and flax crop, 1906-7. 

XXIX.— Venezuela 377 

Tariff modifications— Regulations of the telegraph and telephone systems. 




L.— dicci6N Editobial 879 

La Cuarta Conf erexieia PanamerieaBa— Laa coiiTenekmes j resolucionea de la Ter- 
cera Conferencia Panamericana— £1 informe especial del Piofeaor WUliam R. 
Bhephetd— BBtodio de la historia y la politica sodamericanafr— La Fmtemldad 
Centroamericana— El primer Congreflo Cientifico Panamericano-^Disennoe BObie 
]a America Latina pronunciados por el Director— I tinerarios y condldones de 
Yiaje en la America del Sar— Los ferrocairOes argentinos— El estafio de Bolivia 
en los mercadofl del mundo—Medidas legislatiyaa del GoMemo Braaileflo— Bl 
comereio de Cuba en 1906-7— El censo de Chile y la proma]gacl6a de algonas 
leyes— El progreso comercial de M^ico— La nneya ley agrazia y laa ooneMfconea 
relatiyaa al cultivo de la goma en Nicaragui^— El estado financiero de PanamA— 
El Ferrocarril Central de Paraguay-*E1 comeiciodfil Perd OOQ los Estadoa 
Unldos— Las coudiciones comerciales de Salvador— La renta aduanem, y tH 
comereio del Uruguay en 1907— Las ILneas telegr&ficaa y telef6nicas del Gobiemo 
de Venezuela. 




I v.— Rblaciones Comerciales de los Estados Unidos roir la AmArica del Stb 386 

Articulo del Prof. William R. Shepherd. 

v.— Acta Constitutiva db la Fbatbbntdad Cbntboam bricana 401 

VI.— Primer Conqreso CiENTf fico Panambricano 409 


VIII.— Conferencia sobre el Desarrollo de la America del sur 418 

IX.— La Producci6n de AzCcar en la America Latina 419 

X.— RepCblica Argentina 419 

La renta de impuestos internos en 1907— Los servicios de correos y teldgrafoa en 
1J07— Exportaciones durante los once prlmeros mcses de 1907 — Contrato para la 
venta del Ferrocarril Andino— Prcsupuesto municipal de Buenos Aires. 

XI.— Bolivia 428 

La goma en la Provincia de Larecaia. 

XII.— Brasil 428 

ContInuaci6n de las concesiones arancelarias & los productos de los Estadoa 
Unidos — Comereio extranjcro en dicz meses dc 1907— Propaganda & favor de los 
productos del pals. 

XIII.— Colombia 426 

Kxplotaci6n dc la tagua en los bosquos naeionales— Restricciones en las Importa- 
clones de cames conservadas. 

XIV.— Costa Rica 426 

Aforo de los cartut-hos de ej^opeta y fulminantes. 

XV.— ClBA 426 

Informe del Gobemador Provisional para el nho de 1907— Reglamentaci6n del ejer- 
cicio dc la farmacia. 

XVI.— Chile 429 

Rentas aduaneras on onee mesvs do 1907— Promulgaci6n de modiflcacioncs en los 
dcreehos de aduana. 

XVII.— Kin- A DOS Unidos 410 

Comereio con la America Latina en 1907— Comereio extranjero en 1907— El estedo 
legal de los ciudadanos naturalizados— Distancias relativas cntre los puertos del 
AtlAntioo y los del Paciflco por tierra y por mar— La prodacci6n de lana en 1907. 



XVIII.— M4XIC0 433 

ComercJo exterior durante los cuatro primeros meses de 1907-8— Rentas adnaneras 
del primer semestrede 1907-8— Base en plata de los impuesttos de timbre yaduana 
en febrero de 1908— £1 caltivo del aIgod6n y la fabricaci6n de articulos de 
aIgod6n— Mercancias de los Estados Unidos transportadas por el Ferrocarrill de 
Tehuantepec en 1907— Embarques de henequ^n en 1907— Informes consulares— 
Asignaciones de fondos para obras pilblicas. 

XIX.— Nicaragua 438 

Naeva ley de agricultura. 

XX.— PAliAMi. 439 

Las rentas nacionalcs en 1907— Mercancias de los Estados Unidos transportadas por 
el Ferroearril de PanamA. 

XXI.— P«B<y , 440 

La ••Peruvian Corporation*' en 1907. 


La exportaci6n en el primer semestre de 1907— Movlmlento maritimo en el primer 
aemestre de 1907.— Rentas aduaneras en el primer semestre de 1907. 


La coiecha de eerealee y lino en 1906-7— Rentas aduaneras en once meses de 1907— 
Rebaja en loe derechoe de faros. 


Xodiflcaeiones arancelarias— Reglamentaci6n de las lineas telegr&fioas y tele- 



I.— SEC^;io Editorial 446 

A Quarta Conferencia Pan-Americana^-ConyenQOcs e resolu^Oes da Terceira Con- 
ference Pan-Americana— Relatorio especial do Prof. William R. Shepherd— 
Estado da historia e politica sul-americanas— A Fratemidade Centro-Ameri- 
canar— Primeiro Congresso Scientifico Pan-Americano— Discnrsoe pronnnciados 
pelo Director sobre a America Latina— Itinerarios e condi^Oes para viajar na 
America do Sul— Estradas de f erro argentinas— Estanho boliviano no8 meicadoa 
do mundo— Medidas legislativas brasileiras— Recenseamento da popula^fto e leii 
do Chile— Com mercio de Cuba em 190&-7— Progresso commercial do Mexico- 
Nova lei agricola e concessOes para a explora^fto da borracha em Nicaiagiia— 
8itua(>&o financeira do PanamA— A estrada de ferro central do Paraguay— Com- 
mercio entre o Peru e os Estados Unidos— Condi^Oes commerciaes em SalTa- 
dor— Rendas aduaneiras e commercio do Uruguay em 1907— Regulamento do« 
servicos telegraphicos e tclephonicos em Venezuela. 

II.— Rkpubuca Argentina 451 

Contracto para a vcnda da estrada do ferro andina. 

III.— Brazil 464 

Propaganda doe productos nacionacs— Conven^&o para a creac&o de uma commlasio 
intcmacional de Jurisconsultos— Tratado de limites com a Colombia— Accordo 
de modus vivendi sobre o Putumayo, entre o Brasil e a Colombia— Protocollocom- 
plemcntar do modus vivendi assignado entre o Brasil e a Colombia em 24 de abril 
de 1907. 

IV.— Colombia 400 

Explorav&o do marfim vegetal nas ilorestas nacionaes. 

v.— CUBA 400 

Relatorio do Govemador provisorio para o anno de 1907. 

VI.— Estados Unidos 401 

Commercio com a America Latina em 1907— Commercio exterior em 1907— Continua 
em vigor a concess&o feita a gcneros de procedencia norte-americana— Distancias 
rclativas entre portoe do Atlantico e do Paciflco por mar e terra— Conven^fto fi- 
xando a condiyao dos cidad&os natural izados. 

VII.— Mkxico 404 

Commercio exterior durante os primciros quatro mczcs de 1907-«— Movimento das 
mercadorias nortc-americanas pclo Lsthmo de Tehuantepcc em 1907 — Rendas adua- 
neiras cm dezembro de 1907— Exporta^^ao do hcnnequen em 1907. 

VIII.— Nicaragua 407 

Nova lei de agricultura. 

IX.— Panama 468 

Rendas aduancinis em 1907— Mercadorias dos Estados Unidos que trandtaram pclo 
lsthmo de Panamd em 1907. 

X.— Peru r-. <« 

Generos importados de Now York durante o primeiro nemestre de 1907. 

XI.— Salvador 409 

Movimcnto da exportavAo durante o primeiro semestre de 1907— Rendas aduanei- 
ra.<*, primeiro semestre de 1907— Movimcnto maritimo no primeiro semestre de 

XII.— Uru<juay 470 

ProducvAo de cereaes e linho em 1906-7. 
XIII.— PRODUcglo de A8SUCAR NA America Latina 470 



A KTicLis DB Fond 471 

ConTentioiia et ycfiax de la troMdme Conference pan-am6ricalne— Rapport special de 
M. William R. Shepherd— i^ude mir rhistoire et la politique de TAnK^riqueduSud— Asso- 
ciation fratemelle centro-am^ricaine— Premier Congr^ Bcientiflque pan-am6ricain— 
Conferences sor TAm^riqae Latine donn^es par le Directeur du Bureau— Rcnaeigncm en ts 
Bor la mani^re dont on peat voyager dans 1' Am^rique du Sud, et sur Ics routes & suivre. 


Service des postes et t^l^graphes— Cherains de fer en exploitation. 


Commerce de retain. 

datsiL 476 

Ddveloppement agricole et minier du pays— Modifications douanidres— Exploitation de mines 
diamantifdre»— Mesurcs contre I'emploi de prC'scrvatifs nuisibles— Recettcs douani^rcs de 
Rio-de^aneiro en 1907— Constmction de chemins de fer— Revision du tarif douanier— 
Commerce entre le Br^l et lea £tatB-Unis. y 

Cniu 477 

Reccttes donanidres pendant lea onze premiers mois do 1907— Modifications douani^rcs— 
Recensement chi lien— Constmction de chemins de fer. 

CoLOM BI E 478 

Exploitation de I'ivoire vdg^tal — Marchandises import^es en colis-postaux. 

Cuba 478 

Rapport annuel da Oouvemeur. 

^ATB-Uim 479 

Commerce avec TAm^rique Latine en 1907 — Commerce cxterieur en 1907— Commerce du 
transit par I'lsthme de Panama en 1907— Loi sur la nationality. 

Mexiqub 481 

Commerce ext^rieur, quatre premiers mois de 1907— Travaux publics— Kxpeditions do 
chanvre— Recettes douanidres, premier semestre de 1907-1908. 

Kicabagua 482 

Noavelle loi agricole— Exploitation du caoutchouc. 

Panama 482 

Importations provenant des £:tat8-(Jnis. 

Pabagcay 483 

Trafic da Paragoay Central— Ex porta tions de caoutchouc en 1907. 

PtBou 483 

Importations de Now- York, premier semeslre de 1907— Dcveloppement minier— Exportii- 
tions de laine ot de cuirs de vicufia— Commerce avec les ^tats-Unis en 1907. 

Salvadob 4S4 

Recettes douani^res, premier semestre de 1907— Exportations, premier semestre de 1907. 


Recettes douani^res, onze premiers mois de 1907— Commerce avec les £tat>i-Uuis en 1907. 
VtNtZUELA 484 

^tablissement de lignes t^K^graphiques et t^l^phoniques. 

Wbile the utmost care is taken to insure accuracy in the publications 
of the International Bureau of the American Bepublicsy no responsibility 
is assumed on account of errors or inaccuracies which may occur therein. 

Poor m^ que la Oficina Intemacional de las Bep^blicas Americanas pone 
escrupxQoso cuidado para obtener el mayor grado de correccidn en sus publi- 
caciones, no asume responsabilidad alguna por los errores 6 inexactitudes 
que pudieran deslizarse. 

Apezar de se tomar o maior cuidado para se assegurar correc^So nas 
publicaQdes da Secretaria Intemacional das Bepublicas Americanas^ esta 
nSo se responsabeliza pelos erros ou inexactidOes que nellas occorrerem. 

Bien que le Bureau International des B^publiques AmMcaines exerce le 
plus grrand soin pour assurer Inexactitude de ses publications, il n'assumera 
aucune responsabilit^ des erreurs ou inexactitudes qui pourraient s'y glisser. 

Monthly Bulletin 


International Bureau of the American Republics, 

Imtemfttiomftl Unioii of Ameriean Bepnblies. 

Vol, XXVI. FEBRUARY, 1908. No. 2. 

The Fourth Pan-American Conference will be held in Buenos Aires, 
the capital of the Argentine Republic, in 1910. This decision was 
reached at the regular meeting of the Governing Board of the Inter- 
national Bureau, held on February 5, 1908. The vote in favor of 
Buenos Aires was unanimous, and felicitous remarks were made by 
the diplomatic representatives present in recording the attitude of 
their respective Governments. The meeting was largely attended 
and much interest was shown in the first steps taken toward the next 
Conference of American Republics. It is the intention of the Gov- 
erning Board that there shall be careful preparation for this gathering, 
with the purpose of making it a Conference that will worthily continue 
the .work done by the three preceding ones, held respectively in Wash- 
ington, Mexico, and Rio de Janeiro. It is fitting that the Conference 
should assemble in Buenos Aires during the year 1910, for the Argen- 
tine Republic is preparing then to celebrate the one liundredth anni- 
versary of its independence upon an elaborate scale. Tliis is an event 
that interests all America, and will provide a becoming background 
for the sessions of the Conference. A great exposition is to be held in 
commemoration of the national anniversary', which will surely attract 
large numbers of people from l)oth the United States and Europe. 
As Buenos Aires now has a population of 1,140,000, and is growing as 
rapidly as any city in the United States, with the possible exception 
of New York and Chicago, it ranks among the chief capitals of the 
world, and is a most suitable point, both for the Conference and a 
great international exposition. The definite selection of place and 
date gives abundant time not only for the Argentine Government to 
make preparations, but for the Governing Board of the Bureau to 
outline the necessary programme. 



A most important report was submitted to the Governing Board at 
its last meeting, in regard to the conventions and resolutions signed at 
the Third Pan-American Conference held in Rio de Janeiro. The 
committee consisted of Mr. J. N. Leger, Minister of Haiti, Sefior Don 
Epifanio Portela, Minister of the Argentine Republic, and Sefior Don 
Felipe Pardo, Minister of Peru; who were assisted by the Director 
and Secretary of the Bureau in preparing the data. The report is 
given in full in this issue, and shows just what is the present situation 
in regard to the work of the three conferences. It also shows that 
action must be taken by many of the Governments in the matter of 
approval or disapproval of the different conventions and resolutions, 
so that the way may be cleared for the Fourth Conference. The com- 
mittee recommends strongly that the members of the Governing 
Board urge upon their respective Governments immediate considera- 
tion of these resolutions and conventions, so that either ratification 
may be forthcoming, or suggestions may be made as to their amend- 
ment, which can be submitted to the next Conference. Among the 
other important recommendations of the committee is that giving the 
Director authority to establish a section of statistics and commercial 
information as a subdivision of the work of the International Bureau. 
The committee also advises that the different countries shall take 
favorable action, without delay, toward increasing their quotas 50 per 
cent for the support of the Bureau, and that those coxmtries which are 
delinquent in paying their dues, not only for the maintenance of the 
Bureau, but for the new building, be asked to attend to these defi- 
ciencies immediately, in order that the work of the Bureau may not 
be handicapped or the construction of the building delayed. 

special report of prof. WILLIAM R. SHEPHERD. 

In tliis issue of the Bulletin is published an interesting and exhaus- 
tive report on the commercial relations of the United States and South 
America, by Prof. William R. Shepherd. It should be read by every- 
body interested in the development of Pan-American commerce and 
comity. It will be remembered that Professor Shepherd, who is one 
of the most prominent members of the faculty of Columbia University, 
New York City, made a tour of South America in 1907, visiting Ecua- 
dor, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, the Argentine RepubUc, Uruguay, and Brazil, 
going down the west coast via Panama, and returning via the east 
coast and Rio de Janeiro. At the request of the Director of the 
Bureau, he made special investigations for the benefit of this insti- 
tution, and has embodied his opinions in this report. Professor 


Shepherd is a close student of affairs, and has always been interested 
in bringing about closer relations between North and South America. 
The suggestions he has to make are carefully considered and pointed. 
It is hoped that the example set by Professor Shepherd may be fol- 
lowed by college professors occupying similar chairs in different 
institutions of this country, and thus a greater interest developed 
throughout the United States in her sister Republics. 


The paper read by Dr. Hiram Bingham, of Yale, on the ''Possibili- 
ties of South American History and Pohtics as a Field for Research," 
before the American PoUtical Science Association, at Madison, Wis- 
consin, on December 28, 1907, is so full of original and interesting 
matter of value to all students and persons concerned about that part 
of the world that it is reproduced in this issue of the Bulletin. The 
Director particularly commends it to the large number of college pro- 
fessors and students of American institutions of learning who are now 
taking up the study of history and pohtics of our sister Republics. 
The Bureau is constantly receiving letters from students in the lead- 
ing educational institutions of the United States asking for suggestions 
along the very lines covered by this paper of Doctor Bingham. 
The facts and information it contains will surprise the majority of 
persons who have not even realized what were the opportunities in 
the United States for study of this subject. With Doctor Bing- 
ham's data at hand, anyone can readily begin research on general or 
special phases of the history and politics of South America. 


The Central American Peace Conference, which adjourned on 
December 20, 1907, after holding its sessions, covering a period of five 
weeks, in the International Bureau of the American Repubhcs, took one 
step which is almost unprecedented and yet of peculiar sentimental 
value in the development of closer relations between Central America, 
Mexico, and the United States. There was organized the Central 
American Fraternity, whose chief purpose shall be the keeping alive 
of the spirit of mutual interest and sympathy among the Republics 
of North America. The Constitutional Act of this fraternity is pub- 
lished in this issue of the Bulletin, and ought to be read by all 
who are following closely the resolutions of the Conference. It is no 
exaggeration to state that the organization of this fraternity marked 
the climax of the genuine good will and kindly feehng that character- 
ized all the sessions of the Conference and the relations of the different 
delegates, and it should be a strong influence in favor of the carrying 
out of all the conventions signed at this notable gaWv^nxx!^. 


Interest is developing so rapidly throughout the United States and 
the other American Republics in the First Pan-American Scientific 
Congress, which is to meet at Santiago, Chile, on December 1, 1908, 
that the proposed programme and bases are printed in this issue of 
the Bulletin. It is hoped that the United States Congress will 
approve of the appropriation recommended by Secretary Root for 
the official participation of the United States. It is understood that 
the Government of Chile is making elaborate preparations for the 
event and that nearly all of the American Republics will send delegates. 
Aside from those who may be appointed directly by the Governments, 
representatives of different universities and scientific organizatioitt 
will be welcomed. 


As evidence of the growing interest in the Latin-American countries 
which is being manifested throughout the United States, it can be 
stated that if the Director of the Bureau were to accept one-third of 
the invitations that come to him from chambers of commerce, 
educational institutions, and other organizations to address them 
on the general and commercial relations of the United States and 
Latin America, it would have been necessary for him to speak neariy 
every day from the 1st of January until the 1st of June. These occa- 
sions are not by any means confined to any one section of the coun- 
try; they take place in central and far West, as well as in New 
England and the South. The demands made upon his time, 
however, by the executive work of the Bureau permit him to accept 
only a small portion of these invitations. As evidence of the 
Director's efforts to meet in so far as possible the desire for infor- 
mation furnished in this form, a list is given of some of the 
engagements he has filled since January 1 : University Club, Wash- 
ington, D. C, January 4; Oregon Society, Washington, D. C, 
January 11^ dinner celebrating inauguration of new steamship 
service to South America, New York City, January 14; Washington 
Institute of Banking, January 16; Men's Club, Central Presbyterian 
Church, Washington, D. C, Januarj^ 20; Cooper Union, New York 
City, January 27 ; annual banquet of Merchants* and Manufacturers' 
Association of Baltimore, January 30; National Association of Manu- 
facturers, New York City, January 31; California Society, Washing- 
ton, D. C, February 2; Lincoln banquet. Grand Rapids, IkGchigani 
February 12; Chamber of Commerce, Pontiac, Michigan, February 
13; Commercial Club, Lincoln, Nebraska, February 17; Mackenzie 
School, Dohhs Ferry, New York, Washington's Birthday, celebrmtion, 


morning of February 22; National Jewellers' Association, Philadel- 
phia, evening of February 22, and American Geographical Society, 
New York City, February 25. 


The International Bureau is receiving so many inquiries, both from 
the United States and Europe, in regard to conditions and routes of 
travel in South America that it has requested Mr. Lee McClunq, 
Treasurer of Tale University, who has recently made a trip around 
South America, and Mrs. Marie Eobinson Wright, the noted 
authoress, who has visited all sections of the Southern Continent, to 
prepare brief statements descriptive of travel routes and conditions, 
which may be of practical value to people intending to visit that part 
of the world. The correspondence of the Bureau would indicate that 
during the next year there will be a great increase in the number of 
travelers going south. A large number of tourists, moreover, who 
have been in the habit of going to Europe and Asia, are making up 
their mind, in view of the developing interest in Latin America, to 
change their customary routes and see what is going on in South 
and Central America. In this connection, it is well to note the 
great improvement in the steamship service on the east coast, pro- 
vided by the Lamport & Holt Company, in the form of three large 
vessels of approximately 10,000 tons each, having superior passenger 
acconmiodations, and which have been placed permanently on the 
route between New York City, Rio de Janeiro, and Buenos Aires. 
A photograph of one of these ships and also one or two interior views 
are given in this issue of the Bulletin as evidence to those persons 
who want to go to South America that they can make the trip in 


Governmental legislation for the uniformity of privileges to be 
accorded the various railroads operating in the Argentine Republic 
has given a decided impetus to the development of new enterprises. 
The total mileage of the lines in operation now aggregates nearly 
14,000 miles, of which over 900 miles were constructed during the 
past year, and represent an invested capital of $671,688,874. A 
consolidation of the interests of three important roads is under con- 
sideration, and the terms of the contract whereby this consolidation 
18 to be effected provide for the expenditure of large sums for exten- 
sions and improvements. 


The postal and telegraph services, so closely allied with railway 
aflfairs, also show a healthy progress during 1907, when the revenues 
received therefrom increased to the extent of $746,961 over the 
preceding year. 

In all branches of internal revenue a correspondingly satisfactory 
report is made. 


Statistics covering the movement of tin during 1907 in the markets 
of Europe and America place the Bolivian product second among the 
deliveries for consumption. Although far outranked by the Straits' 
output, 15,300 tons are credited to Bolivia, as against 16,380 tons 
in 1906. 

Rubber growing in the Province of Larecaja has been made the 
subject of a report to the Department of Colonization and Agricul- 
ture, extracts of which are reproduced in this issue of the Bulletin 
as of value to dealers in this article. 


Advices from Brazil indicate the probability of a revision of the 
tariff of the country during the next session of the National Con- 
gress in May, 1908, and the active operation of the same by August 
of the same year. In the meantime important modifications of the 
import duties levied on industrial materials and machinery are 
covered by the Budget Law issued on January 1, 1908. The 20 
per cent reduction allowed on certain specified articles of United 
States origin by the act of June 30, 1906, is also continued. 

One result of this concession is shown in the figures of trade be- 
tween the two countries issued by the Bureau of Statistics of the 
United States for 1907, during which time Brazil took over $4,000,000 
more merchandise from the United States than in the preceding 
twelve months. 

Imperative restrictions are applied to the importation of foodstuffs 
and beverages on which preservatives detrimental to the public 
health have been used, and an active propaganda is to be initiated, 
under government supervision, for the introduction and populariza- 
tion of native products abroad. 


An unoflicial report of the results of the Chilean Census, taken at 
the close of 1907, places the total number of inhabitants of the Re- 
public at 3,250,000, an increase of a little under 50,000 since 1903, the 
date of the last preceding census. 


The passage of a bill by the Chilean Congress on January 22, 1908, 
providing for an appropriation for the Longitudinal Railway, to be 
constructed from the Peruvian border to the Straits of Magellan, a 
distance of 2,600 miles, is reported, while the granting of a contract 
to a German firm for a line from Arica to La Paz is another indica- 
tion of the activity of the Government in this important branch of 

The proposed modification of customs duties on cattle, sheep, and 
certain textiles, which has been under consideration by the Chilean 
Government (see Monthly Bulletin for December, 1907), has been 
enacted and promulgated as a law. The suspension of cattle duties 
and the reduction, by 50 per cent, of duties on the other articles 
specified will become effective within six months. 


In the report of Provisional Governor Magoon concerning general 
conditions in the Cuban Republic from the latter part of 1906 to the 
end of 1907, it is shown that the economic situation is in the main 
satisfactory. Imports during the fiscal year 1906-7 decreased by 
over $7,000,000 as compared with the preceding twelve months, but 
exports advanced by more than $5,000,000. In the trade with the 
United States for the calendar year 1907 both branches of trade show 
noteworthy gains. 

Mexico's coioiERCiAL progress. 

The ascending scale continues to mark Mexico's position in the com- 
mercial world. For the four months of the fiscal year for which 
figures have been issued, July to October, 1907, an increase of over 
$6,000,000 is noted in both imports and exports as compared with 
the corresponding period of the preceding year, while customs rev- 
enues increased for the first half of 1907-8 by nearly $2,000,000 over 
the first six months of 1906-7. The registry of business trans- 
actions during the calendar year 1907 aggregated something over 
$200,000,000, more than half of which was on account of commercial 
enterprises, the organization of new companies, and increased capi- 
talization of existing corporations. 

Between $25,000,000 and $30,000,000 represents the value of 
United States merchandise shipped during 1907, over the Tehuan- 
tepec route between Atlantic and Pacific ports, the shortening of 
the transport route for Hawaiian sugar being of especial value to the 

29039— BuU; 2—08 2 


Trade relations with the United States show the gratifying figures 
of more than $67,000,000 for imports and over $57,000,000 for ex- 
ports for 1907, a gain in the former of $5,420,697 and in the latter of 
$6,006,528 as compared with 1906. 


The recently enacted law of Nicaragua designed for the promotion 
of agriculture and stock raising throughout the Republic carries with 
it a provision for the establishment abroad of an active propaganda 
in behalf of native products. Already the banana industry has 
thriven to an unprecedented extent through proper exploitation, and 
other Nicaraguan products are capable of a similar development. 

In reporting with regard to a rubber concession recently granted, 
United States Consul Frederick M. Ryder, of San Juan del Norte, 
states that in all probabiUty the said concession will ultimatelybe 
taken over by the company at present holding two large grants from 
the Nicaraguan Government, so that the corporation will control the 
output of all the wild forest rubber of the Republic. 


Prosperous conditions in Panama are indicated by the fact that 
the fiscal revenues received during 1907 were $5,436.05 in excess of 
the budget estimate, aggregating $2,439,301.68. The bulk of these 
receipts were from import duties. 

The transport of United States merchandise over the Panama 
Railway during 1907 is valued at from $12,000,000 to $15,000,000, 
and imports from that country show an advance of over $4,000,000 
as compared with the preceding year. 


The extended r6sum6 of the report of the Paraguay Central Railway 
for the year ended April 30, 1907, published in this issue of the Bul- 
letin, shows that affairs have been satisfactorily arranged between 
tho operating company and the Government. As this is the only 
line in operation throughout the Republic, its prospects and those of 
the country's development are closely mingled, and the termination 
of the controversy will impart a new impetus to business. It is 
reported that crops are in an excellent condition and that there are 
signs of increasing vitality in all branches of commerce and industiy. 


During 1907, Peruvian-United States trade showed a remarkable 
development, according to figures issued by the Government of the 
latter country. The shipments of Peruvian products to the United 
States increased by $4,154,790 as compared with the preceding 
year, while imports from that coimtry advanced $1,672,762 in the 
same period. 

The Cerro de Pasco mine shipped 10,000 tons of copper out of the 
28,000 tons of that metal reported from the whole of South America 
for United States markets. 

Business prosperity is further indicated by the report of the Peru- 
vian Corporation, whose operations for the year ended Jime 30, 
1907, show a profit of over $1,000,000. 


The Republic of Salvador reports for the first six months of 1907 
an export movement valued at $5,642,700, of which the leading 
item was coffee, worth $4,369,600. On these exports duties to the 
amoimt of $282,293 were collected, while the receipts from imports 
aggr^ated $1,440,194. A slight decrease is noted in comparison 
with the corresponding period of the preceding year. The United 
States is placed first on the list of countries of destination. 


It is estimated that the total customs receipts of the Republic of 
Uruguay for the year 1907 will indicate a satisfactory gain over the 
preceding year, the figures being given as approximately $13,000,000. 
The last month of the year gave indications of revived business 
activity throughout the Republic. 

For the year imports from the United States advanced by $810,395, 
though exports thither declined to the extent of $1,076,482. 


What is practically a Government ownership of telegraph and tele- 
phone lines throughout Venezuela was effected by a decree of Decem- 
ber 20, 1907, it being stated in Article 1 that the establishment of 
such enterprises appertains exclusively to the Federal Executive. 

Certain tariff modifications becoming effective in the last month 
of the year are published as of interest to trade. 



With a commendable absence of statistical data, the book of 
N. O. Winter, entitled, ''Mexicoand Her People of To-day,'' presents 
to the mind of the reader an almost photographic view of the resources, 
interests, and history of the Republic. For either the traveler or the 
stay-at-home its purpose is adequately fulfilled, for to the formerit is 
a running comment on the objects and interests of his tour, while to 
the latter its interesting descriptions and attractively presented 
information almost take the place of personal observation. Side by 
side with the life of to-day — modem, enterprising, restless — Mr. 
Winter draws pictures of the civilization of the ancients, the huge 
architectural ruins of the Aztecs, the showy splendor of the Spanish 
domination and the humble surroundings of the peon. Of Sail Luis 
Potosi, he writes: ^'The Spanish cavalier stalked through the streets 
of this town in complete mail before the Mayflower landed on the 
shores of Massachusetts. The priests were chanting the solemn serv- 
ice of the church here long before the English landed at Jamestown. 
Dust had gathered on the municipal library, which now contains a 
hundred thousand volumes, centuries before the building of the first 
little red schoolhouse in the United States. Before New York had 
been thought of, the drama of life was being enacted here daily after 
Castilian models.'' With equal enthusiasm he describes the capital 
city ; its modem water system supplied partially by ancient aqueducts ; 
its churches . and palaces rising on the foundations of prehistoric 
structures, and the Mexican Valley guarded by the twin peaks of 
Popocatapetl and Ixtaccihuatl. Not only in the ruins of Mitla, but 
throughout the Republic, the writer traces resemblances to Egyptian 
archeological records, as noted in pyramids, stone graving, and 
images. Most vivacious are his delineations of Mexican customs and 
characteristics — the humble good nature of the peon, the contented 
poverty of the general householder, and the eccentric marriage and 
courtship usages being all dwelt upon with interest. The st^ry of the 
Republic is told in the closing chapters, in which tribute is rendered to 
the firm government of President Diaz as an augury for greater 
achievements on the part of the Republic, and to the masterly man- 
agement of Minister Limantour in the field of finance. The wide 
range of subjects covered and the manner of treatment render the 
book of great value to any one interested in Mexico and her progress. 

the wealth of central AMERICA. 

With a view to initiating a propaganda in behalf of the Central 
American Republics among the French, D£sib£ Pectob, Counselor 


of Foreign Commerce and Consul-General in France for Honduras 
and Nicaragua, has prepared a voluminous and instructive book 
treating of the wealth of Central America d^Les richesses de VAmer- 
igue CentraW). An historical sketch of the countries in reference 
is outlined in the preface by M. E. Levasseur, Administrator of the 
College of France, to which is added a r6sum6 of the prevailing eco- 
nomic conditions. The purpose of the author is frankly stated to be 
the diflfusion of a better understanding among the French nation of 
the advantages to be derived from a more active participation in 
Central American trade, at present dominated by the United States 
so far as Costa Rica and Guatemala are concerned, and by Great 
Britain in respect to Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua. So far as 
is possible, the information contained in the volume is brought up to 
the close of 1906, and the wide scope of its purpose is indicated by 
the following titles to its twelve chapters: Communication with the 
outer world; General physical configuration; Internal communica- 
tion and transport; Mineral products; Vegetable productions; 
Animal products; Industries; International commerce; Climatology; 
Inimigration and colonization; Finance; Practical suggestions. 
Accurate and exhaustive information in regard to Central America 
is very scarce; when, therefore, a volume appears from so authorita- 
tive a source, it should be applied, not only by the nation for whose 
benefit it has been prepared, but also by all persons whose interests, 
whether commercial, economic, or historical, are connected with 
Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua or Salvador. 


In the record of impressions obtained by J. Delebecque in his 
journey through South America d^A travers VAmerique du Sud^^), 
published by Plon-Nourrit et Cie, Paris, the most notable character- 
istic is the complete absence of the glorifying process usually applied 
to books of travel. When M. Delebecque feels the lack of creature 
comforts and conveniences almost inevitable in frontier journeys and 
little traveled paths, he states the facts calmly but explicitly, so that 
no misapprehension of conditions is possible. On the other hand, he 
pays due tribute to the majesty of natural forces as exemplified in 
the glory of the mountains and the flow of mighty rivers encountered 
in his trip of sixty-four days from Lima to the Atlantic, via the 
Amazon River. His descriptions of the rubber districts and the 
methods of exploitation and shipment are of great value and interest, 
while his notes on the great watershed of the Amazon are character- 
ized by a wealth of observation rare in other than purely scientific 
works. The account of the descent of the Pichis and Pachitea rivers 
to the headwaters of the Amazon is marked by a vivacity of style 
which forms a model for similar narrations. 


From the press of L. J. Rosso, Buenos Aires, the Columbus Memo- 
rial Library has received a remarkably handsome volume embodying 
a pictorial guide to travelers in the Argentine Republic. Photo- 
graphs of celebrities; reproductions of famous estancias; sketches of 
pubUc gardens and buildings, prize animals, and industrial establish- 
ments are all presented as an index to the conditions existent through- 
out this wonderful country. Supplementary tables covering statisti- 
cal information of various sorts are also included, as well as complete 
Usts of the diplomatic and consular officers serving at home and abroad 
in Argentine interests at the close of 1907. A commercial directory 
of Buenos Aires is a prominent feature of the book. 


The gold mines of Colombia are fully described in the interesting and 
technical pamphlet entitled ^^ VlTidustrie aurifere en Colomhie/* by M. 
A. Demangeon, formerly chief engineer of the SociitS Ae Travavx 
Miniers and ex-director of the San Nicolas and also the Sierra de Oro 
mining companies. Mr. Demangeon gives the history of the gold 
mining industry of Colombia from the beginning up to the present 
time. Full details relative to the legislation governing the industry 
and the granting of concessions are also given which will be of practical 
value to those intending to engage in gold mining in the Republic. 


Supplementary to the March, 1907. issue of the Bulletin of the Lima 
(Jt^ographical Society, a plan of the Amazon River from Iquitos to 
Manaos has been received by the Columbus Memorial Library. It em- 
bodies the results of the most recent surv'ej^ of the region under Colo- 
nel PoKTiLLo and appUed in the service of the Booth Company's 


In the '^Guia de la Repuhlica de Colombia j'' published by Mantel 
M. Zamorra, Bogota, 1907, a useful gazetteer of the country is avail- 
able. Information concerning each city, town, village, mountain, river, 
etc., is furnished in a concise form, and, in addition to the usual geo- 
grapliical, political, and statistical data, valuable historical informa- 
tion is included covering the most important places. 




The regular monthly meeting of the Governing Board of the Inter- 
national Bureau of the American Republics was held February 5, 
1900, in the diplomatic reception room of the Department of State. 
The Secretary of State, chairman ex officio, presided, the following 
countries being represented besides the United States: Argentine 
Republic, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Haiti, Hon- 
duras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, and Uruguay. 

The report of the committee appointed at the meeting of the 
Board on December 4, 1907, to report to the Governing Board the 
measures to be taken to carry out the conventions and resolutions 
signed and passed at the Third Pan-American Conference of Rio de 
Janeiro, 1906, was imanimously approved. The Director of the 
Bureau was authorized to take the required steps to carry out the 
recommendations made in the report. 

The special resolution on the Fourth Pan-American Conference, 
introduced by the Costa Rican Minister and seconded by the Bo- 
livian Minister, at the regular meeting of January 8, 1908, was unani- 
mously adopted, as follows: 

*^ Resolved, That the next Conference of the American Republics 
be held at the city of Buenos Aires, Argentine Republic, in the year 

The report in full of the committee mentioned above follows: 


The Chairman and Members of the Governing Board of the International 
Bureau of American Rejmblics: 

Gentlemen: The imdersigned, having been appointed at a meet- 
ing of the Governing Board, held December 4, 1907, to report on what 
measures should be taken to carry out the conventions and resolu- 
tions of the Third Pan-American Conference, held at Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil, in 1906, have, with the assistance of the Director and Secretary 
of the Bureau, carefully considered the work imposed upon them and 
now have the honor to report as follows : 

The Third Pan-American Conference signed, as a result of its de- 
liberations, four (4) conventions and fourteen (14) resolutions, as 



I. Establishing the status of naturalized citizens who again take 

up their residence in the country of their origin. 
II. Pecuniary claims. 
III. Patents of invention, drawings and industrial models, trade 

marks, and literary and artistic property. 
IV. International law. 


1. Arbitration. 

2. Reorganization of the Bureau of the American Republics. 

3. Building for the International Bureau of the American Re- 


4. Keconimending the creation of special divisions in the depart- 

ments of foreign aflfairs and determining their functions. 

5. Section of commerce, customs, and commercial statistics. 

6. Public debts. 

7. Liberal professions. 

S. Commercial relations. 
0. Future conferences. 
10. Natural resources. 

II. Sanitary police. 

12. I n t ercont inent al railway. 

13. The coffee industry. 

14. Fluctuations in exchange. 

(A) In the natural order of events each one of the Crovemments 
rojirosentod at the Kio de Janeiro Conference should have received 
from the Secretary' of the Conference authenticated copies of the 
conventions antl n^solution^ there signed. As it seems, however, 
that st)mo of the members of the Governing Board are in doubt as to 
whether their Governments have received such authenticated copies, 
the committee recommends that the Director of the Bureau be 
authorized to communicate by cable directly with the Secretary of 
the Conference at Kio de Janeiro and ascertain if this preUminaiT 
step has been taken. 

As it is known, moreover, that some of the Governments have 
rt^portetl the conventions to their respective Congresses for considera- 
tion antl rntiiication* but as the records are incomplete, it is recom- 
mended that each member of the Governing Board ascertain, by 
cable if necessar>', just what action has been taken by his Govern- 
ment and inform the DirtnUor accordingly. 

In the event this investigation shows that some of the Govem- 
nuMUs have \\o{ yet taken steps for such consideration or ratification, 
the ron\mittee nn^Mumends that the Governing Board urge that 
tiiiiil ii(*rion should be taken as soon as possible, in order that any 


objections or exceptions to the conventions proposed by the different 
Governments may be laid before the Governing Board, and that it may 
make recommendations to the next Pan-American Conference for the 
necessary modifications which will cause the conventions to receive 
general ratification. 

The specific action taken by the different Governments in the 
consideration and ratification of the conventions and resolutions, 
as shown by the records of the International Bureau and of the State 
Department of the United States, is given in a memorandum attached 
to this report. 

(B) 1. The resolution of arbitration was submitted to the Second 
Hague Conference, as required, so that no further action is necessary. 

2. The resolution on the reorganization of the International 
Bureau of American RepubUcs depends for its consummation largely 
upon favorable action by the different Governments in the matter of 
increasing their respective quotas fifty (50) per cent for its support, 
in accordance with the unanimous resolution of the Governing Board 
passed at the May meeting, 1907. The committee reconunends that 
each member of the Governing Board urge upon his Government the 
pressing necessity of the approval of this increased appropriation, so 
that the new budget may take effect with the fiscal year beginning 
July 1, 1908. As certain Governments are still in arrears for quotas 
of past years, the committee recommends that the members of the 
Governing Board representing the countries in arrrears urge early 
payment of the sums due, in order that the efficiency of the Bureau 
shall not be lessened by lack of the needed funds. 

3. In the matter of the resolution regarding the new building of 
the International Bureau of American Republics, it can be said that 
excellent progress is being made through the generous gift of $750,000 
by Mr. Andrew Carnegie; but, as some of the Governments are in 
arrears on their quotas for the building, it is recommended that the 
members of the Governing Board representing such countries urge 
early payment of the said quotas, so that they may be available for 
the expenses connected with the construction of the new building. 

4. In the matter of the resolution favoring the appointment in 
each coimtry of a committee, responsible to the Minister of Foreign 
Affairs, who shall assist in securing the approval of the resoluticms 
adopted at the International American Conferences, and who shall 
cooperate with the International Biu'eau of the American Republics 
for the cQ,rrying out of this work in each country, it is recommended 
that each member of the Governing Board lu'ge upon his Government 
the appointment of said committee without delay and forward to 
the Bureau the names of those constituting said committees. 

5. In the matter of the resolution creating a special section of 
commercey customs, and commercial statistics as a subordinate 


division of the International Bureau, the committee recommends 
that the Director be empowered to make such changes and addi- 
tions in the present staff of the Bureau and to make such expendi- 
tures as the revenue of the Bureau may permit, without curtailing 
the regular work, to carry out the details of this resolution. 

6. The resolution covering the collection of public debts was sub- 
mitted to the Second Hague Conference, as required, so that no 
further action is necessary. 

7. In the matter of the resolution covering the adoption or ratifi- 
cation of the treaty upon the practice of the liberal professions, 
signed at the Second Pan-American Conference in Mexico, January 
28, 1902, it can be said that the treaty has been ratified, so far, 
according to the information in the possession of the Bureau, by the 
five Central American Republics and by Peru and Bolivia. It is 
recommended that each member of the Governing Board ascertain 
as soon as possible from his Government what action his country 
has taken, or may propose to take, on this resolution. 

8. In the matter of the resolution covering commercial relations, 
it is recommended that the work outlined by this resolution be com- 
bined with that required by the section of commerce, customs, and 
commercial statistics, and that the Director be thereby authorized 
to take the necessary steps under this plan to secure the needed data. 

9. In the matter of future conferences, it is recommended that 
the place and date of holding the Fourth Pan-American Congress be 
immediately determined, in accordance with the resolution passed at 
the January, 1908, meeting of the Governing Board, to the effect that 
said conference should be held at Buenos Aires, Argentine Republic, 
in 1910. 

10. The resolution as to the development of natural resources 
and means of communication wtliin the various Republics of America 
is covered by the action recommended in the matter of the section 
of commerce, customs, and commercial statistics. 

11. In the matter of the resolution as to sanitary police, it can be 
said that the Third International Sanitary Conference was held, as 
resolved, in the City of Mexico, December 2-7, 1907. Several im- 
portant recommendations were made, but the transactions of the 
Conference have not yet been published. It was imanimously 
resolved to hold the next Sanitary Conference at San JosS, Costa 
Rica, in 1909. The International Bureau was represented at the 
Third International Sanitary Conference by Mr. Francisco J. Yaxes, 
Secretary of the Bureau, who has prepared a report printed in the 
January issue of the Monthly Bulletin. 

12. In the matter of the resolution on the Intercontinental Rail- 
way, it can be said that an important step toward the realization of 
tins plan is contained in the Convention on Communications, signed 


by the Delegates to the Central American Peace Conference, wliich 
met in Washington in the building of the International Bureau of 
the American Republics in the months of November and December, 
1907. This Convention provides that each of the signatory Govern- 
ments appoint a conmiisssion to study and propose the necessary 
measures to carry on the work of the Intercontinental Railway 
i^ithin its own territory, and, upon the approval of their report, 
bids may be asked, through the International Bureau of the American 
Republics, for letting contracts for the construction of the lines. 

For the purpose of obtaining the exact information from the various 
American Republics interested in the project of an intercontinental 
railway, it is recommended that each member of the Governing 
Board urge upon his Government the necessity of taking steps in 
the near future to provide the Bureau of the American Republics 
vdth the data required by the resolution. 

13. The resolution covering the coffee industry provides for a meet- 
ing in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and, of course, it remains for the 
Government of Brazil to take the initiative as to the holding of such a 

14. The resolution as to fluctuations in exchange calls for an 
effort by the various Governments toward a detailed study of their 
monetary systems and fluctuations in exchange to be submitted to 
the International Bureau, and, in turn, a r6sum6 will be there pre- 
pared for the next Pan-American Conference. It is recommended 
that the Director of the Bureau be authorized to consult with recog- 
nized authorities on this subject and to submit to the Governing 
Board for its information and approval a plan of investigation to be 
laid before the different Governments. 

In conclusion the committee, having submitted this report, recom- 
mends that its labors be considered as at an end, and that further 
action which might require their attention be referred to the regular 
Supervisory Committee of the Board. 

J. N. Leger. 
Epifanio Poktela. 
Felipe Pardo. 
Washington, D. C, Fehruary i, 1908. 




On March 2, 1907, the President of the United States submitted to 
Congress the four conventions signed at Rio de Janeiro. The con- 
ventions on Pecimiary Claims and Naturalization have been ratified, 
but no action has yet been taken on the other two.* 

The President of the Dominican Republic submitted to Congress 
the four conventions. The only convention approved at the last 
session was that of the Compilation of a Code of International Law, 
as Congress adjourned without taking action on the other conven- 

The Government of Salvador on May 11, 1907, ratified the four 

Brazil ratified, on December 27, 1907, the convention on Inter- 
national Law, and the Executive was authorized to provide for the 
necessary expenses for the meeting of the Conference of Jurists at 
Rio de Janeiro this year. 

The President of Uruguay, in a message to the Uruguayan Congress 
March 27, 1907, recommended that favorable action be taken to put 
in operation the convention on International Law, and suggested that 
Dr. GoNZALO Ramirez be appointed as the representative at the Rio 

The Chilean Government, according to a dispatch of the American 
Minister at Santiago, July 3, 1907, decided to appoint the Committee 
on Resolutions of the International American Conferences, whose 
duty it is to obtain the ratification of said resolutions. 

The Republic of Salvador has ratified all of the resolutions. 


At the meeting of the Governing Board of the International 
Bureau of the American Republics on February 5, 1908, the Min- 
ister of Costa Rica moved that the Board take suitable action upon 
th(» untimely and lamented death of Mr. Arthub W. Febgusson, 
Executive Secretary of the Civil Government of the Philippines. Mr. 
Fergusson was the official Spanish interpreter and translator of the 
First Pan-American Conference and subsequently chief translator in 

« Convention on International Law was ratified on February 3, 1908. 


the Bureau for many years, having also served in that capacity in 
Peris at the time of the Treaty of Peace. Mr. Fergusson left the 
Bureau to serve as official interpreter and translator to the United 
States Civil Commission in the Philippine Islands, and was subse- 
quently promoted, by reason of his excellent and meritorious serv- 
ices, to the position of Executive Secretary, which he held at the time 
of his death. The Ministers of Cuba and Nicaragua stated that they 
heartily seconded the motion of the Costa Rican ACnister, the former 
suggesting that the Director of the International Bureau be author- 
ized to express to Mr. Fergusson' s family the profound regret of 
the Governing Board on their bereavement. 


When Prof. William R. Shepherd, of Columbia University, New 
York City, made his journey, during Ihe summer of 1907, throughout 
South America, the International Bureau requested him to conduct 
certain investigations involving the commercial relations of the 
United States and the South American countries, and to provide the 
Bureau with a report thereon. Professor Shepherd has submitted 
an extended and thorough paper, and such portions of it as would be 
of value to the business interests of the United States are given below, 
with, of course, the understanding that the Bureau accepts no respon- 
sibility for the statements: 


"From time immemorial commerce has been regarded as perhaps 
the most eJBicacious means of acquiring and diffusing knowledge 
about distant lands. In the backwardness of the trade of the United 
States with South America, therefore, lurks a primary cause of the 
ignorance prevalent in this country about its continental neighbor. 
No one denies so obvious a fact any more than he would be disposed 
to scout the further assertion that foreign capital and foreign inmii- 
gration are quite as indispensable to the growth and prosperity of 
the republics in South America as they have been to the national 
development of the United States. Both personal investigation and 
the series of publications issued by the South American Governments 
describing the resources of their respective territories, together with 
the special facilities offered to foreign enterprise, have made the 
demand for such immigration and capital known. Furthermore, the 
actual experience gained in the work of introducing these factors of 
progress has revealed, not only the profit that accrues to the investor 
of brawn, brains, and money, but the benefit also that is conferte-d 


upon the South American States themselves in helping to remoYe 
the hindrances that have retarded their development since the foun- 
dation of their national independence, and in providing the means 
necessary to assure their national advancement. 

''Were the United States to acquire its proper share in the process, 
the financial and other advantages to the American citizens concerned 
would be evident enough, while at the same time our spirit and enter- 
prise, our democratic institutions, our educational impulses and 
achievements, and our social, economic, intellectual, and political 
training in general could be brought directly to bear upon the States 
of South America in a manner that could not fail to be of service to 
them. Should we be able to work out and apply the qualities and 
methods needful to accompUsh so desirable an object, the South 
Americans on their own part might learn to mistrust the United 
States and its supposed designs far less than is now the case, and in 
so doing might be incUned correspondingly more to accept and to 
propagate the ideas and the practices of Pan-Americanism. 


''A study in outline of the peculiar circumstances, the national 
policies, the individual traits, and the business methods character- 
istic of the Americans and of the chief peoples of Europe concerned 
in the commercial and industrial development of South America may 
serve to indicate certain general causes of the inferiority attendant 
thus far upon the trade of the United States, and may light the way, 
also, to a solution of the problems that have arisen in connection 
with the efforts that are being made to improve it. For the purposes 
of this study, however, no lists of prices at which American goods 
may be sold, as compared with those at which European commodities 
may be bought, in the South American markets, will be supplied, 

' and no concrete examples of the lines of American goods for which 
a demand exists, or might be created there, will be furnished. These 
matters require a technical treatment such as a business expert 
alone may give. A discussion of them could hardly fall within the 
limits of a report confined to emphasizing a number of primary 
reasons for the backwardness of our trade in South America, which 
do not need a substantiation by figures, or an expression in terms of 
merchandise, to make their force apparent or their meaning clear. 
The considerations and the conclusions which it presents are intended 
to point out broadly the obstacles that have impeded our own pro- 
gress, and to mark the factors that have contributed most to the 
success of our European competitors. The bases upon which its 
statements rest are derived in part from personal observations, in 
part from opinions expressed by South Americans themselves, and 
in part also from views held by American exporters alive to the 



"Euroi>ean immigration and European capital, joined to the 
possession of wondrous natural resources and coupled with the 
exercise of American ability and energy, have placed the United 
States in the eminent position that it occupies among the great 
powers of the world to-day. Leaving the influence of European 
immigration outside of the area of discussion, it is a well-kno^vTi fact 
that, until quite recently, this country was dependent, to a large 
extent, upon the financial aid of Europe for its development. It 
enacted the r6le of a debtor nation precisely as the states of South 
America have been doing, and as they are likely to do, for some 
time to come. On our own part we shall have, as we had for a number 
of years before the existing financial disturbance appeared, a surplus 
of capital to invest either directly in South America, or in the pro- 
duction of commodities that may find a market there. Why this 
amount of capital has been diverted to other parts of the world, and 
how it may be turned toward South America, are but so many 
phases of the general question. 


"The circumstances of historical origin, geographical position, and 
habits of association have caused the currents of trade and migra- 
tion to and from the United States to run east and west rather than 
north and south. Since our excess products are sent to Europe and 
to Asia for the most part, and sold at a fair degree of profit, we 
ap}>ear to think that, normally, the United States does not need the 
trade of South America, and will not need it perhaps until, in order 
to forestall the consequences of overproduction, we shall be com- 
pelled to seek an outlet in the south. That the market there may 
be preempted ere such a situation arrives we are loth to believe is 

"To an eminent degree what has been said of the trend of the trade 
of the United States is true also of that of South America in its relation 
to Europe. So far as the countries along the west coast of that conti- 
nent are concerned, certain conditions, due to their geographical 
location, to the number and characteristics of their aboriginal popula- 
tion, or to both, have impeded their development m a special manner, 
rendering them quite dependent upon their communication with 
Europe, either directly or through the medium of the States that face 
Europe. Nor has the connection established some time ago between 
Asia and the west coast of South America by means of a Japanese line 
of steamships led to any marked change as yet in the customary 
direction eastward of the west coast trade. The proximity to Europe 
of the eastern States themselves, combined with the advantages of 
soil and climate which they possess, has kept tlie current of their 
commerce and migration in what might seem to be the normal 


channels from east to west. The emigrants from Europe, further- 
more, who have peopled the republics of South America in general are 
familiar of course with the products of their native lands, and unless 
powerful inducements to the contrary are made eflFective, will prefer 
such products to articles brought from other countries, and will main- 
tain a constant demand for them. 


"Given these conditions, it is not surprising that the conununica- 
tion between South America and Europe should be so close. To 
develop it, trading companies, commercial agencies, steamships, sail- 
ing vessels, banks, and other instrumentalities of trafiSc have multi- 
plied enormously. In this process of action the share of the United 
States has been comparatively insignificant. 

"As is well known, Germany, Great Britain, and Italy are the chief 
competitors of the United States in the South American trade. In 
accounting for their success one must remember at the outset that 
they were the first on the ground. In these countries, also, there is a 
relatively tremendous pressure of population, accompanied by a cor- 
responding absence of business opportimities and a lack of suitable 
markets at home for domestic products. Conversely, the induce- 
ments to seek personal prosperity and a commercial outlet abroad 
must be exceedingly strong. They affect the men of mediocre 
abilities who are content to struggle along under adverse conditions 
far less than they do the men whose powers are commensurate with 
their ambitions. As a rule, therefore, the Germans, the English, and 
the Italians best fitted to cope with the situation in other parts of the 
world are the ones who go forth, and this migration is bound to continue 
so Jong as their respective countries necessitate it. 

"That precisely the reverse of these circumstances is true of the 
United States requires no confirmation at length. The single illustra- 
tion of the difficulty found in attracting American clerks to South 
America might, however, be cited. A young Englishman or a young 
German of fair ability will go there for a salary of $1,000 a year or even 
for less; whereas a young American of about the same ability would 
demand double that sum. American firms indeed doing business in 
South America are frequently forced to employ English or German 


'*The most powerful competitor with whom the United States will 
have to reckon in its trade relations with South America is the Ger- 
man. The way in which British influence and British capital have 
been undermined or replaced by German factors of this sort consti- 
tutes one of the most remarkable phases in the recent economic de- 


velopment of the southern continent. In a number of cases the 
names of the corporations or firms concerned may remain English, 
but the basis and the strength they possess are German. The native 
estimate also of the relative degree of business ability and power of 
adaptation displayed by the chief groups of foreigners engaged in 
trade generally ranks the Grerman first as it puts the American last. 
'*The skill, tait, thrift, shrewdness in investment, and the adapt- 
ive, not to say imitative, instincts of the typical German are qual- 
ities that seem to assure, his success in South America. They are 
strikingly exemplified in such German centers of activity as Valdivia 
in southern Chile, and Rio Grande in southern Brazil, but they may 
be studied to advantage elsewhere as well. The German learns the 
language and acquaints himself with the characteristics and habits of 
thought of the people with whom he has to deal before he begins busi- 
ness. He is tolerant of native sympathies and prejudices. Even if 
he can win no more than the respect of the people of the country, he 
avoids anything that might suggest antagonism. Rather than hold 
himself socially aloof, he will marry into a native family. With the 
politics of the country he does not concern himself. The German, 
furthermore, works long and late. On holidays he may yield to na- 
tive wishes so far as to keep the front doors of his office or store 
closed, but he is actually at work. From time to time he travels to 
the lands of his foreign competitors, where he masters the secrets of 
their trade and manufacture. Returning to the scene of his business, 
he carefully combines the knowledge he has thus obtained with his 
own practical skill, so as to meet successfully the demands of his na- 
tive customers. Unlike his foreign competitors, however, he does not 
assume that the mere reputation of German goods, or the utterance 
of the talismanic words ''Made in Germany,'' wdll be sufficient to in- 
sure an immediate sale. Instead of showing catalogues, he shows the 
articles themselves, keeping a suitable number of them in stock, and 
he is ever prepared to give a practical demonstration of their opera- 
tion. Finally, if his customers desire it, he grants them a Uberal 
credit in the form to which they are accustomed. 


* 'According to the statements of American exporters practically 
familiar with the situation, our shipping facilities to South America 
are inadequate, and the freight rates on goods sent thither are higher 
than those charged on export from Europe for about the same dis- 
tance and under similar circumstances of sliipment. To be sure, it is 
a truism to say that the great majority of vessels carrying American 
products to the southern continent sail under foreign flags, and hence 
net the profits of the transportation to their foreign owners. But, 
apart altogether from this consideration, the actual number of such 
29039— BuU. 2—08 3 


vessels and the accommodations that they offer for passengers and 
freight, taken as a whole, are as insufficient as the dates of their de- 
partures and arrivals are more or less irregular. To the east coast 
and to the southern portion of the west coast of South America pas- 
sengers may always go and freight may often be sent more conven- 
iently by way of Europe; whereas, so far at least as the shipment of 
freight from the United 'States is concerned, the west coast traffic is 
greatly neglected. 

'* However true it may be that, owing to the rate war which has pre- 
vailed for some time among various shipping lines connected with the 
South American trade, the freight rates now in operation are com- 
paratively low. This is an abnormal and temporary circumstance that 
can not be used to solve the general problem. Right here it must be 
remembered that the freight rates on goods sent by any direct line of 
vessels from the United States to South America, or to the east coast, 
at all events, and the southern portion of the west coast of that con- 
tintMit, art^ calculated, more or less, on the basis of what the American 
exporter would have to pay, first, for having his goods shipped to Eu- 
rope. aiuK seoonil, for ha^'ing them dispatched from Europe to South 
.Vmorioa. That is to say, while the freight rates on the direct lines 
fiHMU the rniteil States to SiUith America may be lower than the two 
other rates ciMulnned. they are actually higher than the rat^ from 
KurojH^ rtKuu\ In the ease of certain conmiodities, like grain, lum- 
Um\ and oiK with tl\e prinhiotion of which Europe cannot compete, 
I ho froi^ht rates !\vnv iloiuanded do not appear to work any hardship. 
Kh\ I ho vMhor hand, where oomjH^tition in the sale of manufactured 
lU UvloH is koon. it happens that, other things being equal, the German 
oi I ho Knglish exporter, paying, as he does, less than the American 
f\»» I ho transportation of his goods, can afford to imdersell the Ameri- 
\'un in the markets of South America. 


"Though acknowlrMl^ing the existence of the circumstances earlier 
sketclied, which Hccni naturally to draw South .\merica to Euro|)e 
rather than to t he I 'nited States, and though admitting that American 
national ixilicics in n»f(T(»nce to the protective tariff and navigation 
laws nii<^ht. he modified to advantage, those circumstances can not 
be countcractiMl in any considerable degree or these policies altered 
with «ny iissurancc* of real benefit, in my opinion, until the views and 
methods of American business men regarding the trade with the 
countries of South America undergo a change that will enable us to 
coni|)«»tc succ(\ssfully with our present rivals, and particularly with 
\hr (Ifrrnans. Here the ultimate n^sponsibility lies. Situat<*d geo- 
graphienlly, as w(» an*, about as distant from South America at large 
iL*^ Kf/;*o;>e is, with the completion of the Panama Canal a question 


of the future, and excluded thus far from the possible advantages of 
communication by railway, we must learn and apply what our Euro- 
pean competitors think and do if we wish to obtain our share of the 
southern trade. They have been successful in a long experience, 
while we have just begun, and the beginnings have been less aus- 
picious than might have been desired. Habitual currents of trade, 
the protective tariff, navigation laws, and ship subsidies all apart, 
we can get our portion of the commerce in question whenever we are 
able to understand that the American way of doing things will not 
work universally in South America; that in many respects Europe is 
quite capable of producing commodities equal, if not superior, to our 
own; and that we must adapt ourselves to the pressure of circum- 
stances in the hope that our native abilities, added to the examples 
of European experience, may enable us to improve vastly upon our 
models in that region. Whatever is now to be said, therefore, by 
way of indicating the extent to which our views and methods are 
defective, will serve to show how far our European competitors have 
the advantage of us; because, taking them as a whole, they think 
and do just the opposite of what we think and do, and are prosperous 
at it. On the other hand, there are certain methods of carrying on 
business which are presumed to be American in origin, and yet are 
not sufficiently employed in South America. 

"Not only do we as a nation know practically nothing about South 
America, but apparently we are not inclined to add to our slender 
stock of information about it. Yankee inquisitivcness in the concerns 
of the Western Hemisphere does not extend, it would seem, below 
the Isthmus of Panama. The stories we hear about revolutions and 
earthquakes, Indians and mixed races, tropical suns, jungles, ani- 
mals, and insects provide us alternately with amusement and aver- 
sion, while they deepen our ignorance of the real conditions. In the 
doings of mankind alone we are apt to assume that what may have 
been true of any countrj^ of South America at one time, or of various 
countries at different times, must be tnie of all the countries at all 
times. Priding ourselves, furthennore, on our racial and national 
superiority, we are disposed to be contemptuous, patronizing, or 
threatening, as the mood of the moment may incline. 


'* Taking up another aspect of the general subject under considera- 
tion, it should be said that the prices of American j^oods are too high 
to warrant a widespread c(msumption of them in South America. 
This circumstance may be duo in part to the burdens incumbent upon 
transportation, and in part also to the better class of materials used, 
and to the greater cost of the labor employed in their manufacture. 
Perhaps, too, a native prejudice based on the presumed discrimination 


of our protective tariff against South American imports may create 
a sentiment in turn against the purchase of American articles, which 
forestalls an actual examination of them to determine whether the 
prices fixed are relatively higher than those asked by other foreigners 
for a similar class of goods. The alleged superiority of American 
materials and of American workmanship over those of European 
origin may now have come to be a more or less gratuitous assumption. 
At all events the question is open to discussion, particularly after one 
has noted the fine quality of many classes of Euro}>ean articles, and 
the readiness with which both Europeans and Americans copy one 
another's productions. 

**But even granting the intrinsic superiority of the American 
commodity, backed by the influence of a manufacturing reputation, it 
does not follow that the South American buyer ¥^ be disposed to 
recognize such superiority if the article costs more than something 
else that appears to be just as good. If the standard of quality of 
the American product is to be maintained, and the price is to con- 
tinue the same, either a systematic campaign of education in the 
special value of the American article, as compared with the claims* 
urged in behalf of some European commodity, will have to be carried 
on among the native purchasers, or the American manufacturer wiD 
have to content himself with a large output and with small profits. 


^ * That if the South Americans want our goods they should come 
and get them, and that anything A\'ill do for South America, are ideas 
which seem to be fairly prevalent in the United States. If he does not 
knowingly sencK inferior articles, as is sometimes charged against 
him, our manufacturer is often slow about filling orders, and careless 
or indifTerent about returning things, especially parts of machinery, 
sent him for repair or replacement. He is apt to be im^-illing to 
change in form or in substance what may befit the needs of consumers 
in his own country so as to satisfy the requirements of the South 
American purcliasers. 


''Nor does the American manufacturer feel inclined to alter his 
method of packing or his style of presentation. The goods sent from 
the United States are frequently packed in sizes and measures, as 
well as given designations, not used in South America. At times the 
box, case, cask, etc., is too large for the purpose, thus compellingthe 
importer to pay for an extra size or weight at the custom-house and 
elsewhere. It is not unusual to find that the American manufacturer 
makes little effort to safeguard his consignments against breakage, 


leakage, or theft. Huge boxes, flimsily constructed of thin boards 
and unprovided with iron bands or other means of security, are 
filled with heavy merchandise and dispatched to South America, 
only to be broken open intentionally by thieving freight handlers or 
accidentally in the process of transference from lighters or wharves 
to steamers and sailing vessels, or vice versa. Anyone who has 
watched a lighter being loaded or unloaded, along the Pacific coast of 
South America in particular, and has observed the pillage and de- 
struction that frequently ensue as a result of poor packing, will under- 
stand how negligent in this respect the American exporter is. At 
times, also, he fails to take out a sufficient amount of insurance on his 
consignments against damage in some form; nor does he always 
protect himself otherwise in an adequate fashion against the foreign 
shipping companies that carry his goods. He does not mark the 
articles exported as carefully as he should. Not only are the indica- 
tions as to form, size, contents, etc., omitted from the labels, errone- 
ously stated, or wrongly placed, but the actual addresses of the 
consignees are incorrectly given, or so poorly put on as to become 
obliterated before the goods can arrive at their supposed destination. 
If he knows, also, of the cheap imitations of American articles, and 
of the frequent falsification of their -trade-marks in South America, 
he appears to make little effort to counteract the underselling that 
follows. The manufacture of * American shoes' with 'American' 
trade-marks constitutes but one example of the practice. 


"Griven the shrewdness accredited to the American business man, 
his failure to spread his reputation in South America is all the more 
conspicuous. Unmindful of the difference in speech, he often answers 
in English letters of inquiry addressed to liim in some other language, 
and sends to the inquirer and to others elaborately illustrated cata- 
logues printed in English as well. Neither the reply nor the catalogue 
is apt to serve the purpose. When he sends out a traveling salesman 
he selects too commonly a person unacquainted with any language but 
his own, and unfitted alike by temperament and by training to deal 
with South Americans. 


"Instead of taking the trouble, furthermore, to penetrate into the 
interior of the countries, the American salesman usually contents 
himself with visiting the coast towns and coming into contact merely 
with English importing houses or with German establishments of the 
same sort in which English is spoken. Through the medium of the 
salesman in question, or directly on the part of the American house 


itself, agencies are often set up in the very headquarters of our chief 
competitors, instead of being intrusted to native hands. How 
greatly the German or English firm is benefited by such an admission 
to American trade secrets may be conjectured. Even in the cases 
where a native agency may be created, it is not an unusual occurrence 
for tl^ American house to wait until the agency has built up a good 
market for any particular article, and then to turn over the sale of it 
to a newly established branch of the American concern. Resentful at 
what he considers to be unfair treatment, the former agent may see 
fit to impede, if he can, the sale of what he had formerly promoted. 


"Another commentary on the lack of business ability shown by 
the American merchant engaged in the South American trade, is 
that furnished by the comparative readiness with which he adver- 
tises in certain periodicals printed in Spanish, published in the 
United States, and circulated chiefly among the American adver- 
tisers themselves! Diligent inquiry among business men in South 
America showed that such periodicals, even when they had been 
heard of, were seldom if ever looked at. Occasionally, however, 
one of these papers may be discovered in a dusty comer of the 
library attached to some Chamber of Commerce or Board of Trade, 
simply occupying space and ignored. 

' ' In this connection it should be remarked that all South Ameri- 
cans who read newspapers and other periodicals are inclined to 
peruse them with a degree of avidity which has no parallel in the 
United States, save perhaps in some of the remote districts of the 
country. Everything from the highly spiced editorial down to the 
insipid ''Agents Wanted" may be read and even commented upon. 
The American manufacturer or dealer, therefore, who desires to 
attract the wSouth American market should advertise in the princi- 
pal newspapers, illustrated magazines, and business journals actually 
published in the countries concerned, and conducted under native 
auspices. Our patent-medicine men know enough to proclaim 
directly from the columns of the South American periodical the 
extraordinary virtues of certain emulsions, pink pills, electric belts, 
and divers elixirs. If by means of index fingers of warning or by 
other devices they beckon credulous humanity in South America to 
their wares as successfully as they appear to do in the United States, 
why should not the American manufacturer advertise wisely that 
which will be of real benefit to the consumer and to the producer 
alike '^ So far as such legitimate advertising is concerned, imless the 
subject-matter is to be changed frecjuently, or some other reason to 
the contrary exists, the advertisements need not be inserted in the 


periodical chosen more than once a month. South Americans are 
fond of what is, or what purports to be, a novelty even in the shape 
of an advertisement. 


*' The ordinary man of business in the United States is prone to 
think that the South Americans with whom he may have to deal 
are naturally or habitually dishonest — a state of mind that seems to 
be heartily reciprocated by the South Americans in turn after they 
have come into contact with some of the American concerns com- 
mercially interested in the southern continent. Often the American 
capitalist declines to invest his money in South American enter- 
prises because he believes that it can not be protected. Certain 
classes in the countries of South America, it is true, affected by 
the spirit of ''Knownothingism,'' do not favor the introduction 
of foreign capital on a great scale at all, and view with apprehen- 
sion the inpouring of foreign immigrants. Fearing a possible expro- 
priation, they oppose more or less secretly the spread of foreign influ- 
ence. Nevertheless a general desire for the introduction of capital 
from the United States exists in practically all the countries of the 
southern continent. No doubt they appreciate its intrinsic value 
for the purpose of developing the natural resources of each, but they 
have a shrewd notion, also, of the additional benefit to be derived 
from a cheapening of capital were the American commodity to be 
placed in competition with the British and the German article. 


"Owing to the absence of American banks in South America the 
business enterprises of our citizens in that continent are more or less 
at the financial mercy of branches of European banking institutions 
that naturally direct their eff'orts to favoring the commerce of their 
respective countries against our own. Taking it for granted that the 
establishment of American banks would facilitate American trade 
by rendering it independent of European corporations, it is no less 
true that such financial institutions would aff'ord large pecuniary 
returns to their founders and operators. In this connection one need 
only to mention the profits of from 8 to 15 per cent, and even more, 
made annually on exchanges, drafts, and the like by the J^uropean 
banking houses. 

"With many of the South American Republics the United States 
has no arrangement by treaty for the issuance of money orders. For 
this reason the South American who desires to pay for some article 
ordered from the United States has to effect payment through a Euro- 
pean agency. The delay and the expense connected with this transac- 
tion tend to discourage the importation of American products. 



''In view of the perseverance with which the American has 
learned to dominate his own country, it seems odd that he should 
be daunted by the slowness of communication between the two con- 
tinents, by the irregularities of transportation along the coasts of 
South America, to say nothing of the situation in many regions of 
the interior, and by the dilatory methods of doing business not infre- 
quently encountered among South Americans, although this charac- 
teristic varies considerably in one country and another, and even in 
parts of the same country. Describing some of these sources of dis- 
couragement it may be said that, to begin with, while the mail service 
between the United States and the east coast of South America by 
way of Europe is fairly good, that between this coimtry and the west 
coast of the continent is very bad. Seven weeks are sometimes 
required for a letter from New York to reach Valparaiso. Should a 
steamer be detained in port the mail is seldom transshipped. The 
result is that of two letters the one last sent may be the first to 
arrive. Passengers and freight carried along the west coast often 
fare no better. The rates of transportation for the same distance are 
apt to vary from time to time. Cattle and cargo may be waited for 
days together at some insignificant group of wooden shacks perched 
on a barren hillside, while in the absence of a harbor the vessel rolls 
around in the ocean. Not only is the speed of the west coast steam- 
ers exceedingly slow, but irksome delays frequently arise from the 
failure of the captain or the medical oflicer of a port to pay his usual 
visit until it suits him to do so. Strikes of freight handlers, too, are 
not uncommon, and the accumulation of perishable merchandise on 
wharves and shore fronts is likely to be the consequence. In this 
case commission merchants and other persons interested in the com- 
modities are accustomed to insert notices in the newspapers to the 
effect that, so long as the process of accumulation continues, they 
will not hold themselves responsible for loss or injury to the mer- 
chandise in question. 


*^Many customs and regulations, moreover, bearing upon the- 
actual introduction of goods into a South American country have to 
be learned by the exporter, often at the cost of an unpleasant experi- 
ence. In the first place he has to remember that special import 
duties are sometimes levied on certain articles, although such duties 
may not be mentioned under the heading of the articles themselves 
in the customs law or in the official schedule. They simply must be 
ascertained from other sources of information Unusual care has to 
be exercised in the choice of a custom-house broker and forwarding 


agent Charges for storage, for discharging the cargo from the ship, 
for placing it on shore or on the docks, for the use of the winch, the 
crane, and the docks, for pilotage, for carting or otherwise transport- 
ing goods from the shore or the dock to the custom-house, and for 
chemical analyses of food products, liquors, drugs, and the like, as well 
as for proper measures of precaution against theft or injury of any sort, 
must all be taken into account, with special reference to the practices 
peculiar to the country in question. Some commodities, like oil and 
its products, lumber, machinery, and agricultural implements, which 
may be imported regularly and in large quantities, are not so subject 
to the delays and hazards that may befall other kinds of merchandise. 
These articles are often given direct dispatch to the importer, and the 
duties, if any, are paid without the necessity of having the goods pass 
through the formalities of the custom-house. Yet even in this case 
no fixed rule seems to prevail. Much depends upon the arrangement 
that the custom-house broker may be able to make with the custom- 
house officials. 


" For the purpose of ascertaining the nature of such local regulations 
and customs not only, but of studying the local conditions and needs 
as well, American business agents should be sent out on a circuit of the 
South American States. In addition to the powers of practical ob- 
servation and description which might properly be assumed of them 
from the start, the agents in question should possess so fluent a knowl- 
edge of the languages spoken there as would enable them to dispense 
altogether with the dubious services of interpreters, and should carry 
with them all the necessary literature printed in the language of the 
coimtry in which they might happen to be. They should display, 
also, a readiness of adaptation to South American habits and tem- 
perament, and a corresponding ability, besides, to subordinate for the 
nonce the provincial American sense of superiority. If the expense of 
maintaining these agents would be too great for any individual con- 
cern to imdergo, it might be borne by a combination of business estab- 
lishments that would agree to confide the sale of their goods to such 
agents in common. 


"As an extension of this idea it might be well for American export- 
ers interested in the trade with South America to create a sort of syn- 
dicate for the general operations of sale in any particular country or 
coimtries. They might establish there a central agency and ware- 
house in which samples of their goods could be displayed, and their 
circulars, catalogues, and other means of affording technical informa- 
tion could be used to advantage. Should any native enterprise, 
furthermore, carry on a permanent exposition of industrial products 
in their various stages of manufacture, the American houses doing 


business in the country should come into immediate connection with 
it, either through their agents, or through a dispatch of the proper 
information about their own lines of goods. In any case, whether the 
American merchants act jointly or individually in their pursuit of 
trade with South America, they should keep a reasonably If -^e stock 
of goods, including the articles necessary for repair and replacement, 
in the country itself, both for sale and for exhibit. These goods should 
be placed in charge, preferably, of a direct agency or branch of the main 
business, or put into the hands of capable and trustworthy native 


" The delays incident to the actual shipment of commodities ordered 
through the head oJ05ce in the United States directly, and not through 
the medium of responsible agents in the localities concerned, might be 
removed by a gradual extension of the American contract system, 
wliich seems to have but a slight foothold as yet in the countries of 
South America. This would involve, first of all, the drawing up of a 
form of agreement between the purchaser and the agent, which the 
former may sign or not, as he chooses, but which the latter is to sign 
and transmit to the main oJ05ce, giving to the purchaser at the same 
time a copy of the agreement. Then would come what are technically 
known as ^order contracts,' and finally the contracts proper. By de- 
grees, also, it may readily become possible to block the country out 
geographically. Under this arrangement each agent would be en- 
abled to enter into contracts directly within the specific area assigned 
him, final approval only being reserved to the head office in the United 


*'The requirement of many American business concerns that the 
goods exported must be paid for in advance or immediately on deliver^' 
does not suit South American buyers. They demand credit for 
lengths of time wliich in turn arc not satisfactory^ to the American 
dealer. In cases where the American is willing to grant credit at all, 
the period allowed rarely, if ever, extends beyond ninety days, instead 
of six months, which seems to be commonly the period desired. And 
right here it should be stated emphatically that, if the American 
exporter, ere he sends his goods forth, would take the trouble to ascer- 
tain, through the local banks or other sources of reliable information, 
tlie business and financial responsibihty of his customers in South 
aVmorica, precisely as he does at home, he would confine his dealings 
to reputable firms or individuals, and there would be fewer complaints 
about inability to collect. 

^'Whenever so desired, either credit in the ordinary sense, or pay- 
ments on the instalment plan should be granted to responsible parties. 
Ill its most iiberal form the extension of credit would invcJve the 



payment of a certain amount down and of the remaining sum due on 
the purchase in terms ranging from thirty days to six months, with 
the usual allowance of discounts from catalogue rates, and with the 
interest deducted if the principal be paid at the beginning, instead of 
at the expiration, of the term of days or months. 

''The plan, also, of providing for the payment of a small fraction of 
the purchase price down, and of permitting the purchaser forthwith 
to enjoy the use of the article bought, subject to the payment of 
periodical instalments extending over a year or more, while the legal 
ownership continues in the seller until the last instalment has been 
met, would be successful, in my opinion, if widely introduced into 
South America. The few experiments made with it thus far show 
it to be exceedingly popular.'' 




The following valuable paper was read before the Arnerican Poliiiml Science 
AM9oeiation at its annual meeting, Dec. 28, 1907, by Dr. IIiram Bingham of Yale 
Univereity, and is published l)y the Bureau as in aceorduiue with hs present policy 
of advancing the mutual literary interests of North and South Anieriou. 

It is obviously for the best interests of the American people to cul- 
tivate a warm friendship \\ath the Southern Republics, not only in 
the pursuit of commerce, but more particularly for the sake of inter- 
national comity. Now an international friendship, in order to be 
permanent, must rest on a basis of intelligent appreciation. And to 
secure an intelligent appreciation of vSoiith America, we need to have 
in English many more trustworthy books on her historj" and politics. 
When the student of history and politics first begins to realize the 
need for such books he maj' naturally ask whether it is possi])le with 
the available resources to begin the production of scholarly works. 
Is the field ready for the worker? It is the aim of this paper to 
answer these questions, and to indicate rouglily some of the work 
that needs to be done, the material there is to do it witli, and where 
it may be undertaken most advantageously. No one realizes better 
than the writer the many shortcomings that nuist necessarily api)ear 
in attempting to do this. At best this paj>er can only be a guidepost, 
a mere indication of a few ol the possi])ilities. 

What is presented here is ])ase<l im a card catalogue of South Amer- 
icana, on which the writer has ])een engaged at intervals for some 
.seven years. It is now accessil)le for use in the Yale Libraiy, and 
although very far from approaching completion it contains about 
25.000 cards and is conlinuallv irrowini;. It contains cards for the 


South American collections in the Harvard Library, the Library of 
Congress, the Princeton Library, and the Yale Library, and many 
cards for books not at present known to be available.* It is 
our hope to make it a subject catalogue for all material relating 
to Spanish- American history, poHtics, and geography, and so far as 
possible it will give the whereabouts of at least one copy of each book. 

The most striking fact that results from a study of this catalogue 
is the scarcity of trustworthy, comprehensive works in English and 
of scholarly monographs in any language. There are, to be sure, 
many recent books in Spanish which are satisfactory from the point 
of view of some Spanish historians. When one realizes, however, that 
it was possible for an eminent military historian to spend all his life 
within 20 miles of the greatest battlefield in his country, and never 
see it except once as he was riding by (a battlefield, I may remark in 
passing, that offers unusual difficulties to the historical student), 
one gets some idea of the shortcomings of some of these works. 

It is fair to say, without prejudice, that the number of trained 
scholarly writers on South American history and poHtics is extremely 
small. Notwithstanding the great amount of material and the hun- 
dreds of books that relate to these subjects, the need for the products 
of careful research is very great; which seems to indicate that the 
possibilities of these subjects as a field for research have been inade- 
quately appreciated by American scholars. 

One does not always remember that the first Spanish settlements in 
South America antedated the first English settlements in North 
America by nearly a hundred years, and that when the Pilgrims 
landed at Plymouth there were already cities in South America that 
could boast of a longer history than Chicago can to-day. It may be 
useful in helping to realize the age of the civilization of Spanish 
America to turn for a moment to one feature of it, viz., the history of 
education in South America. When Harvard, oiu* oldest university', 
was only an idea in the minds of a few English colonists, the University 
of San Marcos in Peru was a well-established institution already 
older than Cornell is to-day. When Cornell celebrates her hun- 
dredth anniversary, the University of San Marcos, still flourishing, 
will be getting ready to celebrate her four hundredth. When Yale 
was founded, this ancient University of Lima was already one hundred 
and thirty-one years old, or about the same age that Colombia is 

Not only is the history of South America longer than ours and abh^ 
to ()ff(T the advantages of a greater period of study, it also oflfers a 
greater variety. In both North and South America there are periods 

« (\\nU for l>(M)ks in th<* John Crcrar and the Newberry librarice of Chicago and ihe 
Co}umhu8 Memorial Library are about to be added. 


of discovery, colonization, growth of colonial institutions, develop- 
ment of individual colonies, Indian wars, revolutionary wars against 
the mother country, growth and development of individual states, 
civil war, constitutional and legal development, and commercial 
prosperity and depression. While some of these may not offer 
quite as much dramatic interest in South America as in North 
America, still it would be difficult to find anywhere more absorbing 
subjects for study and research than the lives of the Spanish con- 
quistadores, or the campaigns of the Wars of Emancipation, or the 
evolution of a practical polity in the XlXth century. 

The story of constitutional development offers a very attractive 
field. The attempt to take political institutions, which we inherited 
as the natural result of centuries of Teutonic racial development, and 
to graft these on to institutions with an extremely different ancestry, 
offers as many different aspects as there are Republics in South 
America, and must always be full of interest to the student of political 
science. So far as variety is concerned, it is difficult to compete 
with the rapid succession of diverse political forms which one finds 
in the Southern Republics. 

Possibly the most attractive feature of South American history 
and politics as a field for research is the opportimity it presents to 
work in claims not already staked out or where the richest ore has 
not already been exhausted. There are innumerable problems yet 
to be solved, and the various political, administrative, and eco- 
nomic institutions offer a splendid opportunity for original investiga- 
tion. As a matfer of fact, there are so many opportunities for work 
on subjects that have been scarcely touched by properly trained in- 
vestigators that one scarcely knows what to mention and what to 
leave out. 

A few years ago it might have been replied with truth that, grant- 
ing this splendid opportunity, the chance of getting anyone to read, 
much less to purchase, what one might publish as the fruit of such 
research was too slight to justify the risk. I believe that that is no 
longer the case. It is almost trite to speak of Secretary Root's 
visit to South America. Yet it is astonishing how much more in- 
terest the man-in-the-street takes in South American affairs than he 
did before the Secretary's visit brought South America vividly before 
his mind. Instances might be multiplied. This is hardly the place, 
however, to be obliged to demonstrate the increased interest in Latin- 
American affairs among educated people, for this very conference is, 
or ought to be, a sufficient answer in itself.^ 

a An idea of the amount of material that awaits the sperialist may be gathered from 
these few bibliographies: 

BxbUoteca HiBpano- Americana 1493-1810, by J. T. Medina. Santiago: 1898-1902. 


The greatest need at the present moment is for a comprehensive 
book to cover both the institutional and narrative history of the 
period between the Conquest and the Wars of Emancipation, roughly 
a period of 250 years from 1560 to 1810. Before such a compre- 
hensive work can be written, however, a large number of mono- 
graphs must be undertaken on various features of the period. Of 
course there are histories of individual countries which are available 
for filling up parts of the picture, but they leave much to be desired, 

6 vols. (Harvard.) Indispensable in its particular field. Gives a vast amount of 
information regarding the literature of the colonial period. 

Estudios i Catdlogo Completo i Razonado de la Biblioteca Americana ColeccUmada par 
el Sr. Gregorio Beeche, by B. Vicufia Mackenna. Valparaiso: 1879. (Yale.) 

Catdlogo de la Biblioteca de la Universidad de Caracas Fannado de Orden del Ilustre 
Americano J Regenerador y Presidente de los Estadosde Venezuela General Gtizman Blanco. 
Caracas: 1875. (Yale.) Contains about 1,000 titles which relate to the political 
science and history of America. 

Catdlogo de las obras hispano-americanas existentes en la Biblioteca Nadonal de Bogotd^ 
1897. 1 vol. (Yale.) 

There have been compiled for the Pan-American Bureau a few partial bibliographies 
of some of the South American Republics which contain references not only to books 
but also to magazine articles and maps. 

Catalogue of books^ pamphlets, periodicals and maps relating to the Republic of Bolivia 
in the Columbus Memorial Library. Washington, 1905. (Yale.) 

A list of books y magazine articles and maps relating to Paraguay. Books 1638-1 90S. 
Maps 1599-1903. Prepared by Jos^ Segundo Decoud, Washington, 1904. (Yale.) 

A list of bookSy magazine articles and maps relating to Chile, prepared by P. Lee 
Phillips, Washington, 1903. (Yale.) 

A list of books, magazine articles, and maps relating to Brazil, prepared by P. Loe 
Phillips, Washington, 1901. (Yale.) 

Of those that relate to special parts of the continent there are quite a number: 

Anuario bibliogrdfico de la Republica Argentina (Criticxis notidas, Catdlogo) . . . 
Director A. Navarro Viola, 1879-87. Buenos Aires, 1880-88. (Newberry.) 

Biblioteca Boliviana. Catdlogo de la secddn de libros ifolletos (por G. Rene-Moreno K 
Santiago de Cliile: 1879. 

Catdlogo de la Biblioteca Chilejio- Americana de Don Ramon Briseno, ex-director de la 
Biblioteca nadonal de Santiago. Santiago de Chile: 1889. 

Catalogue des livres imprimes et manuscrits composant la bibliothkque de M. A. Chau- 
viette Dcs Fosses, ex-consul general de la France au Perou. Paris: 1842. 2,079 tith>5. 
chiefly Peruviana. 

Biblioteca Peruana. Apuntcs para un Catdlogo de Impresos. I. Libros y Folletos 
Prruanos de la Biblioteca del Instituto Nadonal. II. Libros y Folletos Peruanos de la 
Biblioteca Nadonal y Notas Bibliogrdficas. Santiago: 1896. (Yale.) An excellent 
bibliograpliiral aid. 

Anuario de la Prensa Chilena publicado por la Biblioteca Nadonal. Santiago de 
Chile: 1891-. In progress. (Newberr>' Lib.) An excellent work. Gives not only 
l)(M>ks printed in Chile but also those by Chile4in authors and those about Chile printed 

Annaes da Ln prensa Nadonal do Rio de Janeiro de lS08-18J2y by Alfredo do Valle 
Cabrol. Uio de Janeiro: 1881. (Newberry Lib.) Important. 

Auiuus da Bibliothca Nadonal . . . publicados sobadirec^ao do . . . B. F. Ramii 
Galvao. Rio de Janeiro: 1870, etc. In progress. i^IIarvard.) 

Catdlogo da ExpoaiqCio Pvrmancnte dos Cimdios da Bibliotheca Nadonal Publicado 
sob a dincgao do Bibliothccario Jodo de Saldanhu daGaiua. Rio de Janeiro: 1886. (Yale.) 


and in many cases the most that one gets is a wearisome amount of 
undigested detail. 

For meeting this need the largest amount of manuscript source 
material is in Spain. Professor Shepherd's recently published 
'^ Guide to the Materials for the History of the United States in Spanish 
Archives'' * gives an excellent idea of the nature of these archives 
and their richness for part of North America. It goes without saying 
that they contain far more that is concerned with South America 
than with the United States. 

There is also a large amount in London, Paris,'' and in some of the 
South American cities, particularly Rio de Janeiro.*^ 

And there are in this country quite a number of manuscripts relat- 
ing to the colonial period. 

The New York Public Library has the largest collection and it has 
been partly catalogued.** 

^ Guide to the Materials for the History of the United States in Spanish Archives (Siman- 
casy the ArckiiH) Historico Nacumaly and Seville), by William R. Shepherd. Washing- 
ton: 1907. Mention is made of sources bearing on our early relations with South 
America on pp. 23, 46-51, 70-71. 

*The Catdlogo Razonado de los Manuscritos Espafloles Existentes en la Bihlioteca 
Real de Paris Seguido de un Suplemento qiie Contiene los de las Otras Tres Bibliotecas 
Publicas (del Arsenal y de Santa Genoveva y Mazarina) por Eugenio de Ochoa, Paris: 
1844 (Yale) mentions a few manuscripts in Paris that relate to Spanish America. Vid , , 
pp. 76, 81, 84, 86, 139, 147, 188, 633, 639, 640. 

See also Bibliothique Nationale, Department des ManiiscritSy Catalogue des Manu- 
scrits Espagnols et des Manuscrits Portugais par M. Alfred Morel-Fatio. Paris: 1892. 

^Annaes da Bibliotheca Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Publimdos sob a Dirccqao do 
BibUothecario Dr. F. L, Bittencourt Sampaio. vols, iv, v, x, xx. Rio de Janeiro: 
1878-1892. Contain a Catalogo dos Manuscriptos da Biblioteca Nadonal, Parte Pri- 
nuira, Manuscriptos Relativos do Brazil. (Ilarvard.) The collection is very compre- 
hensive. Its nucleus dates from the hegira of the king of Portugal to Brazil in 1807 , 
and the papers he brought with him. In the printed calendar, evidently still incom- 
plete, there are about 8,000 documents covering the seventy-five years, from 1650 to 

For MSS. in Santiago, Chile, see Catalogo de los manuscritos relativos a los antiguos 
Jesuitas de Chile que se custodian en la Biblioteca nacional. Santiago de Chile: 1891. 

dThe Rich collection in the Lenox Branch contains a veritable treasure-house <>f 
manuscript source material. There are 142 volumes of manuscripts n^latinjjf to Spanish 
America. They comprise much that was collected by Mufioz for his Ilistoria del yuevo 
Mundo, and wasobtained by Obadiah Rich from M. Terxaux Compans, together with 
many other manuscripts on Spanish America that the latter had collected. Notice of 
the important single volumes and the particular groups of i)apers will ])e found in tlie 
Bulletin of the New YorTc Public Library for July, 1901 . A larjre part are transcripts, Imt 
there are many originals. There are, besides the Rich collection, more than 40 otlier 
volumes and groups of papers relating to Spanish America. 

According to the printed list, 03 volumes and gr(»ups of pai)ers relate si)ecifically to 
8outh America. 

Among those not in the printed list ar(>: 

Relacion de todo lo que sucedio en la Jornada de Amagua y Dorado, quefne a descvbrir el 


The Library pf Congress has a goodly number which partly supple- 
ment the Lenox collection. ^ 

Gobemador Pedro de Urstia con poderes . . . etc., by Francisco Vazquez. Transcript 
from a volume of papers in the library of the Cathedral of Seville, 1784. 

Reladon instructiva del origen y conclusion del Tratado de Limites. Serie de todos los 
incidentes que occurieron y que dificulteron mi execudon . . . (including letters by 
Ricardo Wall, dated 1760. Transcript (?) 18th century. 41 11. 

Descripcion y estado del virreinato de SarUa Fee, Nuevo Reino de Granada, y reladon del 
goviemo y mando de D. Pedro Mesia de la Cerda Marques de la Vega de Aran jo 1772, by 
Francisco Antonio Moreno y Escaudon. Transcript (?). 107 11. Two copies, in good 
condition; rather blind hand ; second copy more legible. 

Reladon hecha a Su Magd. del descubrimiento y conquista del Nuevo Reyno de Granada 
que hizo el Licendado Gonzalo Ximenez . . . desde el6 de Apr de 15S0, by Juan de San 
Martin and Antonio de Labrija. 14 11. Transcript (18th centur>;). Fine, clear MS. 

Reladon que escribio Fr. Gaspar de Carvajal del suceso del nuevo descubrimiento del for- 
mo8o rio grande (Amazon) que descubrio por mui gran ventura el capitan Francisco de 
Orellano. (1542 cir.) Transcript (1780). 51 11. 

Extracto stidnto de los asuntos . . . exped , . . dela colonia del Sacramento (R. d. P.) 
18th century. 67 11. 

Papers relating to the exploration of Yenezuela, etc. 1528-1549. In Spanish. Tran- 
scripts from the archives of Simancas and Seville. 39 11. fol. 

aAmong them are — 

Decrees and regulations issued by the Spanish Grovemment. Petitions, 18th cen- 
tury. (About 92 .pieces.) 

Spanish copies of original documents of accounts of voyages, etc., of 16th and 17th 
centuries (9 pieces). 

(■opies of papers relating to the history of Spanish colonies in South America, includ- 
ing royal letters to Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo, with papers concerning the Asiento 
and administration of royal estates in Chili (about 25 pieces). 

Copies of letters relating to exploration and settlement of Mexico and South Amer- 
ica, with instructions concerning Balboa, Cortez, letters from Mexican bishops, and 
dt'HiTiptioiis of routes to the Philippines (10 pieces). 

lit'lacion diario dd viage que se ha echo a las costas de el estrecho de Magellanes en el reced 
df t'tumigos de Kuropa, by Antonio de Vea. 1676. 1 vol. 4*». 

luliwion llistoncd gcograjica dd nuevo partido de Caupolican y Mission de Apolo- 
bamhd. 1809. I vol. fol. 

Ihicuinentos c(m<J se yjistruye la Segunda cuenta de Receptona gral, de Realfisco dada p 
/>/j. J ph. Franco, de Morales comprehensiva desde primero de Enero de 1760 hasta 31 de 
AgiKstn de 1764- 1vol. fol. 

Uistonn 6 Xaracion de. his cosas succedidas en este colleges del cuzco cabeza destos Reynos, 
del Pent desde s\t fundanon hasta oy Primero de Naviembre dia de todos sanctos Ano de 
J 000, by Antonio di* Vega. IGOO. 1 vol. fol. 

Coleccion de notos crtractos Ytenerarios, dcrrotcros y papeles sacados la mayor parte de 
I' Ofiia Polition, ecleseastica y milita del Mrreynato del Peru. By Joseph Ilipttlito. 
n. d. Collected ])y David Barry. 

Mint rales dd Peru. Tractado sobre d viodo de laborear la Mina en el Peru y la utilidad 
qm. serxira h la RL Ilazda. su extabledmiento, ano de 1784. (Contains also: El cero de 


The Harvard Library has a few that relate to this period.* 
In the TiCKNOE collection in the Boston Public Library there is a 
miscellaneous collection of manuscripts, relating mostly to the 
politics, finance, and commerce of Chile and Peru, 1737-98. Of the 
45 manuscripts, 33 relate to the colonial history of Chile and 12 to 
that of Peru.*^ 

Yale has. a few for this period.*' 

Gualgayoc con Ricas Pobres vetaa de Plata descuvierto en la Provinda de Caxamarca, with 
several MS. maps.) 1784. 1 vol. 4^. 

Rapports van Brazil. 1636-44. (Relatingmainly to the Dutch trade.) 1vol. fol. 

Resolution Raeckende Brazil beginiLehlmet den Yaere 1649 eijndingih mettneiijare daeracn 
vosgende. 1649. 1vol. fol. 

Miscellaneous Dutch manuscripts relating to the West Indies Company, Portugal, 
Brazil, etc. 1649-55? 

« Relacion de la celebre, quarUo festivaha talla de los Borhones, que dispuso^ y executd el 
gottmador de la dudad de Caracas D. Joseph Solans en las cercanias de dicha dudad, etc. 
[1766.] A neatly written MS. of 18 pages. 

Iriformagao sobre as minas de S. Paulo a dos certocTis da sua capitania desde o anno de 
1597 aU prezente de 1772 com relacao chronologica dos administradores deltas regimenos, e 
jurisdicgao, a elles confenday d qual ficou rezidtndo nos govemadores, e capitaens generaes 
da mesma capitania. 

The catalogue attributes this to P. S. de Almeida Baes Leme. It is a memorial (?) 
of 252 pages. 

ft Catalogue of the Spanish Library and of the Portuguese Boohs Bequeathed by George 
Ticknor to the Boston Public Library together with the Collection of Spanish and Portu- 
guese Literature in the General Library by James Lyman Whitney. Boston: 1879. 

cLibro de CedulaSj Autos acordadoSy y otros InstruvnJ^ pertenecientes d los IndioSy 
Anos de 1760-1769. Two folio volumes of about 200 and 225 11. respectively. In good 
condition. These documents relate to the civil and* religious affairs of Spanish 
America, mainly Peru, in the 18th century. There is a brief table of contents at the 

Nuevo Gazofilacio real de el Peru. Ano de 1774. A folio volume containing 130 11. 
In good condition, written in a clear hand. 

Relation que hace el E^"^. Seflor Don Theodoro de Croix, Virrey qiiefue de eslos Rnos, 
del Peru y Chile a su sucesor . . . desde 4- de Abril de 1784 hasta 25. de Marzo de 1790^ 
by F. de Croix. A folio volume of about 300 11., including large folding tables. In 
good condition. 

Memorias antiguas kistoriales del PerUy seguidas de los Anales del mismo Regno, by 
F. Montesinos. A folio volume of 589 pp. In good condition. Written in a clear 

RelaciSn del gobiemo del Peru . . . hecha a su sucesor en el mando, en Noire de 1689, 
by M. de Navarra y Rocaful, duque de la Palata. A folio of 269 11. In good condi- 
tion. Written in a clear Spanish hand. There is a brief table of contents at the end. 

Grandezaa de Indias. Estado eclesidstico, politico y civil de ellas, escrito por Don 
Gabriel de VUlaloboSy caballero del hdbito de Santiago, Almvrante de Flotas, Marques de 
Yarinas. A folio volume of about 250 11., written in a clear hand. This copy was 
made by a Cuban in 1847, from the manuscript in the National Library of Madrid, 
which contains 568 pages. It contains a table of contents at the end. 

Motnarqaia del di€d>lOj En la Gentilidad del Nuevo Mxindo Americano derribada y 
destruida p6r la Cat*. Monr<^ de Espafla: Triumfos de la Religion en los Dominios con- 
quiMtados eonla fe, valor, armas de los EspaHolas: con Refiexiones para coujuivdvT o. lo% 

29039— BuU. 2— OS i 


For the XlXth century the number of South American manuscripts 
in London, both at the British Museum and the Public Record OflBce, 
is much greater than one would suppose. At the Record Office, for 
instance, there are hundreds of volumes of manuscripts relating to 
South American history. The conditions of work there are so 
pleasant that when one adds the advantages of the printed books 
in the British Museum to the number of manuscripts, it makes 
London appeal very strongly to the student of South American 

In South America itself conditions vary greatly. In Buenos 
Aires, Rio de Janeiro, and Santiago de Chile one will find well-equipped 
libraries and abundant material. In most of the other places where 
one might expect a large body of material, the fortunes of war and the 
depredations of insects and other destructive agencies have done 
what they could to lessen the opportunities. Furthermore much 
has been printed. 

In Caracas there is a large collection of manuscripts relating to 
Bolivar kept very carefully in the National Museum, where they 
are opened once a year in the presence of certain dignitaries. It 
is said that they have all been printed in the well-known collections of 
documents relating to the wars of independence, which may be con- 
sulted at several of our large libraries.** 

Apart from this there appears to be Httle manuscript material in 
Caracas, and the National Library is not quite as well equipped for 

Anti-Catolicos mordacea emula de la Nacidn Espafiola benemerita de todas las Nacidnet 
del Orbe en Conquista tan gloriosa. Historia interesante d la Religion^ y Monarquia. 
Compuesta por D» Antonio Julian Presbitero, ex-Jesuita. A small quarto volume 
containing 274 pp. In good condition. 

Estado del Perv, jnedad de Sv Exelencia defensa de principe, lealtad de la America al 
real trono de Espana. Defensa del honor y zelo carUativo del Ilmo Sr, Dr. Dn Juan 
Manuel de Moscoso y Peralta dig^^ obispo del Chisco, by Jose R. Sauaraura Tito 
Atauchi. Cusco: 1784. 86 pp. folio. Very interesting and curious, with numeioufl 

In Diciemhre de 1712, lAcencia y Pasaporte para emharcarse como soltero y am motive 
justo para el Reyno de Nueva Espana D^ Juan Antonio Martinez Valdes Fe de Bautitmo 
y Testimonio en forma autentica de la legitimidad, notoria Ilidalguiay y noblcza del 
mismo D^ Juan Antonio, que nacid el dia 10 de octubre de 1758, en la Villa de Giidn, 
ObispadOy de Oviedo, del Principado de Asturias. An original license to go to America, 
with illuminated coata of arms on vellum, folio. 12 11. 

Nuevo Systema de Gobiemo Economico para la America: Con las malet, y dafloi que 
le causa el que hoy tiene, de los que participa copiosamente Espafia, Y remedioe univer* 
sales para que la primera tenga considerables vcntalas, y la segunda mayorei ifUereteg, A 
small quarto in two parts of 110 and 116 11. respectively. In good condition. 

o Mejnorias del general O^Leary publicadas por su hijo, S. B. O^Leary^por orden dd 
gobiemo de Venezuela . . . Caracas, 1879-82. 31 vols. (Yale.) 

Documentos para la historia de la vida publica del libertador de Colombia^ PeHL y BM- 
via . . . Puestos por orden cronoldgico, y con adiciones y notas que la Uuttran^ por d 
general Job6 F^lix Blanco . . . Caracas, 1875-78. 14 vols. (Yale.) 


the study of Venezuelan history and politics as is the Library of Yale 
University; for, although it contains more Government documents, 
it does not contain so many valuable secondary works nor so many 
early periodicals. There is, in fact, quite a little material relating to 
Venezuela, both manuscript and printed, at Yale, that is not avail- 
able, so far as I know, in Venezuela. 

In Colombia there is considerable interest in historical work, and 
the National Academy of History at Bogota has published some 
excellent volumes.** 

There are also in Bogota a large number of valuable manuscripts, 
including the papers of General Santaxdek, which are accessible 
nowhere else. 

The largest collection in Argentina is proba])ly in Buenos Aires 
at the National Library, where the valuable manuscripts collected 
by the late historian. General Mitre, and which he used in his well- 
known works * on Belgrano and San Martin, are deposited. 

Fortunately, however, one is not obliged to go abroad to indulge 
in South American research. The most advantageous place in this 
coimtry is the city of Washington. In the State Department dip- 
lomatic and consular archives, there are 786 bound volumes of dis- 
patches from South America, 459 volumes of disi)atches sent by diplo- 
matic agents, and 327 sent by consular agents. Among the earlier 
volumes are many valuable historical documents. Nearly all relate 
to the XlXth century.*' 

In the Naval War Records Office there are in the collections relat- 
ing to the Brazil Squadron and the Pacific and South Pacific Squad- 
rons over 50 volumes of letters, many of which relate to political 

« Such as: Vida de Ilerrdn. Biografia, escrita por Eduardo Posada y Pedro M. Ibatlez 
y premiada en la concurao del centenario. Bogota: 1903. 

El Precursor. Documentos sobre la vida publica y privada del General Antonio 
Xariflo. BogoU: 1903. 

b Estudios hist&ricos sobre la revolucidn argentina: Belgrano y Giiemes, par Bartolom^ 
Milrt». Bucnoe Ain«, 1864. (Yale.) 

Ilistoria de San Martin y dela emancipacion 8ud-av\ericana, por Barlolom^ Mitre . . . 
2. ed. cor . . . Buenos-Airo8, 1890. 4 vols. (Yal%.) 

Ilistoria de Belgrano y de la independcncia argentina^ por Bartolome Mitre. 4. y defi- 
iiiti\'a ed., corr. y aum. Buenos-Airos, 1887. 3 voIh. (Yale.) 

c Reference to the diplomatic archives and to eoine of the special material will be 
i(»und in Van Tyne and Leland's Report on the Government Archives, particularly in 
ih«.* new edition, which has already gone to the printers. 

The South American dispatches are divided as follows: Argentina, G9 volumes, begin- 
ning October 1, 1807; Bolivia, 20 volumes, beginning June 9, 1848; Brazil, 150 volumes, 
iH-^rinning March 12, 1817; Chile, 75 volumes, beginning June 30, 1818; Colombia, 
l.'^3 volumes, beginning August 19, 1822; Ecuador, 30 volumes, beginning February 
10. 1826: Paraguay (and Uruguay), 50 volumes, beginning March 19, 1821; Peru, 90 
volumes, beginning May 1, 1823; Venezuela, 111 volumes, beginning July 10, 1810; 
British Guiana, 21 volumes, beginning October 10, 1827; Dutch Guiana, 7 volumes, 
iK'ginning April 7, 1799. 


affairs in South America and the relations of the United States with 
Spanish America. Many of the letters from and to officers of ships 
of war concern poHtical refugees and the constitutional development 
of South America. 

For the Wars of Emancipation, that fascinating first quarter of 
the XlXth century in which San Martin, Bolivar, Santander, 
Belgrano, O'Higgins and Sucre flourished, there is no satisfactory 
comprehensive book. There are good chapters in various recent 
English books that might be mentioned, and there are, to be sure, 
various longer works about which something might be said, but 
there is no good comprehensive book written from a scholarly point 
of view, and the need for such a book in English is painfully appar- 
ent. There is a splendid opportunity in this period for work to be 
done on readable biographies of these interesting characters. There 
is no end of material, there is considerable dramatic interest in their 
lives, and there are many manuscript sources available. 

The Yale Library possesses an excellent collection of manuscripts 
relating to this period. It consists for the most part of some 3,100 
original letters and about 200 transcripts, not only official but also 
personal correspondence. Some idea of its extent may be gathered 
from the following brief description. There are: 

(1) The Sucre Papers, which consist of over 2,200 letters written 
mostly to Gen. A. J. Sucre, in the years 1821-1829. By far the 
larger part of these letters were written during the course of his 
campaigns in southern Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.* 

o Among the more important sections of the Sucre Papers may be mentioned: 

35 letters of Jos6 d'Espinar, of which 23 are to Sucre, 2 to Ignacio Alcazar (?) 8" 
Prefect© del Dep^°" de Iluaylas, and 4 to S°' Intend^' de Guayaquil. (Pativilca, Tru- 
jillo, etc., Dec. 5, 1821- Aug. 15, 1829.) 

31 letters of Greg<> Ferdnanez, of which 30 are to Sucre and one to Joe6 Albarino. * 
(Caxamarca, Potosi, Paz, and Paz de Ayacucho, Jan. 2, 1824-Apr. 30, 1828.) 

18 letters of Gregorio Funes to Sucre. (Buenos Aires, Aug. 18, 1825-Nov. 27, 1829.) 

35 letters of L. Galindo. of which 34 are to Sucre and one to Luis Urdaneta. (Pachas, 
Potosi, Aguamiro, etc., Jan. 6, 1824-Feb. 19, 1829.) 

38 letters and 1 statistical table of Tomds de Heres, of which 25 letters are to Sucre 
and two to Jos6 Cardenas. (Lima, Cuenca, Guayaquil, etc., Aug. 23, 1821-Sept. 16, 

21 letters of D. Ibarra, of which 7 are to Sucre. (Guayaquil, Ofia, etc., Nov. 8, 1821- 
Mar. 29, 1824(?). 

65 letters of Juan Illingrot, of which 44 (?) are to Sucre, and two to Morales. (Guaya- 
quil, San Borondon, Babahoyo, etc., Apr. 15, 1821-Mar. 19, 1829.) 

42 letters of Jacinto Lara to Sucre. (Cajabamba, Arequipa, etc., Dec. 9th, 1823- 
Oct.27, 1826.) 

30 letters of Jos4 de la Mar, of which 29 are to Sucre. (Guayaquil, etc., Jan. 11, 
1822-June 17, 1829 (?).) 

29 letters of William Miller to Sucre. (Caraveli, Potosi, etc., Aug. 13, 1823- Aug. 

33 Jotters of A . Morales, of which 18 are to Sucre. (Guayaquil, Sanborondon, Machalm 
etc., Mayl, 1821-OcL 30, 1824.) 


Very few of them have ever been printed, and they present an 
excellent opportunity for writing an intelUgent Ufe of this great 
general and his campaigns. 

(2) The Henry HiU letters. This collection consists of about 1,100 
letters to and from Henby Hill, a young Connecticut Yankee, who 
went out to Chile with a consignment of arms and ammunition from 
Baltimore, in the early days of the South American Wars of Eman- 
cipation, and later became our first consul to Valparaiso. Henry 
"Hill left New York about the middle of December, 1816, going to 
Baltimore, whence he embarked as supercargo on the brig Savage 
January 5, 1817, with a cargo of warlike stores, bound. for South 
America. Finding it impossible to sell these in Buenos* Aires, the 
ship sailed through the Straits of Magellan and reached Chile in 
May, where, before long. Hill got in touch with San Martin and 
finally disposed of his cargo. He lived in Valparaiso from 1817 to 
1821, leaving there in March, 1821, and going to New York by way 
of Argentina and Brazil.** 

There are 929 letters from Estanislao Lynch to Henry Hill, 
written mostly in a clear Spanish hand; 840 from Santiago, cover- 
ing the period from July 8, 1817, to September 9, 1821, and Feb- 

(Footnote — Continued . ) 

19 letters of Daniel Florencio O* Leary , of which 15 are to Sucre . (Bogotd , Guayaquil , 
etc., Feb. 8, 1822-July 29, 1829.) 

41 letters of Joe6 de Olmedo, of which 28 are to Sucre and two to Bart™* Salgado. 
(Guayaquil, May 5, 1821-Mar. 7, 1822.) 

21 letters of J^ Ant® Ponton, of which 18 are to Sucre and two to Morales. (Alausi, 
San Pablo, etc., Sept. 20, 1821-Apr. 4, 1822.) 

22 letters of Bartolome Salom, of which 21 are to Sucre. (Pasto, Bella Vista, etc., 
Aug. 31, 1820-Dec. 19, 1828.) 

35 letters of Andres Sc**ruz, of which 32 are to Sucre. (Piiua, Paz, Plata, etc., 
Dec. 22, 1821-Feb. 26, 1827.) 

19 letters of Francisco de Paula Santander, of which 12 are to Sucre. (Bogota, 
etc., Jan. 3 1820-Jan. 20 1829.) 

47 letters of Luis Urdaneta, of which 39 are to Sucre. (Caflas, Huaras, Loxa, etc., 
Jan. 17, 1821-June 11, 1829(?). 

10 letters of Wm. White, of which eight are to Sucre. (Puerto de Espana, Caracas, 
etc., Sept. 4, 1818-Mar. 26, 1830.) 

«He is addressed during 1822 care of Palmer and Hamilton, New York, and lived 
occasionally in New York, New Haven, Saybrook, and Catskill. In 1823 he seems 
to have gone to Boston, where he lived until 1829, the end of the correspondence. 
Yale also has his letter book for the years 1811-1816. 

There are among the letters two interesting bills of lading for Spanish and Peru- 
vian milled dollars, shipped from Peru to Baltimore. 

In the letters written by Henry Hill there are 171 letters written irom South Amer- 
ica during 1817 and 1818. Most of these were written from Valparaiso or Santiago de 
Chile from June, 1817, to December 31, 1818, and many of them are to Estanislao 
Lynch. Nearly all are in English. There are practically no originals. A few of 
the copies were made by a patent copying press and are very much faded, but most 
of them are autograph transcripts. 


ruary 26, 1824, to January 4, 1825, and 83 letters from Lima, Octo- 
ber 8, 1821-June 16, 1829. The letters are of great value for a 
history of the Wars of Emancipation in Chile and Peru. They wiH 
also be of use in estimating the amount of assistance which the 
South American patriots received from this country, and in throw- 
ing new light on the character of San Martin. None of these letters 
has ever been printed, so far as I know. 

(3) TTie Bolivar PaperSj a collection of about 100 MS. letters, 
papers, and documents relating to Bolivar and his friends, including 
Hoja de servicios del ccfronel Felipe Esteves, a folio volume of much 

(4) Lettres americaines sur les revolutions du Nouveau Monde, ou 
correspondance de plusieurs fran^ais residant au Meodque, au Pirou, 
a BuenoS'Ayres et autres lieux . . . suivis de Vhonneur franfuis . . . 
[etc.], par. P. Colau. 1819. 124 pp.* 

(5) BataUds de Vargas i Boya^ca 25 de jvlio de 1819-7 de agosto de 
1819, by Elias Prieto Villate. 1893. 49 pp. fol. With a map of 
the Battle of Pantano de Vargas. An interesting manuscript by a 
local antiquary. The result of a lifetime of patient research. 

In the eariier volumes of the consular archives in the State De- 
partment are many valuable documents relating to this period, in- 
cluding a large number of letters from Henry Hill, and there are 
besides several reports from special agents who were sent out to in- 
vestigate the actual conditions of the incipient republics.* 

oOf interest in this connection are the following MSS. in the Library of CongreflB*. 

A general history of South American Independence, with a few finance and military 
tables. (In French.) Also: Relation au detail de vies operations militaires sur la Prov- 
ince de Guatemala et des motifs qui les ont detemiinees par Luis Aury. 1820. 1 voL 4^. 

Privezac (French Secret Agent): Rapport sur Vitat et la situation